Open main menu

The Turks in Europe (sometimes called Euro-Turks; Turkish: Avrupa'da yaşayan Türkler or Avrupa Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turks living in Europe. Most Turks in Europe live in European Turkey, but there is also a sizeable Turkish diaspora in countries such as Germany. This diaspora includes two groups: guest workers who migrated to western Europe in recent decades, and historic Turkish minorities in southeastern Europe who trace their origin back to the Ottoman era.

Turks have had a long history in Europe dating back to the Ottoman era when they began to conquer and migrate to Eastern Europe during the Ottoman conquests (see the Ottoman territories in Europe) which, other than Turkey, created significant Turkish communities in Bulgaria (Bulgarian Turks), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian Turks), Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots), Georgia (Meskhetian Turks), Greece (Cretan Turks, Dodecanese Turks, and Western Thrace Turks), Kosovo[a] (Kosovan Turks), Serbia (Turks in Serbia), North Macedonia (Turks in North Macedonia), and Romania (Romanian Turks).

Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe began with Turkish Cypriots migrating to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia during the Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967.[1][2][3] More recently, Bulgarian Turks and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.


Ottoman migrationEdit

Ottoman Turks migrated to various parts of Europe during the rule of the Ottoman Empire; thus, large communities have been formed due to Turkish colonisation, especially in Bulgaria, the island of Cyprus, Georgia (especially in Meskheti), Greece (mainly in Western Thrace), Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Romania.

During the rule of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923), Turkish settlers began to move into the Ottoman territories in Europe as part of the Turkish expansion, because these Turkish communities migrated to these countries during the Ottoman rule, they are not considered part of the modern Turkish diaspora. However, these populations, which have different nationalities, still share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as today's Turkish nationals.

Balkan TurksEdit

The conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans set in motion important population movements of Turks brought over from Anatolia and Asia Minor, establishing a firm Turkish base for further conquests in Europe.[4] Thus, the Ottomans used colonization as a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans. The colonizers that were brought to the Balkans consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants, dervishes, preachers and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel. Densely populated Turkish colonies were established in the frontier regions of Thrace, the Maritsa and the Tundzha valleys.[4] In addition to voluntary migrations, throughout the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, the Ottoman authorities also used mass deportations ("sürgün") as a method of control over potentially rebellious individuals.[5] One of the greatest impacts of the Ottoman colonization process of the Balkans was felt in the urban centres, many towns became major centres for Turkish control and administration, with most Christians gradually withdrawing to the mountains. The Ottomans embarked on creating new towns and repopulating older towns that had suffered significant population decline and economic dislocation during the wars preceding the Ottoman conquests.[5] Major Balkan towns, especially those on or near transportation and communication routes, were the focal point of Ottoman colonization in the Balkans. Most urban centres in the Balkans, especially in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Moesia, achieved Muslim/Turkish majorities or substantial minorities soon after the completion of the conquest and remained overwhelmingly Muslim in composition into the eighteenth century, and in some areas such as Macedonia and Bulgaria well into the nineteenth century.[6] However, in the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many Turks were displaced, most of them fleeing to Anatolia. At present, there are still significant Turkish minorities living in Bulgaria, the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Romania.[7]

Meskhetian TurksEdit

The Meskhetian Turks, also known as Ahiska Turks, are the descendants of Turkish colonizers who reside, or used to reside, in Meskheti which is in the southwestern region of Georgia. The region came under Ottoman rule in the sixteenth century up until 1829. Today, approximately 600 to 1,000 Meskhetian Turks are still living in Georgia,[8] the population drastically decreased in 1944 when Joseph Stalin deported approximately 100,000 of these Turks to Central Asia.[9]

Turkish CypriotsEdit

A Turkish Cypriot woman in 1878.
Bulgarian Turks as refugees in 1877.

