Extreme points of Europe

This is a list of the extreme points of Europe: the geographical points that are higher or farther north, south, east or west than any other location in Europe. Some of these positions are open to debate, as the definition of Europe is diverse.

Extremes of the European continent, including islandsEdit

 
Southernmost point on the island of Gavdos, Greece

Mainland EuropeEdit

  • Northernmost point. Cape Nordkinn (Kinnarodden), Norway (71°08′02″N 27°39′00″E)
  • Southernmost point. Punta de Tarifa, Spain (36° 00′ 15″ N)
  • Westernmost point. Cabo da Roca, Portugal (9°29'56.44 W).[1][note 1]
  • Easternmost point. The easternmost point is dependent upon the various definitions of Europe's eastern border. Utilizing the most common definition of Europe's eastern edge (the watershed divide of the Ural Mountains), the easternmost point of the Ural watershed (and thus mainland Europe) lies on an unnamed 545 metre peak at 68°18′37″N 66°37′05″E / 68.31028°N 66.61806°E / 68.31028; 66.61806 as shown on various detailed maps such as the Soviet General Staff maps and as shown on Google Earth/Maps. This peak is 17 km northeast of an 875-metre peak named Gora Anoraga and 60 km southwest of Ostrov Lediyev (island) on Arctic waters south of the Kara Sea.

ElevationEdit

  • Highest point. The highest point is dependent upon the definition of Europe:
    • The Caucasus Mountains watershed divide is the most common definition for the European/Asian border. This places the highest point at Mount Elbrus, Russia (5,642 metres; 18,506 feet), which is 11 km onto the European side of the Caucasus watershed divide.
    • If the Caucasus mountains are excluded, the highest point is Mont Blanc, on the border between France and Italy (4,810 metres; 15,781 feet).
  • Lowest point (natural, with open sky). Caspian Sea shore, Russia (28 metres; 92 feet below sea level).
  • Lowest point (natural, under water). Calypso Deep, Ionian Sea, Greece (5,267 metres; 17,280 feet below sea level).
  • Lowest point (natural, underground). Dependent upon the definition of Europe: either Krubera Cave, Abkhazia, Georgia (2196 metres; 7205 feet below surface) (also the deepest cave in the world)[2] or Lamprechtsofen, Austria (1,632 metres; 5,354 feet below surface).
  • Lowest point (artificial, with open sky). Hambach surface mine (open-pit mine), Germany (293 metres; 961 feet below sea level). Also deepest of the world.
  • Lowest point (artificial, underground). Kola Superdeep Borehole, Russia (12,262 metres; 40,230 feet below surface). Also the deepest artificial point on Earth.

Highest attainable by transportationEdit

Lowest attainable by transportationEdit

  • Lowest public tunnel – Ryfast Tunnel, Norway (292 metres (958 ft) below sea level)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Ireland, which is part of the European continental shelf and which was connected to the continent by land during the last glacial period, includes points that are further west than Cabo da Roca (see Extreme points of Ireland).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statistical Account of the British Empire: 1/ by J. R. Macculloch, retrieved 13 May 2014
  2. ^ Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  3. ^ Albula and Bernina lines

External linksEdit