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Map showing the countries with the largest Greek population around the world.

The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia[1][2] (Greek: Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside Greece, Cyprus, the traditional Greek homelands, Albania, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, as well as Eastern Anatolia, Georgia, the South Caucasus, Egypt, Southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica. The term also refers to newly established communities through Greek migration outside of these traditional areas in the 20th and 21st century. Members of the diaspora can be identified as those whose ancestors, or themselves migrated from the Greek homelands.[3]

Contents

OverviewEdit

The Greek diaspora is one of the oldest and historically most significant in the world, with an almost unbroken presence from Homeric times to present. Examples of its influence range from the instrumental role played by Greek expatriates in the emergence of the Renaissance and various liberation and nationalist movements implicated in the fall of the Ottoman Empire, to commercial developments like the commissioning of the world's first supertankers by shipping magnates Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos.[4]

HistoryEdit

Ancient timesEdit

 
A map showing the Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic (800 BC – 480 BC) period.

In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city-states in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coasts. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies.[5] Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa, with Greek ruling classes established in Egypt, southwest Asia, and northwest India.[6]

Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as geographically dispersed as Uzbekistan, the northern Indian subcontinent (including modern-day Pakistan),[7] and Kuwait.[8] The Hellenistic cities of Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times.[9] The movement of people spread Greeks across the Roman Empire, and in the eastern territories Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin. The Roman Empire became Christianized in the fourth century AD, and in the late Byzantine period, the practice of the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a defining hallmark of Greek identity.[10]

Middle AgesEdit

In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant, Mediterranean and Black Sea maintaining a Greek identity among local populations as traders, officials, and settlers. Soon after, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate conquered the Levant, Egypt, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations generally remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science in medieval Islam, which in turn contributed to Byzantine science.

Fall of Byzantium and exodus to ItalyEdit

 
A street of Cargèse (Karyes) in Corsica, which was founded by Maniots refugees, with the Greek church in the background.

After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman Empire's conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople, (what is now Istanbul) and found refuge in Italy, bringing with them many ancient Greek writings that had been lost in the West. These helped contribute to the European Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice, Florence, and Rome.

Fall of the Empire of Trebizond and exodus to Russia and GeorgiaEdit

Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828-29 many thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated or fled from the Pontic Alps and Eastern Anatolia to the southern areas of the Russian Empire, Russian occupied Georgia, and later the Russian province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia and settled in these areas to avoid Ottoman reprisals after having collaborated with Russian armies that had invaded Eastern Anatolia in several of the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late-18th to the early-20th centuries. Others resettled simply to seek new opportunities in trade, mining, and farming, or in the church, military, and state bureaucracy of the Russian Empire (see also Caucasus Greeks, Greeks in Russia, and Greeks in Georgia).[11]

Modern timesEdit

 
View of the Greek Orthodox church of Vienna.

Ottoman EmpireEdit

Greeks were spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took a major role in its economic life, particularly through the Phanariots, who emerged as a class of moneyed ethnically Greek merchants (they commonly claimed noble Byzantine descent) in the latter half of the 16th century. The Phanariots went on to exercise great influence in the administration in the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century—some of them settling in the territory of present-day Romania and considerably influencing its political and cultural life. Other Greeks settled outside their homelands in the southern Balkans, moving to areas further north through service in the Orthodox church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by the Ottoman authorities following Greek rebellions against the Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the many Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. The areas most affected by such population upheavals lay in Greek Macedonia, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population (often including those of Greek convert descent; see Greek Muslims) could easily be used to form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population, often forcing the inhabitants of entire rural districts, particularly in the more vulnerable lowland areas, to abandon their homes.

An even larger-scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was of Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia, particularly the province of Kars Oblast in the south Caucasus, following the short-lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War. An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountain uplands of northeast Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory since many had collaborated with or fought in the Russian army against the Muslim Ottomans as a means of regaining territory for Christian Orthodoxy. The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the south Caucasus assimilated with preexisting communities of Caucasus Greeks, while those who settled in Ukraine and southern Russia came to make up a sizable proportion of the population of cities such as Mariupol, but in general assimilated and intermarried with their fellow Christian Orthodox Russians and continued to participate in further Russo-Turkish wars through service in the Tsarist army.

