Kim in 2001, during his high-profile detention at Narita International Airport.
10 May 1971|
Pyongyang, North Korea
|Died||13 February 2017
Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia
|Cause of death||VX poisoning|
|Residence||Macau, Singapore, Malaysia|
|Alma mater||Kim Il-sung University|
|Political party||Workers' Party of Korea|
|Children||6 (including Kim Han-sol)|
|Relatives||Kim Il-sung (grandfather)
Kim Sul-song (sister)
Kim Jong-chul (brother)
Kim Jong-un (brother)
|Service/branch||Korean People's Army|
|Revised Romanization||Gim Jeong-nam|
Kim Jong-nam (Chosŏn'gŭl: 김정남; Hancha: 金正男, Korean pronunciation: [kim.dʑʌŋ.nam] or [kim] [tɕʌŋ.nam]; 10 May 1971 – 13 February 2017) was the eldest son of Kim Jong-il, leader of North Korea. From roughly 1994 to 2001, he was considered the heir apparent to his father. Following a series of actions showing dissent to the North Korean regime, including a failed attempt to visit Tokyo Disneyland in May 2001 by entering Japan with a false passport, he was thought to have fallen out of favour with his father.
Kim was exiled from North Korea circa 2003, becoming an occasional critic of his family's regime and an advocate for reform. His younger paternal half-brother, Kim Jong-un, was named heir apparent in September 2010. Kim's death in Malaysia in February 2017 is alleged to have been a result of poisoning at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
Life and careerEdit
Kim Jong-nam was born in Pyongyang, North Korea, to Song Hye-rim, one of three women known to have had children with Kim Jong-il. Because Kim Jong-il aimed to keep his affair with Song a secret due to the disapproval of his father Kim Il-sung, he initially kept Jong-nam out of school, instead sending him to live with Song's older sister Song Hye-rang, who tutored him at home.
Kim was reported to have had a personality similar to that of his father, and was described by his aunt as being "hot-tempered, sensitive, and gifted in the arts". His aunt also said in 2000 that he "[did] not wish to succeed his father". Like Kim Jong-il, he was interested in film: he wrote scripts and short films from a young age. His father also created a small movie set for him to use.
1998–2001: Heir apparentEdit
In 1998, Kim was appointed to a senior position in the Ministry of Public Security of the DPRK, as a future leader. He was also reported to have been appointed head of the DPRK Computer Committee, in charge of developing an information technology (IT) industry. In January 2001, he accompanied his father to Shanghai, where he had talks with Chinese officials on the IT industry.
2001: Tokyo Disneyland incidentEdit
In May 2001, Kim was arrested in Japan on arrival at Narita International Airport, accompanied by two women and a four-year-old boy identified as his son. He was traveling on a forged Dominican Republic passport using a Chinese alias, Pang Xiong. After being detained he was deported to China, where he said he was traveling to Japan to visit Tokyo Disneyland. The incident caused his father to cancel a planned visit to China due to the embarrassment it caused him.
2001–2005: Loss of favourEdit
Until the Tokyo incident, Kim was expected to become leader of the country after his father. In February 2003, the Korean People's Army began a propaganda campaign under the slogan "The Respected Mother is the Most Faithful and Loyal Subject to the Dear Leader Comrade Supreme Commander." This was interpreted as praise of Ko Young-hee, such that the campaign was designed to promote Kim Jong-chul or Kim Jong-un, her sons.
It is believed that Kim Jong-un, Jong-nam's youngest half-brother, became the new heir apparent due to this incident. Since the loyalty of the army is the real foundation of the Kim family's continuing hold on power in the DPRK, this was a serious development for Kim Jong-nam's prospects. In late 2003, it was reported that Kim Jong-nam was living in Macau, lending strength to this belief.
Kim Jong-un was left in charge while his father was on a state visit to China. Outsider observers also believed North Korea's sinking of a South Korean ship in March 2010 was part of Kim Jong-il attempt to secure succession for the youngest Kim.
Kim said he fell out of favour because he had become an advocate for reform after being educated in Switzerland, leading his father to decide that he had turned "into a capitalist". In an email to the editor of the Tokyo Shimbun, Kim wrote "After I went back to North Korea following my education in Switzerland, I grew further apart from my father because I insisted on reform and market-opening and was eventually viewed with suspicion," adding "My father felt very lonely after sending me to study abroad. Then my half brothers Jong-chol and Jong-un and half sister Yo-jong were born and his adoration was moved on to them. And when he felt that I'd turn into a capitalist after living abroad for years, he shortened the overseas education of my brothers and sister".