The Ottoman Turks conquered Cyprus in 1571 when they began a campaign which led to the fall of Nicosia in September 1570 and of Famagusta in August 1571.[10] By 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers, which included soldiers who were involved in the conquest and their families, or agricultural colonizers, particularly from the Konya region, were given land on the island.[11][10] Additionally, many of the islanders converted to Islam during the early years of Ottoman rule due to significant advantages to being Muslim (i.e. taxation).[12] Thus, a strong Turkish element was formed in Cyprus’s population, which was later reinforced by immigration from Asia Minor.[10]

Ottoman galley slaves and traders in Western EuropeEdit

As early as the 13th century Turkic slaves (Oghuz and Kipchak Mameluks), from Central Asia and the Pontic Steppe, had been sold to northern Italian city states by Arab traders.[13] Some of the slaves were bought free and mixed in with the local Italian population. At least from the 16th century onwards Ottoman traders settled in western European trading capitols such as Antwerp, Amsterdam[14] and London.[15] Turkish traders in the Netherlands had at least two mosques in Amsterdam in the early 17th century.[16]

Modern migrationEdit

According to an estimate in the European Union there are 3,7 million ethnic Turks.[17]

Turkish Cypriot migration to Great Britain (1920s-present)Edit

Turkish Cypriots started to immigrate from Cyprus to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown.[18] Many Turkish Cypriots went to the United Kingdom as students and tourists whilst others left the island due to the harsh economic and political life during the British Colony of Cyprus.[19] Emigration to the United Kingdom continued to increase when the Great Depression of 1929 brought economic depression to Cyprus, with unemployment and low wages being a significant issue.[20][21][20] During the Second World War, the number of Turkish run businesses increased which created a demand for more Turkish Cypriot workers.[22] Thus, throughout the 1950s, Turkish Cypriots emigrated to the United Kingdom for economic reasons and by 1958 the number of Turkish Cypriots was estimated to be 8,500.[23] Their numbers increased each year as rumours about immigration restrictions appeared in much of the Cypriot media.[21]

There are about 300,000 to 350,000 Turkish Cypriots, out of a total of 500,000 British Turks, living in the United Kingdom.[24][25]

Furthermore, the 1950s saw the arrival of many more Turkish Cypriots to the United Kingdom who felt vulnerable as they had cause for concern about the political future of the island.[22] This was first evident when the Greek Cypriots held a referendum in 1950 in which 95.7% of eligible Greek Cypriot voters cast their ballots in supporting a fight aimed at uniting Cyprus with Greece.[26] Hence, Turkish Cypriots fled to the United Kingdom due to the EOKA terrorists and its aim of Enosis.[19] By the 1960s, inter-ethnic fighting broke out and by 1964 some 25,000 Turkish Cypriots became internally displaced, accounting to about a fifth of their population;[27][28] furthermore, approximately 60,000 Turkish Cypriots were forcefully moved into Turkish Cypriot enclaves within Cyprus.[29] This period in Cypriot history resulted in an exodus of more Turkish Cypriots to the United Kingdom.[19] Other reasons for the continued migration to the United Kingdom was because of the economic gap which was widening in Cyprus. The Greek Cypriots were increasingly taking control of the country’s major institutions causing the Turkish Cypriots to become economically disadvantaged.[22] Thus, the political and economic unrest in Cyprus after 1964 sharply increased the number of Turkish Cypriot immigrants to the United Kingdom.[21] Many of these early migrants worked in the clothing industry in London, where both men and women could work together- sewing was a skill which the community had already acquired in Cyprus.[30] Turkish Cypriots were concentrated mainly in the north-east of London and specialised in the heavy-wear sector, such as coats and tailored garments.[31][32] This sector offered work opportunities where poor knowledge of the English language was not a problem and where self-employment was a possibility.[33]

