Maximus the Greek

Maximus the Greek, also known as Maximos the Greek or Maksim Grek (Greek: Μάξιμος ὁ Γραικός;[a] Russian: Максим Грек; c. 1475–1556), was a Greek monk, publicist, writer, scholar, and translator active in Russia.[1][2][3] He is also called Maximos the Hagiorite (Μάξιμος ὁ Ἁγιορίτης),[4] as well as Maximus the Philosopher.[5] His signature was Maximus Grecus Lakedaimon (lit. Maximus the Greek of, and originating from, Lakedaimonia) and his family origins were probably from Mystras, a location in Laconia, which was the geographical site of Ancient Sparta in the Peloponnese.[6][7]

Saint Maximus the Greek
Saint Maximus the Greek.jpg
Hagiographical fresco of Saint Maximus the Greek (Graikos) in the Greek Orthodox Church tradition.
Monk
Bornc. 1475
Arta, Rumelia Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (now Greece)
Diedc. 1556
Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, Sergiyev Posad, Russia
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches
Feast21 January

Early yearsEdit

Maximus was born Michael Trivolis (Greek: Μιχαήλ Τριβώλης,[b] Russian: Михаил Триволис) c. 1475 in Arta, then in the Ottoman Empire, the scion of a noble Greek family with ties to the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople,[2][5][8][9][10][11][12][13] and originating from Sparta.[14] Both Maximus's parents were Christian Greeks;[15] his mother was Irene and his father, Manuel, was a voivode.[16][17] Irene and Manuel left Constantinople together for Arta and the latter may have been a Byzantine military governor of Arta before the city fell to the Ottomans in 1449.[18]

Demetrios Trivolis, Manuel's brother and Maximus's uncle, was a Greek scribe who self-identified as "a Peloponnesian from Sparta" (Greek: Πελοποννήσιος εκ Σπάρτης).[19][20][21][22][23][24] In 1461–1462, Demetrios reproduced a manuscript of Plato's Timaeus while in Corfu and in 1465, he copied Plotinus's Enneads while in Crete;[19][25][26][27][28][29] after his completion of Plato's work, Demetrius wrote the following note: "Η βίβλος ἥδε ἐγράφη δι᾿οἰκείας χειρὸς ἐμοῦ Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου ἐκ Σπάρτης τὰς διατριβὰς ποιοῦντος ἐν Κερκυραίων νήσῳ · μετὰ τὴν τῆς ἡμετέρας πατρίδος ἅλωσιν" which translates as: "The present book was written by my own hand of Demetrios Trivolis Peloponnesian from Sparta who made these works in the island of the Kerkyreans after the fall of our fatherland" (referencing the fall of his native Laconia to the Ottomans).[21] In another note, Demetrios writes: "κάλλιστον βιβλίον εμόν εστι κτήμα Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου εκ Σπαρτης. επριαμην δε και τουτο μετα την εμης πατριδος αλωσιν της Λακεδαιμονος της ποτ' ευδαιμονος." which translates as: "This most beautiful book of mine is property of Demetrios Trivolis Peloponnesian from Sparta. I bought it after the fall of our fatherland Lacedaemonia, which was once fortunate."[24] The Trivolis family was later associated with the Palaiologos dynasty in Mystras.[30][31][32]

Maximus studied on the island of Corfu under the supervision of John Moschos and John Lascaris and later went with Lascaris to Florence (in 1492[33] or 1493[9]) and continued his studies in Bologna, Florence, Ferrara, Milan, Padua, and Venice.[34][35][36] While in Italy, he studied ancient languages, as well as ecclesiastic and philosophic works (especially Neoplatonism).[36][37] He knew prominent figures of the Renaissance era such as the Venetian printer Aldus Manutius and made the acquaintance of scholars Angelo Poliziano, Marsilio Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Scipio Callerges, and Fonteguerri.[9][35][38] Maximus was also greatly influenced by the preachings of the fiery Dominican priest and reformer Girolamo Savonarola whose ashes he gathered in 1498.[39]