19th centuryEdit

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad and in several cases serving as senior officers in Russian armies that fought against the Ottomans as a means of helping liberate Greeks still living under Ottoman subjugation in Macedonia, Epirus, and Thrace. Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno, Calabria and Bari in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt), the U.S.S.R. (Odessa and St Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the whole extended family, and with them, they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[12] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers. With the economic success, the diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[13] In fact, many leaders of the Greek struggle for liberation from Ottoman Macedonia and other parts of the southern Balkans with large Greek populations still under Ottoman rule had close links with these same Greek trading and entrepreneurial families, who continued to fund the Greek liberation struggle against the Ottomans and the policy of creating a Greater Greece.

After the Treaty of Constantinople, the political situation stabilised somewhat, and some of the displaced families moved back to the newly independent country to become key figures in cultural, educational and political life, especially in Athens. Finance and assistance from overseas were channelled through these family ties, and helped provide institutions such as the National Library, and sent relief after natural disasters.

20th centuryEdit

In the 20th century, many Greeks left the traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to The United States, Australia, Canada, Brazil, The United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina, Germany, The United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Belgium, Georgia, Italy, Armenia, Russia, Chile, Mexico and South Africa, especially after World War II (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49) and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[3]

 
Main hall of the Greek community centre in Khartoum, Sudan (2015)

After World War I most Pontian and Anatolian Greeks living in Asia Minor, now modern-day Turkey, were victims of Muslim Turkish intolerance for Christian populations throughout the Ottoman Empire. More than 3.5 million people, including Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, and Jews were killed under the regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal around the years 1914 to 1923.[14] Greek populations living in Asia Minor fled to modern Greece, but the Russian Empire (later USSR) was also a major destination.

After the Greek Civil War, many communist Greeks and their families were forced to flee to neighboring Yugoslavia and the Soviet-dominated states of Eastern Europe, especially the USSR and Czechoslovakia. Hungary even founded a new village, Beloiannisz for Greek refugees, while a large concentration of such Greeks were resettled in the former Sudeten German region of northern Czechoslovakia centred around Krnov (Jegendorff).

Another country to admit Greeks in large numbers was Sweden, where today over 17,000 Greek-Swedish descendants live (see Greeks in Sweden). While many immigrants returned later, these countries still have numerous first and second generation Greeks who maintain their traditions.[3]

The Arab nationalism of President Nasser of Egypt led to the expulsion of a large Greek population as well as other European/Asiatic diaspora.

With the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and the USSR, numbers of Greeks of the diaspora whose Greek ancestry was "removed" for many generations, immigrated to modern Greece's main urban centres of Athens and Thessaloniki, and also to Cyprus. Movements from Georgia were most numerous.[3]

The term Pontic Greeks refers to Greek-speaking communities that originate in the Black Sea region, but particularly from the Trebizond region, Pontic Alps, Eastern Anatolia, Georgia, and the former-Russian South Caucasus province of Kars Oblast (see also Greeks in Georgia, Caucasus Greeks, and Greeks in Russia). After 1919-23 most of these Pontic Greek and Caucasus Greek communities resettled in Greek Macedonia or joined other Greek communities in southern Russia and Ukraine.

Greek nationalityEdit

Any person who is ethnically Greek born outside Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization, providing he/she can prove a parent or grandparent was born as a national of Greece. The Greek ancestor's birth certificate and marriage certificate are required, along with the applicant's birth certificate, and the birth certificates of all generations in between until the relation between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship is proven.

