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Languages of Europe

  (Redirected from European languages)
Map of the major languages spoken in Europe (language codes shown in thumbnail are ISO 639-1, where available, otherwise ISO 639-2 or ISO 639-3).
Distribution of the major Indo-European branches in Europe:   Slavic,   Romance,   Germanic,   Hellenic (Greek),   Baltic,   Albanian,   Celtic.

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Out of a total population of 740 million (as of 2010), some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are Slavic, Germanic and Romance, with more than 200 million speakers each, between them accounting for close to 90% of Europeans.

Smaller phyla of Indo-European found in Europe include Hellenic (Greek, c. 10 million), Baltic (c. 7 million), Albanian (c. 5 million), Indo-Aryan (Romani, c. 1.5 million) and Celtic (c. 1 million).

Of c. 45 million Europeans speaking non-Indo-European languages, around 20 million each fall within the Uralic and Turkic families. Still smaller groups (such as Basque and various languages of the Caucasus) account for less than 1% of European population between them.

Five languages have more than 50 million native speakers in Europe: Russian, German, French, Italian and English. While Russian has the largest number of native speakers (more than 100 million in Europe), English in Europe has the largest number of speakers in total, including some 200 million speakers of English as a second language.

Recent immigration to Europe has added sizeable communities of speakers of African and Asian languages, in total accounting for about 4% of total resident population (2013 estimate);[1] many of the second generation immigrants may be bilingual and may be counted as native speakers both of a European and a non-European language.

Contents

Indo-European languagesEdit

The Indo-European language family is descended from Proto-Indo-European, which is believed to have been spoken thousands of years ago. Early speakers of Indo-European daughter languages most likely expanded into Europe with the incipient Bronze Age, around 4,000 years ago (Bell-Beaker culture).

SlavicEdit

 
Distribution of Slavic-speaking populations in Europe
  Official Slavic language used by the majority
  Significant unofficial / co-official / historical Slavic language usage
  Significant non-Slavic language usage or bilingual

Slavic languages are spoken in large areas of Central Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. An estimated 250 million Europeans are native speakers of Slavic languages, the largest groups being Russian (c. 110 million in European Russia and adjacient parts of Eastern Europe, Russian forming the largest linguistic community in Europe), Polish (c. 55 million), Ukrainian (c. 40 million), Serbo-Croatian (c. 21 million), Czech (c. 11 million), Bulgarian (c. 9 million), Slovak (c. 5 million) Belarusian and Slovene (c. 3 million each) and Macedonian (c. 2 million).

Phylogenetically, Slavic is divided into three subgroups:

RomanceEdit

 
Romance languages, 20th century

Roughly 210 million Europeans are native speakers of Romance languages, the largest groups including Italian (c. 65 million), French (c. 60 million), Spanish (Castilian) (c. 40 million), Romanian (c. 25 million), Portuguese (c. 10 million), Sicilian (c. 5 million, also subsumed under Italian), Catalan (c. 4 million), Galician (c. 2 million), Sardinian (c. 1 million), besides numerous smaller communities.

The Romance languages are descended from varieties of Vulgar Latin spoken in the various parts of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Latin was itself part of the (otherwise extinct) Italic branch of Indo-European. Romance is divided phylogenetically into Italo-Western, Eastern Romance (including Romanian) and Sardinian.

Italo-Western in turn has the sub-branches Italo-Dalmatian (sometimes grouped with Eastern Romance), including numerous variants of Italian as well as Dalmatian, and the Western Romance languages

The Western Romance languages in turn separate into:

GermanicEdit

 
The present-day distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe:
North Germanic languages
  Danish
West Germanic languages
  Scots
  Dutch
  German
Dots indicate areas where multilingualism is common.

The Germanic languages make up the predominant language family in northwestern Europe. An estimated 210 million Europeans are native speakers of Germanic languages, the largest groups being German (c. 110 million), English (c. 65 million) and Dutch (c. 22 million), Swedish (c. 9 million), Norwegian (c. 5 million) and Danish (c. 5 million).

There are two extant major sub-divisions: West Germanic and North Germanic. A third group, East Germanic, is now extinct; the only known surviving East Germanic texts are written in the Gothic language. West Germanic is divided into Anglo-Frisian (including English), Low German and Low Franconian (including Dutch) and High German (including Standard German).

German and Low Franconian

German is spoken throughout Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the East Cantons of Belgium, much of Switzerland (including the northeast areas bordering on Germany and Austria) and northern Italy (South Tyrol).

There are several groups of German dialects:

Low German or Low Saxon is spoken in various regions throughout Northern Germany and the North and East of the Netherlands. It has no official status in either of the two countries.[2] It may be separated into Low Saxon (West Low German) and East Low German.

Dutch is spoken throughout the Netherlands, northern Belgium, as well as the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France, and around Düsseldorf in Germany. In Belgian and French contexts, Dutch is sometimes referred to as Flemish. Dutch dialects are varied and cut across national borders. In Germany it is called East Bergish.

Anglo-Frisian

The Anglo-Frisian language family is now mostly represented by English (Anglic), descended from the Old English language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons:

The Frisian languages are spoken by about 500,000 Frisians, who live on the southern coast of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. These languages include West Frisian, Saterlandic, and North Frisian.

