Ingrian (ižoran keeli [ˈiʒorɑŋ ˈkeːli] or inkeroin keeli IPA: [ˈiŋkeroi̯ŋ ˈkeːli]), also called Izhorian, is a nearly extinct Finnic language spoken by the (mainly Orthodox) Izhorians of Ingria. It has approximately 120 native speakers left, all of whom are elderly.
|120 (2010 census)|
The Ingrian language should be distinguished from the Ingrian dialect of the Finnish language, which became the majority language of Ingria in the 17th century with the influx of Lutheran Finnish immigrants; their descendants, the Ingrian Finns, are often referred to as Ingrians. The immigration of Lutheran Finns was promoted by Swedish authorities, who gained the area in 1617 from Russia, as the local population was (and remained) Orthodox.
In 1932–1937, a Latin-based orthography for the Ingrian language existed, taught in schools of the Soikino Peninsula and the area around the mouth of the Luga River. Several textbooks were published, including in 1936 a grammar of the language. However, in 1937 the Izhorian written language was abolished and mass repressions of the peasantry began.
|A a||Ä ä||E e||F f||H h||I i||J j||K k|
|L l||M m||N n||O o||Ö ö||P p||R r||S s|
|T t||U u||V v||Y y||B b||G g||D d||Z z|
The order of the 1936 alphabet is similar to the Russian Cyrillic alphabet.
|A a||Ä ä||B в||V v||G g||D d||E e||Ƶ ƶ|
|Z z||I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o|
|Ö ö||P p||R r||S s||T t||U u||Y y||F f|
|H h||C c||Ç ç||Ş ş||ь|
The order of the current alphabet matches the Finnish alphabet.
|A a||B b||C c||D d||E e||F f||G g||H h|
|I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o||P p|
|R r||S s||Š š||T t||U u||V v||Y y||Z z|
|Ž ž||Ä ä||Ö ö|
- Hevaha, spoken along Kovashi River and nearby coastal areas (†)
- Soikkola, spoken on Soikinsky Peninsula and along Sista River
- Ylä-Laukaa (Upper Luga or Oredezhi), spoken along Orodezh River and the upper Luga River (†)
- Ala-Laukaa (Lower Luga), a divergent dialect influenced by Votic
Like other Uralic languages, Ingrian is a highly agglutinative language.
There is some controversy between the grammars as described by different scholars. For example, Chernyavskij (2005) provides the form on ("he/she is") as the only possible third-person singular indicative of the verb olla ("to be"), while the native speaker Junus (1936) as well as Konkova (2014) describe also the form ono.
|Meaning/use||Example (singular, plural)||Translation|
|Genetiva||-n||-in||Possession||škoulun, škouluin||school's, schools'|
|Partitiva||-a||-ia||Partial object, Amount||škoulua, škouluja||school(s)|
|Interior ("in") locative cases|
|Illativa||-V||-i(he)||Motion into||škouluu, škouluihe||into (a) school(s)|
|Inessiva||-(V)s||-is||Location inside||škouluus, škouluis||inside (a) school(s)|
|Elativa||-st||-ist||Motion out of||škoulust, škouluist||out of (a) school(s)|
|Exterior ("on") locative cases|
|Allativa||-lle||-ille||Motion onto||škoululle, škouluille||onto [the top of] (a) school(s)|
|Adessiva||-(V)l||-il||Location on top of||škouluul, škouluil||on [top of] (a) school(s)|
|Ablativa||-lt||-ilt||Motion off||škoulult, škouluilt||off [the top of] (a) school(s)|
|Translativa||-ks||-iks||Change of state towards being||škouluks, škouluiks||into being (a) school(s)|
|Essiva||-nna, -(V)n||-inna, -in||State of being||škoulunna [škouluun], škouluinna [škouluin]||as (a) school(s)|
|Eksessiva||-nt||-int||Change of state away from being||škoulunt, škouluint||out of being (a) school(s)|
- Following the vowel harmony, ⟨a⟩ can change into ⟨ä⟩.
- Some cases are (partially) written with ⟨V⟩. The symbol stands for the vowel on which the preceding stem ends.
- The orthography used by Chernyavskij (2005) uses the letter -z for the inessive.
Ingrian doesn't have a separate accusative case. This case corresponds with the genitive (in the singular) and the nominative (in the plural).
Ingrian also has a high amount of compound words. In these words, the last word of the compound is inflected:
- sana (word) + kirja (book) = sanakirja (dictionary, nominativa), sanakirjan (genetiva), sanakirjaa (partitiva)
- ižoran (Ingrian); ižorakkoi (Ingrian woman); ižoralain (Ingrian man).