It was believed that Kim Jong-nam had friendly ties to China. Outside analysts considered him as a possible candidate to replace Kim Jong-un if the North Korean leadership imploded and China, traditionally an ally, sought a replacement in its client state.
2005–2017: Rise of Kim Jong-unEdit
The Asahi Shimbun reported Kim Jong-nam, traveling to his brother Kim Jong-chul in Munich, survived an assassination attempt at the Budapest Ferihegy International Airport in July 2006. According to South Korean reports, the Hungarian government protested against the incident to the North Korean embassy in Vienna, requesting there be no recurrence. It was reported in the South China Morning Post on 1 February 2007, that Kim Jong-nam had been living incognito with his family in Macau, for some three years, and that this was a cause of some embarrassment to both the Macanese and Chinese governments.
South Korean television and the South China Morning Post reported in 2007 that Kim Jong-nam had a Portuguese passport. However, Portuguese authorities and the Portuguese consul in Macau, Pedro Moitinho de Almeida, stated that if Kim had such a document it would be a forgery.
In January 2009, Kim Jong-nam said he had "no interest" in taking power in North Korea after his father, stating that it is only for his father to decide.
In June 2010, Kim Jong-nam gave a brief interview to the Associated Press in Macau while waiting for a hotel elevator. He said that he had "no plans" to defect to Europe, as the press had recently rumoured. Kim Jong-nam lived in an apartment on the southern tip of Macau's Coloane Island until 2007. An anonymous South Korean official reported in October 2010 that Jong-nam had not lived in Macau for "months", and shuttled between China and "another country".
In late September 2010, his younger half-brother Kim Jong-un was made heir-apparent. Kim Jong-un was declared Supreme Leader of North Korea on 24 December 2011 after the death of Kim Jong-il. The two half-brothers never met, because of the ancient practice of raising potential successors separately.
On 1 January 2012, it was reported that Kim Jong-nam secretly flew to Pyongyang from Macau on 17 December 2011, after learning about his father's death that day and was presumed to have accompanied Kim Jong-un when paying his last respects to their father. He left after a few days to return to Macau and was not in attendance at the funeral to avoid speculation about the succession.
On 14 January 2012, Kim Jong-nam was seen in Beijing waiting for an Air China flight to Macau. Kim confirmed his identity to a group of South Koreans which included a professor at Incheon University, and told them he usually travels alone.
In a book released in 2012 titled My Father, Kim Jong Il, and Me by Japanese journalist Yōji Gomi who had interviewed Kim Jong-nam on numerous occasions, Jong-nam said he expected the leadership of Jong-un to fail, citing that he was too inexperienced and young. He also stated, "Without reforms, North Korea will collapse, and when such changes take place, the regime will collapse".
According to intelligence sources, It is reported that Kim Jong-un had issued a standing order to have his half brother killed. In 2012 there was another assassination attempt on Kim Jong-nam, who later that year sent a letter to his half-brother to beg for his life.
It has been reported that Kim had two wives, at least one mistress, and had at least six children. His first wife, Shin Jong-hui (born c. 1980), lives at a home called Dragon Villa on the northern outskirts of Beijing. His second wife, Lee Hye-kyong (born c. 1970), their son Han-sol (born 1995) and their daughter Sol-hui (born c. 1998) live in a modest 12-story apartment building in Macau; Jong-nam's mistress, former Air Koryo flight attendant So Yong-la (born c. 1980), also lives in Macau.
||It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Assassination of Kim Jong-nam. (Discuss) (February 2017)|
|Date||13 February 2017|
|Location||Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2, Malaysia|
|Cause||Homicide by VX nerve agent|
|Inquiries||Ongoing; Autopsy performed on 15 February at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital mortuary|
|Arrest(s)||Đoàn Thị Hương (Vietnamese),
Siti Aishah (Indonesian),
Muhammad Farid Bin Jalaluddin (Malaysian, released on bail),
Ri Jong-chol (North Korean)
Ri Ji-u (North Koreans),
Hyon Kwang-song (a senior diplomat in the North Korean embassy in Malaysia)
On 13 February 2017, Kim was allegedly murdered by two women in Malaysia with a VX nerve agent, during his return trip to Macau at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. As he was travelling under the pseudonym "Kim Chol", Malaysian officials did not immediately formally confirm that Kim Jong-nam was the man killed.