North Germanic (Scandinavian)

The North Germanic languages are spoken in Scandinavian countries and include Danish (Denmark), Norwegian (Norway), Swedish (Sweden and parts of Finland), or Elfdalian (in a small part of central Sweden), Faroese (Faroe Islands), and Icelandic (Iceland).

English has a long history of contact with Scandinavian languages, given the immigration of Scandinavians early in the history of Britain, and has similar structure with Scandinavian languages.[3]

OtherEdit

 
Distribution of the Baltic languages in the Baltic (simplified).

Non-Indo-European languagesEdit

UralicEdit

 
Distribution of Uralic languages in Eurasia

Uralic is native to northern Eurasia. Finno-Ugric groups the Uralic languages other than Samoyedic. Finnic languages include Finnish and Estonian. The Sami languages are closely related to Finnic.

The Ugric languages are represented in Europe with the Hungarian language, historically introduced with the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin of the 9th century.

The Samoyedic Nenets language is spoken in Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the far northeastern corner of Europe (as delimited by the Ural Mountains).

TurkicEdit

 
Distribution of Turkic languages in Eurasia

OtherEdit

  • The Basque language (or Euskara) is a language isolate and the ancestral language of the Basque people who inhabit the Basque Country, a region in the western Pyrenees mountains mostly in northeastern Spain and partly in southwestern France of about 3 million inhabitants, where it is spoken fluently by about 750,000 and understood by more than 1.5 million people. Basque is directly related to ancient Aquitanian, and it is likely that an early form of the Basque language was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages in the area in the Bronze Age.

History of standardizationEdit

Language and identity, standardization processesEdit

In the Middle Ages the two most important defining elements of Europe were Christianitas and Latinitas. Thus language—at least the supranational language—played an elementary role[clarification needed]. The earliest dictionaries were glossaries, i.e., more or less structured lists of lexical pairs (in alphabetical order or according to conceptual fields). The Latin-German (Latin-Bavarian) Abrogans was among the first. A new wave of lexicography can be seen from the late 15th century onwards (after the introduction of the printing press, with the growing interest in standardizing languages).

The concept of the nation state begins to emerge in the early modern period. Nations adopted particular dialects as their national language. This, together with improved communications, led to official efforts to standardise the national language, and a number of language academies were established (e.g., 1582 Accademia della Crusca in Florence, 1617 Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft in Weimar, 1635 Académie française in Paris, 1713 Real Academia Española in Madrid). Language became increasingly linked to nation as opposed to culture, and was also used to promote religious and ethnic identity (e.g., different Bible translations in the same language for Catholics and Protestants).

The first languages for which standardisation was promoted included Italian (questione della lingua: Modern Tuscan/Florentine vs. Old Tuscan/Florentine vs. Venetian → Modern Florentine + archaic Tuscan + Upper Italian), French (the standard is based on Parisian), English (the standard is based on the London dialect) and (High) German (based on the dialects of the chancellery of Meissen in Saxony, Middle German, and the chancellery of Prague in Bohemia ("Common German")). But several other nations also began to develop a standard variety in the 16th century.

Lingua FrancaEdit

Europe has had a number of languages that were considered linguae francae over some ranges for some periods according to some historians. Typically in the rise of a national language the new language becomes a lingua franca to peoples in the range of the future nation until the consolidation and unification phases. If the nation becomes internationally influential, its language may become a lingua franca among nations that speak their own national languages. Europe has had no lingua franca ranging over its entire territory spoken by all or most of its populations during any historical period. Some linguae francae of past and present over some of its regions for some of its populations are:

Linguistic minoritiesEdit

Historical attitudes towards linguistic diversity are illustrated by two French laws: the Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts (1539), which said that every document in France should be written in French (neither in Latin nor in Occitan) and the Loi Toubon (1994), which aimed to eliminate anglicisms from official documents. States and populations within a state have often resorted to war to settle their differences. There have been attempts to prevent such hostilities: two such initiatives were promoted by the Council of Europe, founded in 1949, which affirms the right of minority language speakers to use their language fully and freely.[14] The Council of Europe is committed to protecting linguistic diversity. Currently all European countries except France, Andorra and Turkey have signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, while Greece, Iceland and Luxembourg have signed it, but have not ratified it; this framework entered into force in 1998. Another European treaty, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, was adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe: it entered into force in 1998, and while it is legally binding for 24 countries, France, Iceland, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova and Russia have chosen to sign without ratifying the convention.

ScriptsEdit

 
Alphabets used in national languages in Europe:
  Greek
  Greek & Latin
  Latin

The main scripts used in Europe today are the Latin and Cyrillic; Greek, Armenian and Georgian also have their own scripts. All of the aforementioned are alphabets.

The Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and Latin was derived from the Greek via the Old Italic alphabet.

In the Early Middle Ages, Ogham was used in Ireland and runes (derived the Old Italic script) in Scandinavia. Both were replaced in general use by the Latin alphabet by the Late Middle Ages. The Cyrillic script was derived from the Greek with the first texts appearing around 940 AD.