- juuti (Jew); juutakkoi (Jewish woman); juutalain (Jewish man).
Adjectives don't differ from nouns morphologically, that is to say that they are inflected the same as nouns. Adjectives are always attributed to a noun, either directly or with the verb olla (to be).
Comparatives are formed by adding the suffix -mp to the Genitive stem. It is then inflected as usual:
- vanha (old, nominativa); vanhan (old, genetiva); vanhemp (older, nominativa); vanhemman (older, genetiva).
The object of the comparison will be set in the partitiva:
- vanhemp äijä (the older grandpa); vanhemp äijää (older than a grandpa)
Superlatives are formed by adding the partitiva of the pronoun kaik:
- vanhemp (older); kaikkia vanhemp (oldest); vanhemp kaikkia (older than all)
The Ingrian verbs have two infinitives, both of which can be inflected (much like the nouns) depending on the situation of usage.
The first infinitive comes in the partitiva or inessiva. The partitiva of the first infinitive is used after the verbs kyssyyä (to ask), pyytää (to ask), alkaa (to start), tahtoa (to want), suvata (to love), vässyyä (to tire) and pittää (to have to):
- Tahon läätä. (I want to talk.)
The inessiva of the first infinitive acts as a present participle. It denotes an action that happens simultaneously with the acting verb:
- Höö männää läätes. (They walk, talking.)
The second infinitive comes in the illativa, inessiva, elativa and abessiva. The illativa of the second infinitive is used to denote a reported act (e.g. after the verb nähhä, to see), to denote a purpose or following the verbs männä (to go), lähtiä (to go) or noissa (to come to pass):
- Nään hänt läkkäämää. (I see that he talks.)
- Issuu läkkäämää. (Sit in order to talk.)
- Hää noisi läkkäämää. (He began talking.)
The inessiva of the second infinitive acts as a continuous clause, introduced by the verb olla (to be). It denotes an action that is happening at the present moment:
- Miä oon läkkäämäs. (I am talking.)
The elativa of the second infinitive denotes either the completion of the action or a distancing from its location:
- Hää poistui läkkäämäst. (He left there, where he was talking.)
The abessiva of the second infinitive acts as a participle of an incomplete action:
- Hää poistui läkkäämätä. (He left not having talked.)
Voice and moodEdit
- Hää pessöö (He washes [active voice]); Hää pessää (He is being washed [passive voice]); Hää pessiiää (He washes himself [reflexive voice]).
- Miä nään (I see [Present indicative active]); Miä näin (I saw [Imperfect indicative active]); Miä näkkisin (I would see [Conditional active]); Nää! (See [Imperative active])
- Miä nähhää (I am seen [Present indicative passive]); Miä nähtii (I was seen [Imperfect indicative passive]); Miä nähtäis (I would be seen [Conditional passive]).
- Miä oon (I am); Miä en oo (I am not)
- Miä en oo (I am not); Miä en olt (I was not)
The conjugation of the negative verb follows:
The personal pronouns set in nominatiivi are listed in the following table:
The demonstrative pronouns set in nominativa are listed in the following table:
|Proximal||tämä (tää)||nämät (näät)|
The proximal demonstrative pronouns tämä and nämät can be contracted to tää and näät respectively. Furthermore, the genetiva singular form tämän can be contracted to tään. Other inflections cannot be contracted.
The Ingrian language has 8 vowels:
|Close||i /i/||y /y/||u /u/|
|Mid||e /e/||ö /ø/||o /o/|
|Open||ä /æ/||a /ɑ/|
Each vowel may occur short or long. Long vowels are doubled in writing (e.g. ⟨aa⟩ being /ɑː/). To split two vowels, the grapheme ⟨'⟩ is used (e.g. ⟨a'a⟩ being /ɑ.ɑ/ ~ /ɑʔɑ/). The vowel <ь> (/ɨ/) exists in some Russian loanwords, but is often replaced by /i/.
Ingrian has at least 24 diphthongs:
|Diphthongs||Ending with /i/||Ending with /e/||Ending with /u/||Ending with /y/||Ending with /o/|
|Starting with /ɑ/||ai [ɑi̯]||ae [ɑe̯]||au [ɑu̯]||ao [ɑo̯]|
|Starting with /æ/||äi [æi̯]||äe [æe̯]||äy [æy̯]|
|Starting with /o/||oi [oi̯]||oe [oe̯]||ou [ou̯]|
|Starting with /e/||ei [ei̯]||eu [eu̯]||ey [ey̯]|
|Starting with /ø/||öi [øi̯]||öy [øy̯]|
|Starting with /u/||ui [ui̯]||ue [ue̯]||uo [uo̯]|
|Starting with /i/||ie [ie̯]||iu [iu̯]||iy [iy̯]|
|Starting with /y/||yi [yi̯]||ye [ye̯]|
Additionally, the diphthong iä ([iæ̯]) occurs in the personal pronouns. The diphthongs can, too, be long. This is shown by duplicating the second vowel (e.g. ⟨aii⟩ [ɑːi̯]).