Kim died while being transferred from the airport to the Putrajaya Hospital. Malaysian police official Fadzil Ahmat said that Kim had alerted a receptionist, saying "someone had grabbed him from behind and splashed a liquid on his face", also telling Bernama that a woman "covered [Kim's] face with a cloth laced with a liquid".
Autopsy and North Korean–Malaysian conflictEdit
Malaysian officials said that North Korean officials in the country objected to any form of autopsy being conducted on Kim's body, but the autopsy proceeded as they did not submit a formal protest. A post-mortem on Kim was conducted on 15 February at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital mortuary in the presence of several North Korean officials, and concluded the following day, formally confirming the identity of Kim's body, although further information was not expected to be released until the completion of the autopsy report.
Following North Korea's request to retrieve the body, Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi responded that it will only be returned once the post-mortem was done. The minister added that the body would be released to the next-of-kin or to the North Korean embassy. Malaysian Selangor State police chief Abdul Samah Mat also said the body would only be released if his family provided a DNA sample to be used to verify that the dead person was Kim Jong-nam.
Following Malaysia's refusal to release the body, North Korea's ambassador, Kang Chol, accused Malaysia of collaborating with the country's enemies over the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, and expressed doubt as to whether Malaysia's decision was influenced by its rival, South Korea. The ambassador said they would reject the outcome of the post-mortem conducted "on its citizen without permission" and perceived the decision as a "violation of human rights", and thus would lodge a complaint to the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
Following the accusation by the North Korean ambassador that Malaysia was conspiring with its "hostile forces" which have strained the relationship between both countries, he was summoned by the government of Malaysia on 20 February, while the Malaysian ambassador to North Korea had also been recalled. The ambassador then responded that they cannot trust the investigation by Malaysian police, noting there had been no evidence of the cause of death even a week after the attack. He also proposed that North Korea and Malaysia should open a joint investigation together in order to prevent influence from South Korea which, he said, is trying to malign North Korea as the party responsible for the killing. Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak responded to the ambassador that his country will be objective in the investigation and assured the North Korean side that they do not have reason to paint North Korea in a bad light while rejecting the request for joint investigation. On 22 February, Malaysian police said there was evidence of an attempted break-in at the mortuary where Kim's body was being held.
On 24 February, Malaysia's police chief Khalid Abu Bakar announced that a post-mortem toxicology report had found traces of the nerve agent VX on Kim's face. North Korea is not a signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention (which bans such chemical weapons) and is believed to hold the world's third-biggest stockpile (after the United States and Russia, which are both signatories and are in the process of destroying their stockpiles). According to experts, the use of VX gas may explain why two assailants were involved, because each assailant "could have wiped two or more precursors" in Kim's face. This is referred to as a binary chemical weapon. This method could ensure that the assailants were not themselves killed by the poison, which can be fatal in very small amounts; additionally, smuggling the chemical components into Malaysia separately could have helped avoid detection. One assailant reported she vomited in the taxi afterward and has continued to feel unwell. Chemical weapons experts Jean-Pascal Zanders and Richard Guthrie noted that the reported effects were not entirely consistent with the potency of VX – Jong-Nam was able to walk to the medical station without suffering spasms, paramedics were not affected, the assailants survived, and there were no other reports of injury even though the scene of the attack was not cleaned for over a week. VX degrades rapidly in storage and North Korea's supplies are believed to be several years old, which could explain the apparent weakness of the chemical.
The North Korean government rejected all findings, accused the Malaysian police of "fabricating evidence" in collusion with South Korea and demanded the release of three persons being held in connection with the death.
"In terms of the brazen nature of the killing, and its complete disregard for international norms or the safety of bystanders", the murder of Kim recalled the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko in London in 2006, using the radioactive substance polonium-210.
Investigation and arrestsEdit
Kim had been targeted for assassination in the past. In late 2012, Kim Jong-nam appeared in Singapore one year after leaving Macau. He left Macau on suspicions that he was being targeted for assassination by Kim Jong-un; South Korean authorities had formerly indicted a North Korean agent by the name of Kim Yong-su who confessed to planning an attack on Kim Jong-nam in July 2010.
Following Kim's death, Malaysian police arrested a woman at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in connection with the attack on 14 February 2017. The woman, a 28-year-old named Đoàn Thị Hương, was in possession of Vietnamese travel documentation. Đoàn was identified through CCTV footage. On 16 February, a 25-year-old woman named Siti Aishah with Indonesian travel documentation was arrested and identified as the second female suspect. Aishah's boyfriend, a 26-year-old Malaysian named Muhammad Farid Bin Jalaluddin, was also arrested to assist in the investigation.