Around 1900 there were mainly two typeface variants of the Latin alphabet used in Europe: Antiqua and Fraktur. Fraktur was used most for German, Estonian, Latvian, Norwegian and Danish whereas Antiqua was used for Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, English, Romanian, Swedish and Finnish. The Fraktur variant was banned by Hitler in 1941, having been described as "Schwabacher Jewish letters".[15] Other scripts have historically been in use in Europe, including Arabic during the era of the Ottoman Empire, Phoenician, from which modern Latin letters descend, Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs on Egyptian artefacts traded during Antiquity, and various runic systems used in Northern Europe preceding Christianisation.

Hungarian rovás was used by the Hungarian people in the early Middle Ages, but it was gradually replaced with the Latin-based Hungarian alphabet when Hungary became a kingdom, though it was revived in the 20th century and has certain marginal, but growing area of usage since then.

The European UnionEdit

The European Union (as of 2016) had 28 member states accounting for a population of 510 million, or about 69% of the population of Europe.

The European Union has designated by agreement with the member states 24 languages as "official and working:" Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish.[16] This designation provides member states with two "entitlements:" the member state may communicate with the EU in the designated one of those languages and view "EU regulations and other legislative documents" in that language.[17]

The European Union and the Council of Europe have been collaborating in education of member populations in languages for "the promotion of plurilingualism" among EU member states,[18] The joint document, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)", is an educational standard defining "the competencies necessary for communication" and related knowledge for the benefit of educators in setting up educational programs. In a 2005 independent survey requested by the EU's Directorate-General for Education and Culture regarding the extent to which major European languages were spoken in member states. The results were published in a 2006 document, "Europeans and Their Languages", or "Eurobarometer 243". In this study, statistically relevant samples of the population in each country were asked to fill out a survey form concerning the languages that they spoke with sufficient competency "to be able to have a conversation".[19]

List of languagesEdit

The following is a table of European languages. The number of L1 and L2 speakers listed are speakers in Europe only;[nb 1] see list of languages by number of native speakers and list of languages by total number of speakers for global estimates on numbers of speakers.

The list includes any language or dialect with an ISO 639 code; this means that some communities of speakers within a macrolanguage may be listed more than once, e.g. speakers of Austro-Bavarian listed both separately (under bar) and subsumed in the total given under "German" (de).

