Severny Island

Severny Island (Russian: Се́верный о́стров, romanizedSevernyy ostrov, lit.'Northern Island') is a Russian Arctic island. It is the northern island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. It was historically called Lütke Land after Friedrich Benjamin von Lütke, who explored it. It lies approximately 400 km north of the Russian mainland. It has an area of 48,904 square kilometres (18,882 sq mi), making it the 30th-largest island in the world.[1] It is part of Russian Arctic National Park.[2]

Severny
Native name:
о́стров Се́верный
SevernyIsland.svg
Severny is located in Russia
Severny
Severny
Geography
LocationArkhangelsk Oblast, Russia
Coordinates75°30′N 60°00′E / 75.500°N 60.000°E / 75.500; 60.000Coordinates: 75°30′N 60°00′E / 75.500°N 60.000°E / 75.500; 60.000
ArchipelagoNovaya Zemlya
Area48,904 km2 (18,882 sq mi)
Area rank30th
Highest elevation1,547 m (5075 ft)
Highest pointMount Kruzenshtern
Administration
Russia
OblastArkhangelsk Oblast

GeographyEdit

Severny Island is separated from Yuzhny Island (Southern) by the narrow Matochkin Strait. Forty percent of the island is covered by the Severny Island ice cap, which is the largest glacier by area and by volume in Europe (if counted as part of it).[3] Severny Island is known for its numerous glaciers.[4] Cape Flissingsky is the easternmost point of Severny Island.

ClimateEdit

The climate for Severny Island is extremely cold, with even the warmest months not reaching the freezing mark. The climate is severe, and temperature varies from 3° to -8° F (-16° to -22° C) in winter to 36° to 44° F (2° to 7° C) in summer. There are frequent fogs and strong winds

Climate data for Severny Island
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) −2
(−19)
−1
(−18)
4
(−16)
10
(−12)
21
(−6)
28
(−2)
32
(0)
31
(−1)
27
(−3)
17
(−8)
8
(−13)
1
(−17)
15
(−10)
Average low °F (°C) −15
(−26)
−14
(−26)
−9
(−23)
−3
(−19)
13
(−11)
23
(−5)
28
(−2)
26
(−3)
21
(−6)
9
(−13)
−3
(−19)
−11
(−24)
5
(−15)
Source: Meteoblue.com "Averages for Severny Island", [1].


Ice cap and glaciersEdit

Unlike Yuzhny Island, Severny has an inner ice cap with numerous glaciers, most of which have their terminus on the eastern or western shore of the island.[5]

HistoryEdit

The cape of Sukhoy Nos, located at the southern end of the island, was used for nuclear weapons testing between 1958 and 1961. The Tsar Bomba hydrogen bomb test on October 30, 1961 destroyed all buildings in the village of Severny (both wooden and brick).[6] The village was located 55 kilometres (34 miles) from ground zero within the Sukhoy Nos test range. Tsar Bomba was the most powerful nuclear weapon detonated and was the most powerful anthropogenic explosion in human history. It had a yield of 50 megatons of TNT, scaled down from its maximum 100 megaton design yield.[7] Severny is now the site of a Russian Army base and has a harbor.

There is a meteorological station at Cape Zhelaniya, Severny's northernmost cape.[8]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Romanenko, F.; Shilovtseva, O. (1995). Russian-Soviet polar stations and their role in the Arctic Seas exploration.
  2. ^ "Territories - Russian Arctic National Park". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  3. ^ Zeeberg, J. J. "Climate and Glacial History of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago". Russian Arctic: 82–84.
  4. ^ Staalesen, Atle. "Børge Ousland heads for Novaya Zemlya". BarentsObserver. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  5. ^ J. J. Zeeberg, Climate and Glacial History of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, Russian Arctic.
  6. ^ "Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomba ('King of Bombs')". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  7. ^ Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Richards, Paul G.; Leith, William S. (2005). "A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 1 (13): 1–42. doi:10.1080/08929880590961862. S2CID 122069080. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  8. ^ Zeeberg, Jaap Jan; Floore, Pieter (2005). Into the Ice Sea: Barents' Wintering on Novaya Zemlya: A Renaissance Voyage of Discovery. Netherlands: JaapJan Zeeberg and Rijksmuseum. ISBN 9789051707878. Retrieved 24 September 2016.