Once the Greek military junta rose to power in 1967, Greece staged a coup d'état in 1974 against the Cypriot President, with the help of EOKA B, to unite the island with Greece.[34] This led to a military offensive by Turkey who invaded the island.[28] By 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared their own state, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has since remained internationally unrecognised except by Turkey. The division of the island led to an economic embargo against the Turkish Cypriots by the Greek Cypriot controlled Government of Cyprus. This had the effect of depriving the Turkish Cypriots of foreign investment, aid and export markets; thus, it caused the Turkish Cypriot economy to remain stagnant and undeveloped.[35] Due to these economic and political issues, an estimated 130,000 Turkish Cypriots have emigrated from Northern Cyprus since its establishment to the United Kingdom.[36][37] In 2011, the House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee suggested that there are now about 300,000 Turkish Cypriots living in the UK.[24]

Meskhetian Turkish migration within Eastern Europe (1944-present)Edit

The Meskhetian Turks, originally living in Meskheti (now known as Samtskhe-Javakheti) which is a part of southern Georgia, are widely dispersed throughout the former Soviet Union (150,000 live in Kazakhstan, 90,000-110,000 in Azerbaijan, 70,000-90,000 in Russia, 50,000 in Kyrgyzstan, 15,000 in Uzbekistan and 10,000 in Ukraine[38]) as a result of forced deportations and discrimination which began in 1944. During World War II, the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey and Vyacheslav Molotov, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, formally presented a demand to the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow for the surrender of three Anatolian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin); thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population (especially those situated in Meskheti) located near the Turkish-Georgian border which were likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions.[39]

In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia and accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border.[40] Nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong".[41][42] Joseph Stalin deported the Meskhetian Turks to Central Asia (especially to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan), thousands dying en route in cattle-trucks,[43] and were not permitted by the Georgian government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia to return to their homeland.[41]

In the late 1970s, the Stavropol and Krasnodar authorities in Russia visited various regions of Uzbekistan to invite and recruit Meskhetian Turks to work in agriculture enterprises in southern Russia.[44] By 1985, Moscow issued a proposal inviting more Meskhetian Turks to move to villages in southern Russia that had been abandoned by ethnic Russians who were moving to the cities. However, the Meskhetian Turks response was that they would only leave Uzbekistan if the move were to be to their homeland.[45] Then, in 1989, ethnic Uzbeks began a series of actions against the Turks, they became the victims of riots in the Ferghana valley which led to over a hundred deaths. Within days, Decision 503 was announced "inviting" the Turks to occupy the empty farms in southern Russia that they had resisted moving to for years and around 17,000 Meskhetian Turks were evacuated to Russia.[46][47] Meskhetian Turks maintain that Moscow had planned the Uzbek riots.[47] By the early 1990s, of the 70,000 Meskhetian Turks who were still resident in Uzbekistan, approximately 50,000 Meskhetian Turkish refugees went to Azerbaijan due to continued discrimination[48][49][50][51] whilst others went to Russia and Ukraine due to fears of continued violence.[46]

Mainland Turkish migration to Western and Northern Europe (1960s-present)Edit

The Turks in Germany number about 4 million,[52] which constitutes the largest Turkish community in Western Europe as well as the largest within the Turkish diaspora.
After Germany, France is the main destination country for Turks who emigrate. There are about 1 million Turks in France.
The "gastarbeiters" (guest workers)Edit

The concept of the Gastarbeiter involved the agreements between the host country and Turkey which was bound up with policies of the governments involved, with state bureaucracies on both sides ultimately responsible for the dispatch and settlement of the workers.[53] Subsequently, labor agreements were signed with several European countries- with Germany in 1961; with Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 1964; with France in 1965; and with Sweden in 1967. The agreements were based on a principle of rotation, and a worker was expected to return home after a year of employment abroad.[53] However, employers wanted to retain workers who had become accustomed to the work; therefore, the rotation principle never became practice. Workers were not permitted to take their families abroad with them, and were housed in group living quarters or dormitories known as "Heim".[53]