Name ISO-639 Classification L1 L1+L2 Official status (national)[nb 2] Official status (regional)
Adyghe ady Northwest Caucasian, Circassian 117,500[20]   Adygea (Russia)
Albanian sq Indo-European, Albanian 5,400,000[21]   Albania   Kosovo[nb 3],   Macedonia
Aragonese an Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 25,000[22] 55,000[23]   Aragon
Aromanian rup Indo-European, Romance, Eastern 114,000[24]   Macedonia
Asturian (Astur-Leonese) ast Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 110,000[25] 450,000[26]   Asturias
Austro-Bavarian bar Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Bavarian 14,000,000[27]   Austria (as German)
Avar av Northeast Caucasian, Avar–Andic 760,000   Dagestan (Russia)
Azerbaijani az Turkic, Oghuz 500,000[28]   Azerbaijan   Dagestan (Russia)
Bashkir ba Turkic, Kipchak 1,221,000[29]   Bashkortostan (Russia)
Basque eu Basque 750,000[30]   Basque Autonomous Community &   Navarre (Spain)
Belarusian be Indo-European, Slavic, East 3,300,000[31]   Belarus
Bosnian bs Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian 2,500,000[32]   Bosnia and Herzegovina
Breton br Indo-European, Celtic, Brittonic 206,000[33] (none)
Bulgarian bg Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern 7,800,000[34]   Bulgaria
Catalan ca Indo-European, Romance, Western, Occitano-Romance 4,000,000[35] 10,000,000[36]   Andorra   Balearic Islands,   Catalonia, &   Valencian Community (Spain)
Chechen ce Northeast Caucasian, Nakh 1,400,000[37]   Chechnya &   Dagestan (Russia)
Chuvash cv Turkic, Oghur 1,100,000[38]   Chuvashia (Russia)
Cimbrian cim Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Bavarian 400[39]
Cornish kw Indo-European, Celtic, Brittonic 557[40]   Cornwall (United Kingdom)
Corsican co Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 30,000[41] 125,000[41]   Sardinia (Italy)
Crimean Tatar crh Turkic, Kipchak 480,000[42]   Crimea
Croatian hr Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian 5,600,000[43]   Bosnia and Herzegovina,   Croatia   Burgenland (Austria)
Czech cs Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech–Slovak 10,600,000[44]   Czech Republic
Danish da Indo-European, Germanic, North 5,500,000[45]   Denmark   Faroe Islands (Denmark),   Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)[46]
Dutch nl Indo-European, Germanic, West 22,000,000[47]   Belgium,   Netherlands
English en Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic 60,000,000[48] 260,000,000[49]   Ireland,   Malta,   United Kingdom
Erzya myv Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Mordvinic 120,000[50]   Mordovia (Russia)
Estonian et Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 1,165,400[51]   Estonia
Extremaduran ext Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 200,000[52]   Extremadura
Faroese fo Indo-European, Germanic, North 66,150[53]   Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Finnish fi Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 5,400,000[54]   Finland
Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) arp Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance 140,000[55]   Aosta Valley (Italy)
French fr Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl 66,000,000[56] 135,000,000[49]   Belgium,   France,   Luxembourg,   Monaco,    Switzerland   Aosta Valley[57] (Italy),   Jersey (United Kingdom)
Frisian fry frr stq Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian 470,000[58]   Friesland (Netherlands),   Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)[59]
Gagauz gag Turkic, Oghuz 140,000[60]   Gagauzia (Moldova)
Galician gl Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 2,400,000[61]   Galicia (Spain)
German de Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German 97,000,000[62] 170,000,000[49]   Austria,   Belgium,   Germany,   Liechtenstein,   Luxembourg,    Switzerland   South Tyrol[63] (Italy)
Greek el Indo-European, Hellenic 11,000,000[64]   Greece
Hungarian hu Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric 13,000,000[65]   Hungary   Burgenland (Austria),   Vojvodina (Serbia)
Icelandic is Indo-European, Germanic, North 330,000[66]   Iceland
Ingrian izh Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 120[67]
Ingush inh Northeast Caucasian, Nakh 300,000[68]   Ingushetia
Irish ga Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic 240,000[69] 1,300,000   Republic of Ireland   Northern Ireland
Istriot ist Indo-European, Romance 900[70]
Istro-Romanian ruo Indo-European, Romance, Eastern 1,100[71]
Italian it Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 65,000,000[72] 82,000,000[49]   Italy,   San Marino,    Switzerland,    Vatican City   Istria County (Croatia),   Slovenian Istria (Slovenia)
Judeo-Italian itk Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 250[73]
Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) lad Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian few[74]
Kabardian kbd Northwest Caucasian, Circassian 530,000[75]   Kabardino-Balkaria &   Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Kalmyk xal Mongolic 80,500[76]   Kalmykia (Russia)
Karelian krl Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 36,000[77]   Karelia (Russia)
Karachay-Balkar krc Turkic, Kipchak 300,000[78]   Kabardino-Balkaria &   Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Kashubian csb Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 50,000[79]   Poland
Kazakh kk Turkic, Kipchak 1,000,000[80]   Kazakhstan
Komi kv Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Permic 220,000[81]   Komi Republic (Russia)
Latin la Indo-European, Romance extinct few[82]    Vatican City
Latvian lv Indo-European, Baltic 1,750,000[83]   Latvia