CareerEdit

In 1504 (according to other accounts, 1505 or early 1506[40]), Maximus left the Dominican monastery of St. Mark and went to Mount Athos where he took monastic vows at the Monastery of Vatopedi in 1507.[41] In 1515, Grand Prince Vasili III asked the abbot of the monastery to send him a certain monk by the name of Savva to translate a number of religious texts.[42] Savva was so old that the abbot decided to send the energetic Maximus instead, though he had no knowledge of the Church Slavonic language. Nevertheless, the monks vouched for him, and he went to Moscow, where he was met with great honor.[43] Upon arriving in Moscow in 1518, Maximus headed the movement of religious reform.[44][45] In 1518, Maximus met Prince Kurbskii, who later wrote about Maximus and his time in Moscow in Skazanie o Maksime Filosofe (The Tale of Maxim the Philosopher).[5] In this work, Kurbskii describes a meeting between Maximus and Vasili III whereupon Maximus was astonished at the countless multitudes of Greek books displayed at Vasili III's court.[5] Maximus assured the Prince that he had never seen so many Greek works in Greece itself.[5] This testimony is the earliest known reference of a collection of ancient manuscripts belonging to the Russian Tsars which has never been found, also referred to as The Lost Library of the Moscow Tsars.[5] This lost library later became a favorite research topic of early twentieth century Russian archaeologist Ignatius Stelletskii.[46]

Assignment to MoscowEdit

Maximus's first major work in Russia was a translation of the Psalter together with the Russian translators (including the scholar Dmitry Gerasimov) and scriveners, which would be solemnly approved by the Russian clergy and the grand prince himself. After Vasili III rejected his request to go home, Maximus continued to work on translations and correcting the books for divine service. Observing the "defects" and injustices of Muscovite life, which seemed to him in direct opposition to his Christian ideals, Maximus began to expose them and criticize the authorities, attracting different people with similar views, such as Ivan Bersen-Beklemishev, Vassian Patrikeyev, and others. With regards to the question of monastic estates, which had already divided the Russian clergy into two antagonistic camps (the Possessors and the Non-Possessors), Maximus took sides with Nilus of Sors and his startsy, who headed the Non-Possessors camp.[47] This would make him one of the worst enemies of the Josephites, who stood for the right of the monasteries to own land. Maximus and his followers discussed freely the shortcomings of Russia's internal and foreign policies, criticized the lifestyle of the Russian clergy, exploitation of peasants, and the system of supporting local authorities by "milking" the peasants (the so-called кормление, or kormleniye).

ImprisonmentEdit

 
Maximus the Greek has been held in the greatest repute by Old Believers, and his images are normally featured in every Old Believer church.

Maximus's relations with Vassian Patrikeyev, Ivan Bersen-Beklemishev, and Turkish ambassador Skinder, Metropolitan Daniel's hostility towards him, and Greek's own negative attitude towards Vasili III's intention to divorce Solomonia Saburova decided his fate. A sobor in 1525 accused Maximus of nonconformism and heresy based on his views and translations of ecclesiastic books, disregarding his incomplete knowledge of Russian and obvious mistakes on the part of the Russian scriveners (his improper use of the imperfect tense was used to imply that he no longer believed the Holy Spirit was the Third Person of the Trinity but only had been temporarily). He was then exiled to the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery and placed in a dungeon without the right to take communion or correspond. Maximus's "irritating" behavior at the monastery, newly discovered mistakes in his translations, and old suspicions of his unscrupulous relations with the now dead Turkish ambassador were all used against him once again at a new sobor in 1531. Worn out by the harsh conditions of his imprisonment, Maximus acknowledged some minor mistakes in his translations and excessive wine drinking. Finally, the sobor banned him from receiving communion and exiled him to the Otroch Monastery in Tver, where he would spend his next twenty years. The Patriarch of Antioch, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Patriarch of Jerusalem all attempted to negotiate Maximus's release with the Russian authorities, but to no avail. He himself pleaded with Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547–1584) and Metropolitan Macarius for his freedom. Moscow was afraid of Maximus's ability to expose wrongdoings and criticize the powers that be and, therefore, was reluctant to let him go. In 1551 (or 1553 according to other accounts), Maximus was transferred to the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra at the solicitation of some boyars and Hegumen Artemiy of the lavra. That same year, according to some accounts, the tsar is said to have visited Maximus during his pilgrimage to Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery; Maximus is described as having advised the ruler to take care of the families of soldiers who died in the conquest of Kazan instead of merely praying for the dead. In 1554, Maximus was invited to join a sobor, which would deal with the heresy of Matvei Bashkin, but he refused, being wary of getting entangled in this case.

DeathEdit

Maximus died in 1556 in Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, Sergiyev Posad.[33] He is buried in the Refectory Church in the Lavra.

