Open main menu

The Curonian language (German: Kurisch; Latvian: kuršu valoda; Lithuanian: kuršių kalba), or Old Curonian, is a nearly unattested Baltic extinct language spoken by the Curonians, a Baltic tribe who inhabited the Courland Peninsula (now western Latvia) and the nearby Baltic shore. Curonian was a Baltic language;[1] some scholars consider it to have been an Eastern Baltic, intermediate between Lithuanian and Latvian,[2] while others like Vytautas Mažiulis classify it as Western Baltic.[3]Linguist Eduard Vääri Curonians argues that it is possible that Curonians were Baltic Finns.[4] The attested local Finnic language, Livonian, may be the source of Finnic elements in Curonian.[citation needed]. In 1912 Latvian linguist Jānis Endzelīns finally proved that Curonian was a Baltic language; according to him, Curonian by its qualities was in between Lithuanian and Latvian languages.[5]

Old Curonian
Native toLatvia, Lithuania, Germany
Extinct16th century[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3xcu
xcu
GlottologNone
Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate)

Old Curonian disappeared in the course of the 16th century,[1] leaving substrata in western dialects of the Latvian and Lithuanian, namely the Samogitian dialect. No written documents in this language are known, but some ancient Lithuanian texts from western regions show some Curonian influence. According to Lithuanian linguist Zigmas Zinkevičius long and intense Curonian - Lithuanian bilingualism existed.

There are attested names of the Curonian noblemen such as: Lammechinus [lt; lv], Veltūnas, Reiginas, Tvertikis, Saveidis. Samogitian words such as kuisis (a mosquito), pylė (a duck), blezdinga (a swallow), cyrulis (a skylark), zuikis (a rabbit), kūlis (a stone), purvs (a marsh), pūrai (a winter wheat) considered to be of Curonian origin. [6]

Curonian toponyms have characteristic *-ng-* prefix (which was common in Yotwingian language as well) - e.g. Kretingà, Palangà, Būtingė, Alsunga, Kuldinga (currently - Kuldīga).

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Baltic states saw a revival of scientific and cultural interest in extinct Baltic languages and tribes, including Yotvingian, Curonian, and Old Prussian.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Haarmann, Harald (2002). Miloš Okuka (ed.). Kurisch [Curonian]. Wieser-Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens (in German). 10. Klagenfurt/Vienna, Austria: Wieser. p. 957. ISBN 3-85129-510-2. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
  2. ^ Östen Dahl (ed.) 2001, The Circum-Baltic Languages: Typology and Contact, vol. 1
  3. ^ http://www.šaltiniai.info/index/details/300 Archived April 11, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Eduard Vääri, EESTLASTE TUTVUMINE HÕIMURAHVASTEGA JA NENDE KEELTEGA KUNI 1918. AASTANI
  5. ^ "kuršių kalba". vle.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  6. ^ Nikitenka, Denisas (2018). Pilsoto žemės pilys (in Lithuanian). Mažosios Lietuvos istorijos muziejus. ISBN 9789986315056.

LiteratureEdit

  • Ambrassat, August "Die Provinz Ostpreußen", Frankfurt/ Main 1912
  • Endzelin, J.: Über die Nationalität und Sprache der Kuren, in Finnisch-Ungarische Forschungen, XII, 1912
  • Gaerte, Wilhelm "Urgeschichte Ostpreussens", Königsberg 1929
  • Gimbutas, Marija "Die Balten", München-Berlin 1983
  • Kurschat, Heinrich A.: Das Buch vom Memelland, Siebert Oldenburg 1968
  • Kwauka, Paul, Pietsch, Richard: Kurisches Wörterbuch, Verlag Ulrich Camen Berlin, 1977, ISBN 3-921515-03-3
  • Kwauka, Paul: Namen des Memellandes/ Unsere „fremdartigen“ Familiennamen, Archiv AdM, Oldenburg
  • Lepa, Gerhard (Hrsg) "Die Schalauer", Tolkemita-Texte Dieburg 1997
  • Mortensen, Hans und Gertrud "Die Besiedlung des nordöstlichen Ostpreußens bis zum Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts", Leipzig 1938
  • Mortensen, Hans und Gertrud: Kants väterliche Ahnen und ihre Umwelt, Rede von 1952 in Jahrbuch der Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg / Pr., Holzner- Verlag Kitzingen/ Main 1953 Bd. 3
  • Peteraitis, Vilius: Mažoji Lietuva ir Tvanksta (Lithuania Minor and Tvanksta) Vilnius 1992
  • Pietsch, Richard (künstlerischer Entwurf und Text): Bildkarte rund um das Kurische Haff, Heimat-Buchdienst Georg Banszerus, Höxter, Herstellung: Neue Stalling, Oldenburg
  • Pietsch, Richard: Deutsch-Kurisches Wörterbuch, Verlag Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk Lüneburg 1991, ISBN 3-922296-60-2
  • Pietsch, Richard: Fischerleben auf der Kurischen Nehrung dargestellt in kurischer und deutscher Sprache, Verlag Ulrich Camen Berlin 1982
  • Schmid, Wolfgang P. (Hrg): Nehrungskurisch, Sprachhistorische und instrumentalphonetische Studien zu einem aussterbenden Dialekt, Stuttgart 1989
  • Schmid, Wolfgang P.: Das Nehrungskurische, ein sprachhistorischer Überblick
  • Tolksdorf, Ulrich "Fischerei und Fischerkultur in Ostpreußen", Heide/ Holstein 1991
  • Žadeikiene, Daiva, Krajinskas, Albertas: Kurenkahnwimpel, ISBN 9986-830-63-X

External linksEdit