Ligurian lij Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic 500,000[84]
Lithuanian lt Indo-European, Baltic 3,000,000[85]   Lithuania
Lombard lmo Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic 3,600,000[86]
Low German (Low Saxon) nds wep Indo-European, Germanic, West 1,000,000[87] 2,600,000[87]   Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)[88]
Luxembourgish lb Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German 336,000[89] 386,000[89]   Luxembourg
Macedonian mk Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern 1,400,000[90]   Macedonia
Mainfränkisch vmf Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper 4,900,000[91]
Maltese mt Semitic, Arabic 520,000[92]   Malta
Manx gv Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic extinct[93] 1,800[94]   Isle of Man (United Kingdom)
Mari chm mhr Uralic, Finno-Ugric 500,000[95]   Mari El (Russia)
Megleno-Romanian ruq Indo-European, Romance, Eastern 3,000[96]
Mirandese mwl Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 15,000[97]   Miranda do Douro (Portugal)
Moksha mdf Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Mordvinic 2,000[98]   Mordovia (Russia)
Neapolitan nap Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 5,700,000[99]   Campania (Italy)[100]
Nenets yrk Uralic, Samoyedic 4,000[101]
Norman nrf Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl 50,000[102]   Jersey (United Kingdom)
Norwegian no Indo-European, Germanic, North 4,700,000[103]   Norway
Occitan oc Indo-European, Romance, Western, Occitano-Romance 500,000[104]   Catalonia (Spain)
Ossetian os Indo-European, Iranian, Eastern 450,000[105]   North Ossetia-Alania (Russia)
Palatinate German pfl Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central 1,000,000[106]
Picard pcd Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl 200,000[107]   Belgium
Piedmontese pms Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic 1,600,000[108]   Piedmont (Italy)[109]
Polish pl Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 38,500,000[110]   Poland
Portuguese pt Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 10,000,000[111]   Portugal
Rhaeto-Romance fur lld roh Indo-European, Romance, Western 370,000[112]    Switzerland   Belluno,   South Tyrol,[113] &   Trentino (Italy)
Ripuarian (Platt) ksh Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central 900,000[114]
Romani rom Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 1,500,000[115]   Kosovo[nb 3][116]
Romanian ro Indo-European, Romance, Eastern 24,000,000[117]   Moldova,   Romania   Vojvodina (Serbia)
Russian ru Indo-European, Slavic, East 106,000,000[118] 160,000,000[118]   Belarus,   Kazakhstan,   Russia   Gagauzia (Moldova),   Svalbard (Norway),   Romania,   Ukraine
Sami se Uralic, Finno-Ugric 23,000[119]   Norway,   Sweden,   Finland
Sardinian sc Indo-European, Romance 1,200,000[120]   Sardinia (Italy)
Scots sco Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic 110,000[121]   Scotland (United Kingdom),   Ulster (Ireland & United Kingdom)
Scottish Gaelic gd Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic 57,000[122]   Scotland
Serbian sr Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian 9,000,000[123]   Bosnia and Herzegovina,   Serbia   Kosovo[nb 3]
Sicilian scn Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 4,700,000[124]
Silesian szl Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 522,000[125]   Upper Silesia,   Silesia (Poland)
Silesian German sli Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central 11,000[126]
Slovak sk Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech–Slovak 5,200,000[127]   Czech Republic,   Slovakia   Vojvodina (Serbia)
Slovene sl Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western 2,100,000[128]   Slovenia
Sorbian (Wendish) wen Indo-European, Slavic, West 20,000[129]   Brandenburg &   Sachsen (Germany)[130]
Spanish (Castilian) es Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian 38,000,000[131] 76,000,000[49]   Spain
Swabian German swg Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic 820,000[132]
Swedish sv Indo-European, Germanic, North 9,100,000[133] 12,000,000[133]   Finland,   Sweden
Swiss German gsw Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic 5,000,000[134]    Switzerland (as German)
Tabasaran tab Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic 126,900[135]   Dagestan (Russia)
Tat ttt Indo-European, Iranian, Western 30,000[136]   Dagestan (Russia)
Tatar tt Turkic, Kipchak 4,300,000[137]   Tatarstan (Russia)
Turkish tr Turkic, Oghuz 12,000,000[138]   Turkey,   Cyprus   Northern Cyprus
Udmurt udm Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Permic 340,000[139]   Udmurtia (Russia)
Ukrainian uk Indo-European, Slavic, East 32,600,000[140]   Ukraine
Upper Saxon sxu Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central 2,000,000[141]
Vepsian vep Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 1,640[142]   Karelia (Russia)
Venetian vec Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian 3,800,000[143]   Veneto (Italy)[144]
Võro vro Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic 87,000[145]
Walloon wa Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl 600,000[146]   Wallonia (Belgium)
Walser German wae Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic 20,000[147]
Welsh cy Indo-European, Celtic, Brittonic 540,000[148]   Wales (United Kingdom)
Wymysorys wym Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German 70[149]
Yenish yec Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German 16,000[150]
Yiddish yi Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German 600,000[151]   Bosnia and Herzegovina,   Netherlands,   Poland,   Romania,   Sweden,   Ukraine