LegacyEdit

Maximus left a voluminous body of original writings and translations into Russian Church Slavonic. He spent a great deal of energy and ink in his efforts to prove his innocence and Orthodoxy. He interpreted and explained for his Muscovite readers a large number of points of ancient and Biblical history, Orthodox Church practice and teachings, and features of the contemporary world outside of Muscovy. For example, he was the first to bring the discovery of the New World to the attention of Muscovite readers. He is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church, which commemorates him on 21 January.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Romanization: Máximos o Graikós, Byzantine Greek pronunciation: [ˈmaksimos o ɣreˈkos]
  2. ^ Romanization: Michail Trivolis, Byzantine Greek pronunciation: [mixaˈil triˈvolis]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Sources:
    • Treadgold 1973, p. 14: "Maxim the Greek has been shown to be the same as Michael Trivolis, a remarkably learned monk who spent more than half his life in the West. Born at Arta in present-day Greece about 1470, he came from one of the great families of Byzantium, members of which had been friends and counselors of emperors and included a patriarch of Constantinople (Callixtus I, 1350–63)"
    • Kaltenbrunner 1989, p. 149: "1492, also noch zu Lebzeiten Picos, kam der junge Grieche Michael Trivolis nach Florenz, wo er in jenen Kreisen verkehrte, die dem Grafen von Mirandola zugeneigt waren. Michael Trivolis wurde Sekretär des gleichfalls philosophisch."
    • Fassmann & Bill 1974, pp. 471‒472: "[...] tritt ein junger griechischer Humanist, Michael Trivolis, in das Kloster San Marco ein, das schwer überschattet ist von den Folgen der Vernichtung Savonarolas. Michael hat im Hause der Reichsgrafen della Mirandola deren."
    • Letiche & Dmytryshyn 1990, p. 55: "As Possevino says: 'In measure that the 32 Maksim the Greek (original name Michael Trivolis, I470(?)-I557) was a Greek scholar-monk who studied for several years in Florence at the Platonic Academy, where he met many luminaries of the [...]"
    • Medlin 1952, p. 64: "Maximus the Greek (born Michael Trivolis, ca. 1475‒1556) had come to Moscow in 1518 in response to Grand Prince Vasili III's request to Mt. Athos monasteries for a learned translator of Greek into Slavonic. The erudite Greek monk [...]"
    • Speake 2018, p. 186: "It was the Russian scholar Elie Denissoff who first identified the Greek émigré Michael Trivolis with the monk Maximos the Greek and, thanks to this identification, was able to suggest that his life took the form of a diptych, of which Italy and Russia are the two leaves and Athos is the hinge."
    • Johnston 2013, p. 838: "Maximus the Greek, St. c. 1470‒1555 Greek Dominican friar, then Orthodox monk, polemicist, and translator in Russia."
    • Onasch 1967, p. 51: "Auf den Moskauer Synoden von 1525 und 1531 lief, er die von dem Griechen Maximos (Maksim Grek) durchgeführten Textrevisionen altrussischer Übersetzungen aus dem Griechischen (Patristica, Liturgica) verwerfen. Maksim kam in strengste Klosterhaft und durfte nicht einmal kommunizieren."
    • Trueb 2008, p. 17: "Der griechische Schriftgelehrte Maksim Grek, der seit 1518 am grossfürstlichen Hof tätig war, und russische Bücherliebhaber wie der [...]"
    • Thomas & Chesworth 2015, p. 135: "Maximus the Greek Date of Birth 1475 Place of Birth Arta, Greece Date of Death 1556 Place of Death Sergiyev Posad, Russia BIOGRAPHY Maximus the Greek was born Michael Trivolis in 1475 in Arta, Greece, to a family of Greek aristocrats."
    • Wes 1992, p. 22: "The oldest was not actually a Russian, but a Greek monk from Arta in Epirus: Maksim Grek (ca 1471–1556). His real name was Mikhail Trivolis."
    • Avenarius 2005, p. 119: "Maxim the Greek, already mentioned in connection with the struggle against the Markion heresy (compare VIII. 3.2), was a Greek monk, who came to Russia in 1518 at the invitation of Prince Basil III to participate in correction of the Russian liturgical books [...]"