Greek citizenship is acquired by birth by all persons born in Greece and all persons born to at least one parent who is a registered Greek citizen. People born out of wedlock to a father that is a Greek citizen and a mother that is a non-Greek automatically gain Greek citizenship if the father recognizes them as his child before they turn 18.[15][16]

TodayEdit

Important centers of the Greek diaspora today are in New York City,[17] Boston,[18] Chicago,[19] London, Melbourne, Sydney, Montreal, Toronto, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo.[3]

The SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad is a dependency of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and has compiled several studies on the Greeks of the diaspora.

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available it shows around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the Council of overseas Greeks {SAE} put the figure at around 7 million worldwide. The Greek diaspora is also very active as a lobby defending Greek interests, especially in the USA.[20] Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the Greek language also influence the definition and self-definition of Greeks of the diaspora.

To learn more about how factors such as intermarriage and assimilation influence self-identification among young Greeks in the diaspora, and help clarify the estimates of Greeks in the diaspora, the Next Generation Initiative is currently conducting an academically-supervised research study that began in the United States in 2008.

The Greco-American communityEdit

The United States of America has the largest ethnically Greek population outside of Greece. According to the US Department of State, the Greek-American community consists of about 3,000,000 people, the vast majority of them being third or fourth generation immigrants.[21] Also according to the World Council of Churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has 2,800,000 membership in North America, in the USA and Canada who are still Greek Orthodox,[22] but many Greeks in both countries have adopted other churches or become secular. The 2010 census recorded about 1,300,000 Greek Americans, though members of the community argue that this is an inaccurate count.

CanadaEdit

The majority of Greek Canadians live in Toronto and Montreal. According to the 2016 census,[23] in that year there were 271,405 Canadians who were Greek by ancestry, and 62,715 people who were born in Greece. According to Greeks around the Globe,[24] the Greek Canadian population totals approximately 450,000 people.

ChileEdit

After the USA and Canada, the country with the next largest Greek population in the Americas is Chile. Greek immigration to Chile has a long history, beginning in the 16th century from the island of Crete. Cretan Greeks settled in the territory of Antofagasta in the middle of the 16th century, and from there spread to other locations, such as the Greek colony in the capital of the country and the cities of San Diego, Valparaíso, Talcahuano, Puerto Mont, and Punta Arenas. According to the absolute Viages,[25] the official estimate is that there are 90,000 - 120,000 people of Greek ancestry living in Chile. Many of them still maintain their original Greek surnames.

AustraliaEdit

Australia has one of the biggest Greek communities in the world, consisting of immigrants and descendants of immigrants. The Greek immigration to Australia started in the 19th century but increased massively in the 1850s and 1860s. According to the 2016 census, there were 422,234 Greeks and Greek Cypriots by ancestry living in Australia and 110,669 Greeks who were born in Greece or Cyprus. According to Greeks around the globe[26], Greek Australians number about 700,000. According to Kerry Kolasa-Sikiaridi, the government statistics estimate over 600,000 people of Greek heritage living throughout the country.

BrazilEdit

The Greeks who immigrated to Brazil from Greece and Cyprus account for approximately 50,000 people, with 20,000 in the city of Sao Paulo alone. Brazil has a sizable community of Antiochean Greeks, known as Melkites, Orthodox, and Catholics. According to the hierarchy of the Catholic church,[27] the Eparchy of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso em São Paulo (Melkite Greek), Eparchia Dominae Nostrae Paradisis S. Pauli Graecorum Melkitarum, had membership in 2016 of 446,600 persons. There also exists in Brazil an even bigger Greek Melkite Orthodox community of Antiochean Greeks.[28] According to the world council of churches, the Greek church of Antioch has membership of 2.500.000 persons in Latin America, almost all are living in Brazil.[29]

In the period from 1884 until 1933, about 130,000 immigrated from Lebanon to Brazil. Approximately 65 percent were Catholics, mostly Greek Melkites and Maronites, 20 percent Greek Orthodox Melkites, and 15 percent Druzes and other Muslims, the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Lebanese government estimate that 7,000,000 people in Brazil have ancestry from Lebanon. The Brazilian government also claims that in Brazil living about 4,000,000 people with ancestry from Syria mostly Christians, Greek Orthodox or former Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, both Melkites, and minorities of Maronites and Assyriacs. It is not easy to estimate how many people from Lebanon and Syria who live in Brazil are of Melkite heritage but the Greek Orthodox among Lebanese Brazilians are about 20 percent, and the Greek Catholic are also a very sizable community among them. The official status is about 2,500,000 Greek Orthodox Melkites and 446,600 Greek Catholic Melkites, a total 2,946,600 Antiochean Greeks living in Brazil.