Immigrant communitiesEdit

Recent (post-1945) immigration to Europe introduced substantial communities of speakers of non-European languages.[152]

The largest such communities include Arabic speakers (see Arabs in Europe) and Turkish speakers (beyond European Turkey and the historical sphere of influence of the Ottoman Empire, see Turks in Europe).[153] Armenians, Berbers and Kurds have diaspora communities of c. 1–2 million each. The various languages of Africa and languages of India form numerous smaller diaspora communities.

List of the largest immigrant languages
Name ISO 639 Classification L1 Ethnic diaspora
Arabic ar Afro-Asiatic, Semitic > 4 million[154] c. 12 million[155]
Turkish tr Turkic, Oghuz c. 3 million[156] c. 7 million[157]
Armenian hy Indo-European c. 1 million[158] c. 2 million[159]
Kurdish ku Indo-European, Iranian, Western c. 0.6 million[160] c. 1 million[161]
Bengali–Assamese bn as syl Indo-European, Indo-Aryan c. 0.6 million[162] c. 1 million[163]
Azerbaijani az Turkic, Oghuz c. 0.5 million[164] c. 0.7 million[165]
Kabyle kab Afro-Asiatic, Berber c. 0.5 million[166] c. 1 million[167]
Chinese zh Sino-Tibetan, Sinitic c. 0.3 million[168] c. 2 million[169]
Urdu ur Indo-European, Indo-Aryan c. 0.3 million[170] c. 1.8 million[171]
Uzbek uz Turkic, Karluk c. 0.3 million[172] c. 1–2 million[173]
Persian fa Indo-European, Iranian, Western c. 0.3 million[174] c. 0.4 million[175]
Punjabi pa Indo-European, Indo-Aryan c. 0.3 million[176] c. 0.7 million[177]
Gujarati gu Indo-European, Indo-Aryan c. 0.2 million[178] c. 0.6 million[179]
Tamil ta Dravidian c. 0.2 million[180] c. 0.5 million[181]
Somali so Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic c. 0.2 million[182] c. 0.4 million[183]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Europe" is taken as a geographical term, defined by the conventional Europe-Asia boundary along the Caucasus and the Urals. Estimates for populations geographically in Europe are given for transcontinental countries.
  2. ^ Sovereign states, defined as United Nations member states and observer states. 'Recognised minority language' status is not included.
  3. ^ a b c The Republic of Kosovo is a partially recognized state (recognized by 111 out of 193 UN member states as of 2017).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "International migrant stock: By destination and origin". United Nations. .
  2. ^ "Low Saxon (Low German)". www.lowlands-l.net. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  3. ^ "Linguist makes sensational claim: English is a Scandinavian language". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2016-03-06. 
  4. ^ Marie Alexander; et al. (2009). "2nd International Conference of Maltese Linguistics: Saturday, September 19 – Monday, September 21, 2009". International Association of Maltese Linguistics. Retrieved 2 November 2009. 
  5. ^ Aquilina, J. (1958). "Maltese as a Mixed Language". Journal of Semitic Studies. 3 (1): 58–79. doi:10.1093/jss/3.1.58. 
  6. ^ Aquilina, Joseph (July–September 1960). "The Structure of Maltese". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 80 (3): 267–68. doi:10.2307/596187. 
  7. ^ Werner, Louis; Calleja, Alan (November–December 2004). "Europe's New Arabic Connection". Saudi Aramco World. 
  8. ^ Counelis, James Steve (March 1976). "Review [untitled] of Ariadna Camariano-Cioran, Les Academies Princieres de Bucarest et de Jassy et leur Professeurs". Church History. 45 (1): 115–116. doi:10.2307/3164593. ...Greek, the lingua franca of commerce and religion, provided a cultural unity to the Balkans...Greek penetrated Moldavian and Wallachian territories as early as the fourteenth century.... The heavy influence of Greek culture upon the intellectual and academic life of Bucharest and Jassy was longer termed than historians once believed. 
  9. ^ Wansbrough, John E. (1996). "Chapter 3: Lingua Franca". Lingua Franca in the Mediterranean. Routledge. 
  10. ^ a b Calvet, Louis Jean (1998). Language wars and linguistic politics. Oxford [England]; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 175–76. 
  11. ^ Jones, Branwen Gruffydd (2006). Decolonizing international relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 98. 
  12. ^ Kahane 1986, p. 495
  13. ^ Darquennes, Jeroen; Nelde, Peter (2006). "German as a Lingua Franca". Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 26: 61–77. doi:10.1017/s0267190506000043. 
  14. ^ "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Strasbourg, 5.XI.1992". Council of Europe. 1992. 
  15. ^ Facsimile of Bormann's Memorandum (in German)
    The memorandum itself is typed in Antiqua, but the NSDAP letterhead is printed in Fraktur.
    "For general attention, on behalf of the Führer, I make the following announcement:
    It is wrong to regard or to describe the so‑called Gothic script as a German script. In reality, the so‑called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
    Today the Führer, talking with Herr Reichsleiter Amann and Herr Book Publisher Adolf Müller, has decided that in the future the Antiqua script is to be described as normal script. All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.
    The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
    On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script".
  16. ^ "Languages Policy: Linguistic diversity: Official languages of the EU". European Commission, European Union. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "Languages of Europe: Official EU languages". European Commission, European Union. 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  18. ^ "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 30 October 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  19. ^ "Europeans and Their Languages" (PDF). European Commission. 2006. p. 8. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  20. ^ Adyghe at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  21. ^ Albanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  22. ^ [1] Report about Census of population 2011 of Aragonese Sociolinguistics Seminar and University of Zaragoza
  23. ^ People that declared that they can speak aragonese in the 2011 Spanish census. Archived 2015-01-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Aromanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  25. ^ Asturian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  26. ^ Asturian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  27. ^ German dialect, Bavarian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  28. ^ Total population 24 million, c. 130,000 in Dagestan, c. 400,000 in Azerbajjan's Quba-Khachmaz region, technically in Europe (being north of the Caucasus watershed). In addition, there are about 0.5 million speakers in immigrant communities in Russia, see #Immigrant communities. Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  29. ^ Bashkort at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  30. ^ (in French) VI° Enquête Sociolinguistique en Euskal herria (Communauté Autonome d'Euskadi, Navarre et Pays Basque Nord) (2016).)
  31. ^ Belarusian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  32. ^ Bosnian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  33. ^ Breton at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  34. ^ Bulgarian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  35. ^ Ethnologue:Catalan
  36. ^ Catalan News Agency - Number of Catalan speakers rising despite adverse context Informe sobre la Situació de la Llengua Catalana | Xarxa CRUSCAT. Coneixements, usos i representacions del català
  37. ^ Chechen at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  38. ^ Chuvash at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  39. ^ German dialect, Cimbrian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  40. ^ UK 2011 Census