    • Helleman 2004, p. 213: "Maximus the Greek (Mikhail Trivolis) (1475‒1556) Greek Orthodox monk, humanist scholar, and linguist, who received an outstanding education in Europe."
    • Steiris 2015, "Maximus was born as Michael Trivoles in Arta. His family came probably from Mystras, in Southern Greece. It is indicative that he signed his works as Maximus Grecus Lakedaimon, e.g., from Lakonia, the era around ancient Sparta."
    • Bolshakoff 1976, p. 39: "Many other people suffered with Vassian, including the remarkable Greek humanist Michael Trivilis, known in Russia as Maximus the Greek. Michael Trivolis was born of a great Byzantine aristocratic family in Arta in Epirus in 1470 [...]"
    • Vakalopoulos 1976, p. 157: "These included Michael Trivolis from Arta (of the prominent Byzantine family that had taken refuge on Corfu after the Capture), known as Maximos Trivolis after he was tonsured, who studied classical literature and philosophy in Venice, Padua, Ferrara, Florence, and Milan."
    • Treadgold 1975, p. 60: "Maxim the Greek has been identified as Michael Trivolis, a remarkably learned monk who spent more than half his life in the West. Born at Arta in present-day Greece about 1470, he came from one of the great families of Byzantium, whose members included friends and counselors of emperors and even a patriarch of Constantinople (Callixtus I, 1350–1363)."
    • Zajc 2011, p. 361: "The life path of Michael Trivolis led from his homeland Greece to the North of Italy where, in the town centres, he made acquaintance with the scholars of the time, and where he was involved in writing, copying and translating activities."
    • Ryan 2006, p. 64: "They remembered too the more recent attempts to revise the Church Slavonic translations of Greek Church texts by the born-again Greek humanist Michael Trivolis, later known in religion as Maxim, and in Russia as Maxim the Greek."
  2. ^ a b McGuckin 2010, p. 747: "Maximus the Greek (Michael Trivolis) was an Orthodox writer, translator, and exegete. Born to a noble Greek family, he moved to Italy where he received a classical education."
  3. ^ Arans 1983, p. 304; Wieczynski 1976, p. 26; Kovalevsky 1976, p. 142.
  4. ^ Grumel 1944, p. 256; Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2002, p. 967.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Arans 1983, p. 304.
  6. ^ Steiris 2015, "Maximus was born as Michael Trivoles in Arta. His family came probably from Mystras, in Southern Greece. It is indicative that he signed his works as Maximus Grecus Lakedaimon, e.g., from Lakonia, the area around ancient Sparta."
  7. ^ Zakythinos 1951, p. 115: "Les noms des Mavropappas, des Sgouromallis, des Lampoudios, des Léontarios, des Mélikis, des Trivolis reviennent dans les sources. [...] Plus d'un membre de la famille Trivolis s'est distingué à Mistra."
  8. ^ Golubinskii 1900, pp. 666–667.
  9. ^ a b c Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 20.
  10. ^ Akopyan 2020, p. 260: "Born in the town of Arta in Greece, Maximus first came to Italy in 1492. His career in Italy, which lasted for almost fifteen years, was typical for a Greek émigré: he served as a scribe and translator to different patrons, while simultaneously keeping strong links with the Greek diaspora."
  11. ^ Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 20: "The most prominent cultural contribution, or effort at contribution, made in 16th-century Moscovite Russia by the Greeks came from the unparalleled activities of the learned monk, Maximus Trivolis, historically known [...] Maximus—originally Michael—was born to a rather well-to-do family in Arta, the medieval capital of Epirus, about 1475."
  12. ^ Powicke 1947, p. 37: "He was born about 1470 at Arta in Epirus; he was of a great Byzantine family, literary, Orthodox, and attached to the fortunes of the Greek imperial house."
  13. ^ Treadgold 1975, p. 60: "Maxim the Greek has been identified as Michael Trivolis, a remarkably learned monk who spent more than half his life in the West. Born at Arta in present-day Greece about 1470, he came from one of the great families of Byzantium, whose members included friends and counselors of emperors and even a patriarch of Constantinople (Callixtus I, 1350–1363)."