The Ingrian language has 22 consonant sounds:
|Plosive||voiceless||p /p/||t /t/||k /k/|
|voiced||b /b/||d /d/||g /ɡ/|
|Affricate||ts /t͡s/||c /t͡ʃ/|
|Fricative||voiceless||f /f/||s /s/||š /ʃ/||h /h/, /x/|
|voiced||z /z/||ž /ʒ/|
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||(n /ŋ/)|
|Approximant||v /ʋ/||l /l/||j /j/|
- The consonant ⟨h⟩ is realized as [h] when short and as [xː] when long (this distinction isn't present in the Ala-Laukaa dialect).
- The consonant ⟨n⟩ is realized as [ŋ] when followed by the phoneme /k/ or /ɡ/.
- Phonetic palatalization [ʲ] may occur among different dialects before close-front vowels /i, y/.
- The voiced plosives (/b/, /d/, /ɡ/) and fricatives (/z/, /ʒ/), as well as the postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ are not phonemic in the Soikkola dialect's native words.
The Soikkola dialect has a three-way distinction of consonant length (/t/, /tˑ/, /tː/). Both the long and halflong geminates are shown double in writing (⟨tt⟩). Other dialects only differentiate between long (/tː/) and short (/t/) consonants. The long variant of ⟨ts⟩ is written as ⟨tts⟩ (/t͡sː/).
- puu (wood) is realized as /puː/
- kana (chicken) is realized as /ˈkɑnɑ/
- orraava (squirrel) is realized as /ˈorːɑːˌʋɑ/
In some late borrowings, the primary stress may shift to another syllable:
- vokala (vowel) is realized as /ʋoˈkɑlɑ/
The Ingrian language has several morphophonological processes.
Vowel harmony is the process that the affixes attached to a lemma may change depending on the stressed vowel of the word. This means that if the word is stressed on a back vowel, the affix would contain a back vowel as well, while if the word's stress lies on a front vowel, the affix would naturally contain a front vowel. Thus, if the stress of a word lies on an "a", "o" or "u", the possible affix vowels would be "a", "o" or "u", while if the stress of a word lies on an "ä", "ö" or "y", the possible affix vowels to this word would then be "ä", "ö" or "y":
- nappi (button, nominativa); nappia (button, partitiva)
- näppi (pinch, nominativa); näppiä (pinch, partitiva)
The vowels "e" and "i" are neutral, that is to say that they can be used together with both types of vowels.
- Ingrian at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021)
- Kurs, Ott (1994). Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33.1, 107–113.
- Duubof V. S., Lensu J. J. ja Junus V. (1932). Ensikirja ja lukukirja: inkeroisia oppikoteja vart (PDF). Leningrad: Valtion kustannusliike kirja. pp. 89 (вкладка).
- Viitso, Tiit-Rein (1998). "Fennic". In Abondolo, Daniel (ed.). Uralic languages. Routledge. pp. 98–99.
- Kuznetsova, Natalia; Markus, Elena; Mulinov, Mehmed (2015), "Finnic minorities of Ingria: The current sociolinguistic situation and its background", in Marten, H.; Rießler, M.; Saarikivi, J.; et al. (eds.), Cultural and linguistic minorities in the Russian Federation and the European Union, Multilingual Education, vol. 13, Berlin: Springer, pp. 151–152, ISBN 978-3-319-10454-6, retrieved 25 March 2015
- V Chernyavskij (2005). Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja) (PDF). (in Russian).
- O. I. Konkova and N. A. D'yachkov (2014). Inkeroin keel: Учебное пособие по Ижорскому языку (PDF). (in Russian).
- V. I. Junus (1936). Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka (PDF). (in Ingrian)
- Paul Ariste 1981. Keelekontaktid. Tallinn: Valgus. [pt. 2.6. Kolme läänemere keele hääbumine lk. 76 – 82] (in Estonian)
- A. Laanest. 1993. Ižorskij Jazyk. In V. N. Jartseva (ed.), Jazyki Mira: Ural'skie Jazyki, 55–63. Moskva: Nauka.
- V. Chernyavskij. 2005. Ižorskij Jazyk (Samuchitel'). Ms. 300pp.
|Ingrian language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|