  41. ^ a b Corsican at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  42. ^ Crimean Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  43. ^ Croatian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  44. ^ Czech at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  45. ^ Danish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  46. ^ recognized as official language in Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Flensburg, Flensburg and Rendsburg-Eckernförde (§ 82b LVwG)
  47. ^ Dutch at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  48. ^ English at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  49. ^ a b c d e Europeans and their Languages Archived 6 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Data for EU27, published in 2012.
  50. ^ Erzya at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  51. ^ Estonian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  52. ^ Extremaduran at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  53. ^ Faroese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  54. ^ Finnish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  55. ^ Franco-Provençal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  56. ^ French at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  57. ^ Le Statut spécial de la Vallée d'Aoste, Article 38, Title VI. Region Vallée d'Aoste. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  58. ^ Frisian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  59. ^ recognized as official language in the Nordfriesland district and in Helgoland (§ 82b LVwG).
  60. ^ Gagauz at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  61. ^ Galician at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  62. ^ includes: bar Bavarian, cim Cimbrian, ksh Kölsch, sli Lower Silesian, vmf Mainfränkisch, pfl Palatinate German, swg Swabian German, gsw Swiss German, sxu Upper Saxon, wae Walser German, wep Westphalian, wym Wymysorys, yec Yenish, yid Yiddish; see German dialects.
  63. ^ STATUTO SPECIALE PER IL TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE (1972), Art. 99–101.
  64. ^ 11 million in Greece, out of 13.4 million in total. Greek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  65. ^ Hungarian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  66. ^ Icelandic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  67. ^ Ingrian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  68. ^ Ingush at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  69. ^ Irish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  70. ^ Istriot at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  71. ^ Istro-Romanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  72. ^ Italian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  73. ^ Judeo-Italian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  74. ^ SIL Ethnologue: "Not the dominant language for most. Formerly the main language of Sephardic Jewry. Used in literary and music contexts." ca. 100k speakers in total, most of them in Israel, small communities in the Balkans, Greece, Turkey and in Spain.
  75. ^ Kabardian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  76. ^ Oirat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  77. ^ Karelian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  78. ^ Karachay-Balkar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  79. ^ Kashubian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  80. ^ About 10 million in Kazakhstan. Kazakh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015). Technically, the westernmost portions of Kazakhstan (Atyrau Region, West Kazakhstan Region) are in Europe, with a total population of less than one million.
  81. ^ 220,000 native speakers out of an ethnic population of 550,000. Combines Komi-Permyak (koi) with 65,000 speakers and Komi-Zyrian (kpv) with 156,000 speakers. Komi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  82. ^ Contemporary Latin: People fluent in Latin as a second language are probably in the dozens, not hundreds. Reginald Foster (as of 2013) estimated "no more than 100" according to Robin Banerji, Pope resignation: Who speaks Latin these days?, BBC News, 12 February 2013.
  83. ^ Latvian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  84. ^ Ligurian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  85. ^ Lithuanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  86. ^ Lombard at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  87. ^ a b 2.6 million cited as estimate of all Germans who speak Platt "well or very well" (including L2; 4.3 million cited as the number of all speakers including those with "moderate" knowledge) in 2009. Heute in Bremen. „Ohne Zweifel gefährdet“. Frerk Möller im Interview, taz, 21. Februar 2009. However, Wirrer (1998) described Low German as "moribund".Jan Wirrer: Zum Status des Niederdeutschen. In: Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik. 26, 1998, S. 309. The number of native speakers is unknown, estimated at 1 million by SIL Ethnologue. Low German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Westphalian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  88. ^ The question whether Low German should be considered as subsumed under "German" as the official language of Germany has a complicated legal history. In the wake of the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1998), Schleswig-Holstein has explicitly recognized Low German as a regional language with official status (§ 82b LVwG).
  89. ^ a b Luxembourgish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  90. ^ Macedonian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  91. ^ German dialect, Main-Franconian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  92. ^ Maltese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  93. ^ Manx at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  94. ^ Whitehead, Sarah (2 April 2015). "How the Manx language came back from the dead". theguardian.com. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  95. ^ Mari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  96. ^ Megleno-Romanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  97. ^ Mirandese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  98. ^ Moksha at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  99. ^ Neapolitan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  100. ^ In 2008, law was passed by the Region of Campania, stating that the Neapolitan language was to be legally protected. "Tutela del dialetto, primo via libera al Ddl campano". Il Denaro (in Italian). 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  101. ^ total 22,000 native speakers (2010 Russian cenusus) out of an ethnic population of 44,000. Most of these are in Siberia, with about 8,000 ethnic Nenets in European Russia (2010 cenusus, mostly in Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
  102. ^ Jèrriais at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  103. ^ Norwegian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  104. ^ Occitan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015). includes Auvergnat, Gascon, Languedocien, Limousin, Provençal, Vivaro-Alpine. Most native speakers are in France, their number is unknown, as varieties of Occitan are treated as French dialects with no official status.
  105. ^ Total 570,000, of which 450,000 in the Russian Federation. Ossetian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  106. ^ German dialect, Palatinate German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  107. ^ Picard at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  108. ^ Piedmontese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  109. ^ Piedmontese was recognised as Piedmont's regional language by the regional parliament in 1999. Motion 1118 in the Piedmontese Regional Parliament, Approvazione da parte del Senato del Disegno di Legge che tutela le minoranze linguistiche sul territorio nazionale - Approfondimenti, approved unanimously on 15 December 1999, Text of motion 1118 in the Piedmontese Regional Parliament, Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte, Ordine del Giorno 1118.