  14. ^ Rozemond 1966, p. 165: "Zijn naam is Michaël, Spartenser van afkomst [inderdaad was de familie Trivolis uit Mistra, het oude Sparta, afkomstig *]; het is een jonge man met een lange hals'. Codro verzoekt vervolgens Palmieri, Michaël uit te nodigen, weer eens naar."
  15. ^ Grumel 1944, p. 256: "Au cours de ses recherches, M. Denissof s'est trouvé en présence d'un jeune humaniste grec du nom de Michel Trivolis, dont il a vu la signature de copiste, don't il a compulsé des lettres à des amis ou émules en humanisme. [...] << La naissance de Maxime le Grec est de la ville d'Arta, de père Manuel et d'Irène, chrétiens grecs, philosophes (p. 76). >>"
  16. ^ Haney 1973, p. 16: "In the fifteenth century one Manuel Trivolis was living with his wife Irene in Arta, while another member of the family, his brother Demetrius, lived on the nearby island of Corfu. Michael Trivolis, the future Maxim the Greek, was born to Manuel [...]"
  17. ^ Golubinskii 1900, p. 666: "Максимово греково рожение от града Аръты, отца Мануила и Ирины христианех грекох философех."
  18. ^ Wells 2007, p. 284: "In his midforties when the abbot nominated him for the trip to Russia, he had been born Michael Trivolis (c. 1470) [...] His parents, Manuel and Irene, had emigrated from Constantinople to Arta, where Manuel may have served as a military governor before the city fell to the Turks in 1449."
  19. ^ a b Pagani 2009, p. 197: "A quanto ci è dato di sapere della biografia di questo copista, Trivolis era originario di Sparta, tanto che era solito dirsi «Πελοποννησιος εκ Σπαρτης», ebbe contatti molto stretti con l'ambiente di Mistrà e successivamente lavorò per lunghi anni."
  20. ^ Casetti Brach 1975–1976, p. 240: "Δημήτριος Τριβώλης Πελοποννήσιος εκ Σπάρτης".
  21. ^ a b Δημήτριος Τριβώλης. "Σημειώματα-Κώδικες". Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών. Casetti – Brach, Copisti, σ. 240. Λάμπρου, Λακεδ. βιβλ., σ. 316. Η βίβλος ἥδε ἐγράφη δι᾿οἰκείας χειρὸς ἐμοῦ Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου ἐκ Σπάρτης τὰς διατριβὰς ποιοῦντος ἐν Κερκυραίων νήσῳ · μετὰ τῆς ἡμετέρας πατρίδος ἅλωσιν · ἔτει Ϛ ο' (f. 207v).
  22. ^ Lambrou 1969, p. 316: "[...] άναγινώσκεται το έξης σημείωμα· 'Ή βίβλος ήδε έγράφη δι οικείας χειρός έμου Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου έκ Σπάρτης, τάς διατριβάς ποιοϋντος έν Κερκυραίων νήσω μετά την της ημετέρας πατρίδος άλωσιν, [...]'"
  23. ^ Graux 1880, p. 92: "Η βίβλος ήδε εγράφη δι' οικείας χειρός έμού Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου εκ Σπάρτης, τας διατριβής ποιoύντος εν Κερκυραίων νήσω, την της ημετέρας πατρίδος άλωσιν, ετει [...]"
  24. ^ a b Busse 1897, Ammonius De Interpretatione, pp. xi–xii: "Monacensis 222 [...] τούτο το κάλλιστον βιβλίον εμόν εστι κτήμα Δημητρίου Τριβώλη Πελοποννησίου εκ Σπαρτης. επριαμην δε και τουτο μετα την εμης πατριδος αλωσιν της Λακεδαιμονος της ποτ' ευδαιμονος."
  25. ^ Lorusso 2016, p. 256: "Together with other Greek scribes such as Demetrius Trivolis and Athanasius Chalceopulus, Charitonymus was employed by Bessarion to produce a set of manuscripts containing the whole corpus of Aristotle's works, except the six preparatory treatises devoted to logic (the Organon)."
  26. ^ Nicol 1998, p. 158: "Demetrios Trivolis, who called himself 'a Peloponnesian from Sparta', copied a manuscript of Plato's Timaeus in Corfu in 1462, and of the Enneads of Plotinus in Crete in 1465."
  27. ^ Vakalopoulos 1970, p. 256: "Demetrius Trivolis sedulously recorded in his manuscripts not only the places he visited on his perambulations but also the years that had passed since his 'country's capture.' [...] 'Though no scribe,' he 'came from the aristocratic senatorial class' and considered himself a 'Spartan and Byzantine' or, as he also wrote, 'a Greek and [...]"
  28. ^ Staikos 1998, p. 290: "On Demetrios Trivolis of Sparta and the quality of his work as a copyist see Oleroff, A., 'Demetrius Trivolis, copiste et bibliophile' in Scriptorium IV (1950) 260–263."