Đoàn told the police that she was instructed by four men who were travelling with her and her travelling companion to spray the victim with an unidentified liquid while her companion held and covered the victim's face with a handkerchief as part of a prank. The woman claimed that after she returned to look for the four men and her companion, they had all already disappeared, and thus she decided to head back to the airport the next day.
Malaysian authorities began to hunt for the four men and tightened border security, saying there could be a possibility the assassination was orchestrated by agents with both of the women used as scapegoats. A North Korean man was arrested on 17 February, identified as a 46-year-old Ri Jong-chol. He was working for an IT department of a Malaysian cancer supplement company, Tombo Enterprise.
On 19 February, Malaysian police said they are looking for four more North Korean suspects in connection with the murder. The four are identified as Rhi Ji-hyon (aged 33), Hong Song-hac (34), O Jong-gil (55) and Ri Jae-nam (57), all of whom left Malaysia after the attack, while the Malaysian police requested help from Interpol and other relevant authorities in tracking them. According to an unnamed source, the four suspects fled back to Pyongyang by taking a long journey from the airport to Jakarta, Dubai and Vladivostok before reaching their home country. Three male suspects are still in the country: Kim Uk-il, an employee in Air Koryo; Hyon Kwang-song, a senior diplomat in the North Korean embassy in Malaysia, holding the rank of second secretary; and Ri Ji-u.
On 22 February, Malaysian police inspector-general Khalid Abu Bakar said that the killing was "a planned effort" and that the two women arrested had been trained to carry out the attack and had repeatedly rehearsed it together at Pavilion Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC). Khalid also said that the women apparently admitted that they knew they were handling poisonous substances, with one of the women showing symptoms of side effects as she vomited several times after exposure. That same day, an unnamed Malaysian man believed to be a chemist was picked up by police during a raid on a condominium where he then led police to another condominium where various chemicals were seized. The following day, Khalid dismissed claims by Aishah that she thought she was participating in a television prank and did not know that the substance was toxic.
Following the preliminary findings, the remand was extended for the women suspects and the North Korean man, while Muhammad Farid was released on bail. Malaysia's Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), called to carry out a sweep in the airport, confirmed the following day that it was cleared from any toxic substances.
South Korean responseEdit
North Korean potential involvementEdit
The South Korean government accused the North Korean government as the responsible party for conducting Kim Jong-nam's assassination. Officials in Seoul pointed to the fact that Kim Jong-un has ordered the executions of a number of senior officials, including his own uncle.
- Oliver Holmes; Tom Phillips (24 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam killed by VX nerve agent, a chemical weapon, say Malaysian police". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-un's Big Threat: His Older Brother – Globalo". 23 August 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Choe, Sang-hun; Paddock, Richard C. (15 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam, the Hunted Heir to a Dictator Who Met Death in Exile". The New York Times. USA. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
“there has been a standing order” to assassinate his half brother, Lee Byung-ho, the director of the South’s National Intelligence Service, said during a closed-door briefing at the National Assembly, according to lawmakers who attended it.“This is not a calculated action to remove Kim Jong-nam because he was a challenge to power per se, but rather reflected Kim Jong-un’s paranoia,” Mr. Lee was quoted as saying. Kim Jong-un wanted his half brother killed, Mr. Lee said, and there was an assassination attempt against him in 2012. Mr. Kim was so afraid of assassins that he begged for his life in a letter to his half brother in 2012. “Please withdraw the order to punish me and my family,” Mr. Kim was quoted as saying in the letter. “We have nowhere to hide. The only way to escape is to choose suicide.” (...)
- "North Korea's leader will not last long, says Kim Jong-un's brother". The Guardian. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Christian Science Monitor article: "Kim Jong-un confirmed North Korean heir ahead of massive military parade."
- Lee, Adriana S (23 June 2003). "Secret Lives". Time. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- Bradley K. Martin (10 January 2006). Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty. St. Martin's Press. pp. 697–. ISBN 978-0-312-32322-6.