  110. ^ Polish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  111. ^ Portuguese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  112. ^ Includes Friulian, Romansh, Ladin. Friulian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Ladin at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romansch at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  113. ^ STATUTO SPECIALE PER IL TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE (1972), Art. 102.
  114. ^ German dialect, Kölsch at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  115. ^ Romani, Balkan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Baltic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Carpathian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Finnish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Sinte at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Vlax at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Welsh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  116. ^ Constitution of Kosovo, p. 8.
  117. ^ Romanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  118. ^ a b L1: 119 million in the Russian Federation (of which c. 83 million in European Russia), 14.3 million in Ukraine, 6.67 million in Belarus, 0.67 million in Latvia, 0.38 million in Estonia, 0.38 million in Moldova. L1+L2: c. 100 million in European Russia, 39 million in Ukraine, 7 million in Belarus, 7 million in Poland, 2 million in Latvia, c. 2 million in the European portion of Kazakhstan, 1.8 million in Moldova, 1.1 million in Estonia. Russian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015).
  119. ^ mostly Northern Sami (sma), ca. 20,000 speakers; smaller communities of Lule Sami (smj, c. 2,000 speakers) and other variants. Northern Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Lule Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Southern Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Kildin Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Skolt Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Inari Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015).
  120. ^ Sardinian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  121. ^ Scots at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  122. ^ Gaelic, Scottish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  123. ^ Serbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  124. ^ Sicilian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  125. ^ Silesian at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  126. ^ German dialect, Lower Silesian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  127. ^ Slovak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  128. ^ Slovene at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  129. ^ Sorbian, Upper at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  130. ^ GVG § 184 Satz 2; VwVfGBbg § 23 Abs. 5; SächsSorbG § 9, right to use Sorbian in communication with the authorities guaranteed for the "Sorbian settlement area" (Sorbisches Siedlungsgebiet, Lusatia).
  131. ^ Spanish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  132. ^ German dialect, Swabian German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  133. ^ a b Swedish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  134. ^ German dialect, Swiss German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  135. ^ Tabassaran at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  136. ^ Tat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Judeo-Tat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) 2,000 speakers in the Russian Federation according to the 2010 census (including Judeo-Tat). About 28,000 speakers in Azerbaijan; most speakers live along or just north of the Caucasus ridge (and are thus technically in Europe), with some also settling just south of the Caucasus ridge, in Transcaucasia.
  137. ^ Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  138. ^ c. 11 million in European Turkey, 0.6 million in Bulgaria, 0.6 million in Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, not including several million recent immigrants to Western Europe (see #Immigrant communities.
  139. ^ Udmurt at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  140. ^ Ukrainian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  141. ^ German dialect, Upper Saxon German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  142. ^ Russian Census 2010. Veps at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  143. ^ Venetian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  144. ^ A motion to recognise Venetian as an official regional language has been approved by the Regional Council of Veneto in 2007. "Consiglio Regionale Veneto – Leggi Regionali". Consiglioveneto.it. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  145. ^ Võro at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  146. ^ Walloon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  147. ^ Highest Alemannic dialects, Walser German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  148. ^ Welsh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  149. ^ Moribund German dialect spoken in Wilamowice, Poland. 70 speakers recorded in 2006. Wymysorys at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  150. ^ Yenish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  151. ^ Total population estimated at 1.5 million as of 1991, of which c. 40% in the Ukraine. Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Eastern Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Western Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  152. ^ "International migrant stock: By destination and origin". United Nations. 
  153. ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 367, ISBN 1-59884-302-8 
  154. ^ France: 4 million, Germany: 500k (2015), Spain: 200k UK: 159k (2011 census)
  155. ^ Arab diaspora, mostly in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, UK, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, current size unknown due to the European migrant crisis of 2015–present.
  156. ^ Germany: 1,510k, France: 444k, Netherlands: 388k, Austria: 197k, Russia: 146k, UK: 99k, Switzerland: 44k, Sweden: 44.
  157. ^ See Turks in Europe: only counting recent (post-Ottoman era) immigration: Germany: 4 million, France: 1 million, UK: 0.5 million, Netherlands: 0.5 million, Austria: 0.4 million, Switzerland, Sweden and Russia: c. 0.1.-0.2 million each.
  158. ^ 830k in Russia (2010 census)
  159. ^ 1-2 million Armenians in Russia
  160. ^ Germany: 541k
  161. ^ Kurdish population: mostly Kurds in Germany, Kurds in France, Kurds in Sweden.
  162. ^ Sylheti: 300k in the UK, Bengali: 221k in the UK.
  163. ^ see British Indian, Bangladeshi diaspora, Bengali diaspora.
  164. ^ 515k in Russia (2010 census)
  165. ^ [[Azerbaijani diaspora ]]: Russia 600k, Ukraine 45k, not counting c. 0.4 million in Azerbajjan's Quba-Khachmaz region, technically in Europe (being north of the Caucasus watershed).
  166. ^ France: 500k
  167. ^ Kabyle people in France: c. 1 million.
  168. ^ Germany 120k, Russia: 70k, UK 66k, Spain 20k.
  169. ^ Overseas Chinese: France 0.7 million, UK: 0.5 million, Russia: 0.3 million, Italy: 0.3 million, Germany: 0.2 million, Spain: 0.1 million.
  170. ^ UK: 269k (2011 census).
  171. ^ Pakistani diaspora, the majority Pakistanis in the UK.
  172. ^ Russia: 274k (2010 census)
  173. ^ see Uzbeks in Russia.
  174. ^ UK: 76k, Sweden: 74k, Germany: 72k, France 40k.
  175. ^ Iranian diaspora: Germany: 100k, Sweden: 100k, UK: 50k, Russia: 50k, Netherlands: 35k, Denmark: 20k.
  176. ^ UK: 280k
  177. ^ see British Punjabis
  178. ^ UK: 213k
  179. ^ see Gujarati diaspora
  180. ^ UK: 101k, Germany: 35k, Switzerland: 22k.
  181. ^ Tamil diaspora: UK 300k, France 100k, Germany 50k, Switzerland 40k, Netherlands, 20k, Norway 10k.
  182. ^ UK: 86k, Sweden: 53k, Italy: 50k
  183. ^ Somali diaspora: UK: 114k, Sweden: 64k, Norway: 42k, Netherlands: 39k, Germany: 34k, Denmark: 21k, Finland: 19k.

External linksEdit