DemographicsEdit

List of countries and territories by Greek population
Rank Country/territory Official data Estimations Article
1   United States 1,319,188 (ACS-5Y 2012, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

136,914 (ACS-5Y 2012, Born in Greece)[30]

3,000,000[31] Greek Americans
2   Cyprus 721,000 (2011 census, The figure gives the sum of Cypriot citizens and Greek citizens in the Republic of Cyprus)[32]

322 (2006 census, Ethnic Greeks in the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus)[33]

1,150,000[34] Greek Cypriots
3   Germany 443,000 (2016, Greek Ethnic Origin)[35],
348,475 (2016, Greek citizens),
274,060 (2016, Born in Greece),

74,415 (2016, Born in Germany)[36]

320,000,[37] 370,000[38][39] Greeks in Germany
4   Australia 397,431 (2016 census, Greek ancestry),

93,743 (2016 census, Born in Greece)[40]

422,234 (2016 census, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

110,669 (2016 census, Born in Greece or Cyprus)[41],
700,000[38]|

Greek Australians
5   Canada 271,405 (2016 census, Greek ancestry),

62,715 (2016 census, Born in Greece)[42]

277,060 (2016 census, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

67,245 (2011 census, Born in Greece)[43],
720,000[38]

Greek Canadians
6   United Kingdom 78,872 (2011 census, The figure includes Greeks from Greece proper and Greek Cypriots, residing in England and Wales)[44] 300,000-400,000[45] Greek Britons
7   Albania 24,243 (2011 census. Majority are Greek passport holders/migrants. Census deemed corrupt)[46] to 550,000 Sources vary. Between 200,000 and 550,000 Ethnic Greeks in Albania.[47][48][49][50][51] In addition, a large number also reside in Greece, Australia and the United States.[52] Greeks in Albania
8   France 35,747 (2005, Greek citizens)[53][54] 35,000 - 80,000[55]

[54]