- Ryall, Julian (14 February 2017). "Profile: Who was Kim Jong-nam, the exiled half-brother of North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "《金正日夫人去世使继承人问题又增悬疑》" (in Chinese). The Epoch Times. 2 September 2004. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
- David Scofield (2 September 2004). "Death of Kim's consort: Dynastic implications". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
- Taylor, Adam (22 May 2015). "The sad story of Kim Jong Chul, the North Korean leader's brother and Eric Clapton megafan". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Allen, Dan (19 December 2011). "The Maybe-Gay Son of Kim Jong-Il Definitely Won't Be North Korea's Next Leader". Queerty. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Choe, Sang-Hun (27 May 2010). "Succession May Be Behind N. Korea's New Belligerence". The New York Times.
- Loh, Andrew. "Kim Jong-un's half-brother takes refuge in S'pore and Malaysia". The Global Citizen. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-nam Says N.Korean Regime Won't Last Long". Chosun Ilbo (English Edition). 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Choe, Sang-hun (18 February 2017). "China Suspends All Coal Imports From North Korea". The New York Times. USA. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Yoshihiro, Makino (14 February 2017). "Was Kim Jong Nam in sights of his paranoid half-brother?". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Eric Clapton miatt járt Pesten az észak-koreai diktátor megölt testvére" (in Hungarian). Bors. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Toy, Mary-Anne (2 February 2007). "Kim's playboy son parties in Macau". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Alfano, Seanc (1 February 2007). "Report: Kim Jong Il's Son Living In Macau". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Filho de Kim Jong-il com passaporte português" (in Portuguese). CM. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- "Kim Jong-Il's eldest son has 'no interest' in leadership". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- William Foreman; Hyung Jin-kim (6 June 2010). "NKorean leader's son gives interview". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Where Is Kim Jong-il's Eldest Son?. The Chosun Ilbo. 4 October 2010.
- "Kim Jong-il's grandson seen at concert". RTHK. 18 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Mark McDonald (30 September 2010). "North Korea Releases First Photo of Kim's Heir". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Demetriou, Danielle (17 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam received 'direct warning' from North Korea after criticising regime of half-brother Kim Jong-un". The Telegraph. United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- McKirdy, Euan (16 February 2017). "North Korea's ruling family: Who is Kim Jong Nam?". CNN. U.S. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Kim's eldest in 'secret visit' to see body". Agence France-Presse. 1 January 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-nam Resurfaces in Beijing". The Chosun Ilbo. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Kyung Lah (17 January 2012). "Kim Jong Il's other son expects North Korean regime to fail, journalist says". CNN. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-nam killed after pleading with his brother to spare his life". ABC. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- McCurry, Justin (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's half-brother dies after 'attack' at airport in Malaysia". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-nam killing: VX nerve agent 'found on his face'". BBC News. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Richard C. Paddock & Choe Sang-Hun (23 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Was Killed by VX Nerve Agent, Malaysians Say". New York Times.
- Park, Ju-min; Sipalan, Joseph (14 February 2017). "North Korea suspected behind murder of leader's half-brother: U.S. sources". Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Samuel Osborne (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's half-brother 'assassinated with poisoned needles at airport'". The Independent.
- "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysia police hold female suspect". BBC News. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Fifield, Anna (26 February 2017). "North Korean leader's half brother suffered a 'very painful death,' Malaysian officials say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Menon, Praveen; Chow, Emily (16 February 2017). "Murder at the airport: the brazen attack on North Korean leader's half brother". Reuters. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "North Korean leader's brother Kim Jong-nam 'killed' in Malaysia'". BBC News. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Holmes, Oliver (15 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysian police arrest female suspect". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Stella Kim; Chapman Bell (16 February 2017). "Kim Jong Nam's Death: 3rd Arrest in Dictator's Half-Brother Case". NBC News. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "North Korean embassy cars seen at KL hospital mortuary". The Star. 15 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "Malaysia will return body of North Korean leader's half-brother: DPM". New Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "(Kim Jong Nam killing) Body to be released to family or embassy". The Standard. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "Malaysia will not release body of Kim Jong Un's half-brother until family provides DNA sample". 9news. Agence France-Presse. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- M Kumar (18 February 2017). "N. Korea accuses Malaysia of working with its enemies". The Star. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Julian Ryall (18 February 2017). "North Korean man arrested in Malaysia over killing of Kim Jong-nam as second autopsy to be conducted". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- "Malaysia-North Korea row escalates over Kim Jong-nam". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Anna Fifield (20 February 2017). "North Korea says Malaysia can't be trusted to investigate the killing of leader's half brother". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Malaysian PM says probe into airport killing will be fair". Reuters. 20 February 2017.