  29. ^ Bandini 1991, p. 85: "Seconda copia del Marc. gr. [...], frutto della collaborazione fra il Bessarione e Demetrio Trivolis, membro di una nota famiglia di Sparta, attestato nel 1461–62 a Corfù, nel 1464–65 a Gortina, dal 1468–69 a Roma, nell'aprile 1481 di nuovo a Corfù."
  30. ^ Lyna 1950, p. 261: "Démétrius Trivolis fait preuve d'une solide érudition et de bonnes connaissances philologiques et philosophiques. Il corrige souvent le texte qu'il copie, il y ajoute parfois de scholies de sa composition. [...] Plus tard on retrouve les Trivolis à Mistra (Sparte) dans l'entourage des Paléologues."
  31. ^ Denissoff 1943, p. 122: "[...] supposer qu'il était apparenté aux Trivolis dont nous avons constaté l'existence à Mistra, l'ancienne Sparte. Or, on l'a vu, tout nous autorise à croire que cette famille Trivolis possédait un haut degré d'instruction. La lettre dont nous avons parlé".
  32. ^ Sartori 1986, p. 39: "Il Libro d'oro, una sorta di almanacco della nobiltà corfiota, registra la famiglia Trivolis come entrata nell'aristocrazia dell'isola [...] con l'allusione alla nascita spartana del copista e al suo trasferimento a Corfù dopo l'occupazione turca di Sparta."
  33. ^ a b Thomas & Chesworth 2015, p. 135: "Maximus the Greek Date of Birth 1475 Place of Birth Arta, Greece Date of Death 1556 Place of Death Sergiyev Posad, Russia BIOGRAPHY Maximus the Greek was born Michael Trivolis in 1475 in Arta, Greece, to a family of Greek aristocrats. In 1492, he moved to Italy, where he studied classical languages, philosophy and theology."
  34. ^ Kovalevsky 1976, p. 142; Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 20; Vakalopoulos 1976, p. 157.
  35. ^ a b Speake 2018, p. 183: "Laskaris and Ficino were probably the two most influential scholars in Florence at the time, and the young Trivolis was fortunate to number them among his instructors."
  36. ^ a b Vakalopoulos 1976, p. 157: "These included Michael Trivolis from Arta (of the prominent Byzantine family that had taken refuge on Corfu after the Capture), known as Maximos Trivolis after he was tonsured, who studied classical literature and philosophy in Venice, Padua, Ferrara, Florence, and Milan."
  37. ^ Treadgold 1975, p. 60: "Maxim the Greek has been identified as Michael Trivolis, a remarkably learned monk who spent more than half his life in the West. [...] About 1492, he went to Italy and became immersed in the philosophical currents of Neoplatonism which owed much to Marsilio Ficino."
  38. ^ Golubinskii 1900, p. 670; Kovalevsky 1976, pp. 142–143.
  39. ^ Golubinskii 1900, pp. 672–673; Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 22; Kovalevsky 1976, p. 143.
  40. ^ Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 22
  41. ^ Golubinskii 1900, p. 674; Kovalevsky 1976, p. 143; Medlin & Patrinelis 1971, p. 22.
  42. ^ Akopyan 2020, p. 260: "Born in the town of Arta in Greece, Maximus first came to Italy in 1492. [...] In 1515, he was invited to translate Greek prayer books into Church Slavonic."
  43. ^ Golubinskii 1900, pp. 675–676.
  44. ^ Kovalevsky 1976, p. 143.
  45. ^ Avenarius 2005, p. 119: "Maxim the Greek, already mentioned in connection with the struggle against the Markion heresy (compare VIII. 3.2), was a Greek monk, who came to Russia in 1518 at the invitation of Prince Basil III to participate in correction of the Russian liturgical books [...]"
  46. ^ Duranty, Walter (6 March 1929). "IVAN'S TREASURES LURE RUSSIA AGAIN; Archaeologist Says That He Can Find "Golden Library" Hidden Beneath Kremlin. NAPOLEON SOUGHT IN VAIN So Did Peter the Great and Other Rulers, Priceless Volumes Keeping Their 350-Year-Old Secret". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  47. ^ Golubinskii 1900, p. 650ff.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 January 2020). "Maximus The Greek". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Maximus The Greek, also called Maximus The Hagiorite, (born 1480, Árta, Greece—died 1556, near Moscow), Greek Orthodox monk, Humanist scholar, and linguist, whose principal role in the translation of the Scriptures and philosophical–theological literature into the Russian language the dissemination of Byzantine culture throughout Russia."