Greeks in France
9   Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census)[56] Greeks in Ukraine
10   Russia 85,640 (2010 census)[57] Greeks in Russia and Caucasus Greeks
11   Chile 8,500 (2012 census) 90,000-120,000[58] in Santiago and Antofagasta Greeks in Chile
12   Brazil N/A 25,000[59] – 30,000[60] 50,000 in Sao Paulo[61] Greeks in Brazil
13   South Africa 4,069 (Greek Citizens), 1,883 (Cypriot Citizens)[62] 50,000-60,000[63] 120,000[38][64] Greeks in South Africa
14   Argentina 2,196 (2001, born in Greece)[65] 35,000,[66] 50,000[67] Greeks in Argentina
15   Italy 7,250 (2011, Greek citizens)[53] 20,000,[38] 30,000[68] Greeks in Italy
16   Mexico N/A 25,000[69] Greek Mexican
17   Sweden 17,060 (2016)[70] Greeks in Sweden
18   Belgium 14,799 (2011, Greek citizens)[53] Greeks in Belgium
19   Georgia 15,166 (2002 census)[71] Greeks in Georgia and Caucasus Greeks
20   Serbia 725 (2011 census)[72] 15,000[73] Greeks in Serbia
21   Kazakhstan 12,703 (1999 census)[74] Greeks in Kazakhstan
22   Uzbekistan 10,453 (1989 census)[75] 9,500[76] Greeks in Uzbekistan
23    Switzerland 7,014 (2010, Greek citizens)[77] 8,340,[38] 11,000[78] Greeks in Switzerland
24   Romania 6,513 (2002 census)[79] Greeks in Romania
25   New Zealand 2,589 (2013 census, People that declared Greek ancestry), 999 People born in Greece[80] 4,500,[81] 10,000[38] Greeks in New Zealand
26   Austria 2,535 (2009, Greek citizens)[53] 5,000[82] Greeks in Austria
27   Netherlands 14,191 (2016, Greek Citizens)[83], 16,121 (2017, Born in Greece)[84] 4,000,[38] 12,500[85] Greeks in the Netherlands
28   Venezuela N/A 3,000 (Greece-born population)[86] Greeks in Venezuela
29   Egypt N/A 3,000,[87] 5,000[59] Greeks in Egypt
30   Bulgaria 3,408 (2001 census)[88] 28,500[89] Greeks in Bulgaria
31   Czech Republic 3,231 (2001 census)[90] 7,000[91] Greeks in the Czech Republic
32   Moldova N/A 3,000[92] Greeks in Moldova
33   Hungary 3,916 (2011 census)[93] 4,000 - 10,000[94] Greeks in Hungary
34   Turkey N/A 2,500[95] Greeks in Turkey and Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks
35   India N/A 1,900[citation needed]
36   Norway 1,671[96] Greeks in Norway
37   Lebanon N/A 1,500-2,500[38][97] Greeks in Lebanon
38   Denmark 1,678[98] Greeks in Denmark
39   Oman N/A 1,500[38]
40   Poland 1,404 (2002 census)[citation needed] Greeks in Poland
41   Saudi Arabia N/A 1,300[38] Greeks in Saudi Arabia
42   Luxembourg 1,571 (2009)[99]
43   Cameroon N/A 1,200[38]
44   Zimbabwe N/A 1,100[100] Greeks in Zimbabwe
45   Uruguay N/A 1,000,[38] 2,000[101] Greeks in Uruguay
46   Syria N/A 1,000[38] Greeks in Syria
47   Armenia 900 (2011 census)[102] Greeks in Armenia and Caucasus Greeks
48   Panama N/A 800,[38] 1,000[101]
49   Zambia N/A 800[103] Greeks in Zambia
50   Kyrgyzstan N/A 650–700[104] Greeks in Kyrgyzstan
51   Finland 1,681[105] 500[106] Greeks in Finland
52   Malta N/A 500[107] Greeks in Malta
53   Ethiopia N/A 500[108] Greeks in Ethiopia
54   Uganda 426 (1991, Greek citizens)[109]
55   Republic of Macedonia 422 (2002 census)[110] Greeks in the Republic of Macedonia
56   Jordan N/A 400,[38] 600[111]
57   DR Congo N/A 300[112] Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
58   Spain N/A 300,[38] 1,500–2,000[113]
59   Bahamas N/A 300[38]
60   Nigeria N/A 300[114]
61   Tanzania N/A 300[38]
62   Barbados N/A 300[115]
63   The Gambia N/A 300[116]
64   Costa Rica N/A 80,[38] 290[117]
65   Israel N/A 10,000-60,000 Greek Jews, both Sephardic and Romaniote Jews. 250-300 (non-Jewish Greek only)[118] Greeks in Israel
66   Sudan N/A 250[119] Greeks in Sudan
67   Azerbaijan N/A 250–300[120] Greeks in Azerbaijan
68   Lithuania N/A 250[121]
69   Malawi N/A 200[122]
70   Colombia N/A 200[38]
71   Ireland N/A 200[38][123]
72   Kenya N/A 200[38]
73   United Arab Emirates N/A 200[38]
74   Morocco N/A 180[38]
75   Peru N/A 150,[38] 350[124]
76   Portugal N/A 150,[38] 240[125]
77   Botswana N/A 150[38]
78   Djibouti N/A 150[38]
79   Estonia 150 (2001 census)[126]
80   Hong Kong N/A 150[38]
81   Kuwait N/A 140[127]
82   Latvia 289 (2011 census)[128] 100[129]
83   Japan N/A 100,[38] 300[130]
84   Bolivia N/A 100[131]
85   China N/A 100[132]
86   Philippines N/A 100[133] Greeks in the Philippines
87   Indonesia N/A 72[134]
88   Papua New Guinea N/A 70[38]
89   Iran N/A 60,[38] 80[135]
90   Ivory Coast N/A 60[38]
91   Madagascar N/A 60[38]
92   Slovenia 54 (2002 census)[136]
93   Croatia N/A 50[137]
94   Tunisia N/A 50[38]
95   Senegal N/A 50[38]
96   Thailand N/A 50[138]
97   Central African Republic N/A 40[38]
98   Qatar N/A 3.000[139]
99   Singapore N/A 40[140]
100   Cuba N/A 30[38]
101   Algeria N/A 30[38]
102   Eritrea N/A 30[38]
103   Slovakia N/A 100[141]
104   Paraguay N/A 20,[38] 25[140]
105   Chad N/A 20[38]
106   Ecuador N/A 3000[38]
107   Guatemala N/A 20[38]
108   Mozambique N/A 20[38]
109   Namibia N/A 20[38]
110   Togo N/A 20[38]
111   Taiwan N/A 20[38]
112   Republic of the Congo N/A 10[38]
113   Belarus N/A unknown – for further information, see [8]
114   Dominican Republic N/A 14[142]
115   Vietnam N/A 10[143]