- Adrian Lai (20 February 2017). "Jong-nam assassination: Najib says 'no' to N. Korea demand for joint investigation". New Straits Times. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Kumar, Kamles (22 February 2017). "Cops say detected bids to break into mortuary holding Kim Jong-nam body". Malay Mail. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Julian Borger, North Korea's use of nerve agent in murder sends a deliberate signal to foes, The Guardian (24 February 2017).
- Justin McCurry (20 February 2017). "What is the VX nerve agent that killed North Korean Kim Jong-nam?". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- David Bradley, VX Nerve Agent in North Korean's Murder: How Does It Work?, ChemistryWorld (republished at Scientific American) (24 February 2017).
- Richard C. Paddock, Choe Sang-hun & Nicholas Wade, In Kim Jong-nam’s Death, North Korea Lets Loose a Weapon of Mass Destruction, New York Times (24 February 2017).
- "Was Kim Jong-nam killed by VX nerve gas? Doesn't look like it". New Scientist. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- Choe Sang-hun; Richard C. Paddock; Chau Doan; Fira Abdurachman (23 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Evidence Being Fabricated by Malaysia, North Korea Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Julian Ryall (15 November 2012). "Kim Jong-il's son reappears in Singapore". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- James Griffiths (16 November 2012). "Kim Jong-il's son reappears in Singapore one year after fleeing Macau". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-Nam killing: Second woman arrested in Malaysia". Sky News. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "Killing of North Korean: Suspect thought she was playing a prank". Free Malaysia Today. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- "Kim Jong-nam: What do we really know about the assassination of Kim Jong-un's brother in Malaysia?". The Telegraph. Associated Press. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Lindsay Murdoch; Jewel Topsfield (17 February 2017). "Malaysia hunts four North Korean spies over Kim Jong-nam's assassination". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Farik Zolkepli (18 February 2017). "Fourth person arrested in Jong-nam murder probe". The Star. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Park Su-ji (21 February 2017). "One suspect in Kim Jong-nam's killing was middleman buying commodities in Malaysia". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Joseph Sipalan; Praveen Menon; Michael Perry (19 February 2017). "Malaysia searching for four more North Korean suspects in Kim Jong Nam death". Reuters. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- Farik Zolkepli; Jastin Ahmad Tarmizi (19 February 2017). "Kim Jong-nam murder: Suspects left country on day of killing". The Star. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "4 North Korean suspects in Kim Jong Nam murder back in Pyongyang: Sources". The Star/Asia News Network. The Straits Times. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Park Su-ji (20 February 2017). "Four North Korean suspects fled Malaysia immediately after Kim Jong-nam's killing". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Richard C. Paddock; Gerry Mullany (21 February 2017). "Senior North Korean Diplomat Is Sought in Death of Kim Jong-nam". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Rozanna Latiff; Liz Lee; Kanupriya Kapoor; Praveen Menon; Simon Cameron-Moore (22 February 2017). "Malaysia names North Korean diplomat wanted for questioning in murder case". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- M Kumar (24 February 2017). "Police to seek atomic agency help to 'sweep' KLIA2". The Star. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Malaysian police seize chemicals from condominium as part of probe on Kim Jong Nam murder". The Star/Asia News Network. The Straits Times. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Joshua Berlinger & Sandi Sidhu (23 February 2017). "VX nerve agent used to kill Kim Jong Nam, police say". CNN.
- Pooi Koon Chong & Anisah Shukry (23 February 2017). "Malaysia Says VX Nerve Agent Used in Murder of North Korea's Kim Jong Nam". Bloomberg.
The female suspects were trained to swipe the poison on the victim's face, and knew the substance was toxic, Inspector-General of Police Khalid Abu Bakar said on Wednesday, dismissing reports that they were involved in a television prank. They had practiced at a couple of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur, and were instructed to wash their hands after the attack, he said.
- Teoh Pei Ying; Rahmat Khairulrijal (22 February 2017). "Female suspects in Jong-nam's murder held 'practice runs' at Pavillion, KLCC before attack: IGP". New Straits Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Susanna Capelouto; Kocha Olarn (25 February 2017). "Malaysia airport clear of VX nerve agent, officials say". CNN. KXLF. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Sang-hun, Choe (14 February 2017). "Kim Jong-un's Half Brother Is Reported Assassinated in Malaysia". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Paddock, Richard C.; Mullany, Gerry (21 Feb 2017). "Kim Jong-nam Investigators Seek to Question North Korean Embassy Officer". The New York Times. USA. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.