Notable Greeks of the diasporaEdit

Notable people of the Greek diaspora (including also of Greek ancestry):

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Anagnostou, Yiorgos (2009). Contours of white ethnicity popular ethnography and the making of usable pasts in Greek America. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780821443613. ...providing an alternative to ascription omogenia (of the same race)—a term widely used by state representatives as well sectors of the ethnic media—to refer to Greek populations outside Greece. 
  2. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek diaspora and migration since 1700 society, politics and culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 125. ISBN 9780754693741. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Richard Clogg, The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century, 2000, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  4. ^ Rozen, Mina (2008). Homelands and Diasporas: Greeks, Jews and Their Migrations (International Library of Migration Studies). London, England: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1845116429. 
  5. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: "Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase" Archived 2012-03-06 at the Wayback Machine. (McGraw-Hill, 2003)
  6. ^ Hellenistic Civilization Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha. His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara and the Kabul Valley", Bussagli p101
  8. ^ John Pike. "Failaka Island". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  9. ^ "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  10. ^ Peregrine Horden, Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History,2000, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21890-4
  11. ^ See for example Anthony Bryer', 'The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontus' (Variorum, 1980) and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variorum, 1988), as well as works listed in Caucasus Greeks and Greeks in Georgia.
  12. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou, Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, 2000, p.147, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  13. ^ Vassilis Kardasis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775-1861,2001, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1
  14. ^ "The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks, 1914-1923". Ncas.rutgers.edu. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  15. ^ "Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  16. ^ "Loss of Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  17. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  18. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  19. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  20. ^ Alexander Kitroeff & Stephanos Constantinides, 'The Greek-Americans and US Foreign Policy Since 1950' Etudes helléniques/ Hellenic Studies, vol.6, no.1, Printemps/Spring 1998
  21. ^ https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm
  22. ^ https://www.oikoumene.org/en/member-churches/ecumenical-patriarchate
  23. ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm, LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=110528&PRID=10&PTYPE=109445&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2017&THEME=120&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=
  24. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20060619165420/http://www.ausgreeknet.com/greeksaroundtheglobe.html
  25. ^ https://www.absolutviajes.com/los-griegos-de-chile/
  26. ^ http://www.ausgreeknet.com/greeksaroundtheglobe.htm,https://web.archive.org/web/20060619165420/http://www.ausgreeknet.com/greeksaroundtheglobe.htm
  27. ^ www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dsame.html
  28. ^ "Greek diaspora". Wikipedia. 2018-05-14. 
  29. ^ https://www.oikoumene.org/en/member-churches/greek-orthodox-patriarchate-of-antioch-and-all-the-east
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