Labour recruitment and social security agreements between Turkey and European states[1]
Country Labour recruitment agreement,
date and place
Social security agreement,
date and place
  Austria 15 May 1964, Vienna 12 October 1966, Vienna
  Belgium 16 July 1964, Brussels 4 July 1966, Brussels
  Denmark 13 November 1970, Ankara
  France 8 May 1965, Ankara 20 January 1972, Paris
  Germany 30 October 1961, Bonn
(was revised by the 20 May protocol, Bonn)
30 April 1964, Bonn
  Netherlands 19 August 1964, The Hague 5 April 1966, Ankara
  Sweden 10 March 1967, Stockholm 30 June 1978, Stockholm
   Switzerland 1 May 1969, Ankara
  United Kingdom 9 September 1959, Ankara
Family reunificationsEdit

By the early 1970s, the majority of Turkish emigration to Western Europe was for the purpose of family reunification. Furthermore, by the 1990s, migration mainly by way of marriage continued to be one of the principal reasons for settling in Western Europe.

Migration of Western Thrace Turks to Western Europe (1960s-present)Edit

About 25,000 to 40,000 Turks of Western Thrace, who are the ethnic Turks who live in the north-eastern part of Greece, have emigrated to Western Europe.[54][55] Between 12,000 and 25,000 moved to Germany in the 1960s and 1970s, when the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income.[56][57] After Germany, the Netherlands is the most popular destination for Western Thrace Turks, especially in the region of Randstad.[58] There is also an estimated 600-700 Western Thrace Turks living in London, although the total number living outside London is unknown.[58]

Migration of Bulgarian Turks to Western Europe (2000s-present)Edit

According to the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, Bulgarian Turks make up 12% of short term migrants, 13% of long term migrants, and 12% of the labour migrants.[59] However, it is unlikely that this generalisation shows a true indication of the ethnic make-up of Bulgarian citizens living abroad because Bulgarian citizens of Turkish origin make up entire majorities in some countries.[60] For example, out of the 10,000 to 30,000 people from Bulgaria living in the Netherlands, the majority, of about 80%, are ethnic Turks from Bulgaria who have come from the south-eastern Bulgarian district of Kurdzhali.[61] Moreover, the Bulgarian Turks are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.[62] There is also about 30,000 Bulgarian Turks living in Sweden,[63] a growing community in the United Kingdom[24] and Germany,[64] and 1,000 in Austria.[65]


Distribution of Turks in Europe.
Country Current est. Turkish population Further information Lists of Turks
  Austria 350,000[66][67][68]-500,000[69][70] Turks in Austria List of Austrian Turks
  Azerbaijan[a] 19,000 (Turkish minority only)[71]
90,000-110,000 (Meskhetian Turks only)[8]
Turks in Azerbaijan
  Belgium 200,000[72][73] 250,000[74][75][76][77] Turks in Belgium List of Belgian Turks
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50,000[78][79] (Turkish minority only) Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Bulgaria 746,664 (Turkish minority only) Turks in Bulgaria List of Bulgarian Turks
  Croatia 367 (2011 census)[80] (Turkish minority only)
2,000[81] (including recent Turkish immigrants)
Turks of Croatia
  Czech Republic 1,700[82]
  Northern Cyprus
2,000[83] (Turkish Cypriots only)
300,000[84]-500,000[85] (includes Turkish Cypriots and recent settlers)
Turkish Cypriots List of Cypriots
  Denmark 70,000[86] 80,000[87] Turks in Denmark
  Estonia 24[88]
  Finland 10,000[89] Turks in Finland
  France 1,000,000[90]- 1,200,000[91][92]
plus thousands of Algerian Turks[93]
Turks in France List of French Turks
  Georgia[c] 600-1,000 (Meskhetian Turkish minority only)[8] Turks in Georgia
  Germany 2,774,000 (in the narrow sense, they or at least one parent immigrated from Turkey)[94] to 4,000,000 (of full or partial Turkish origin)[95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104]
or 5,000,000 (Turkey-related population, including ethnic minorities from Turkey, particularly the Kurds)[105][106][107]
Turks in Germany
Demographics of Germany § Ethnic minorities and migrant background (Migrationshintergrund)
List of German Turks
Western Thrace
Rhodes and Kos
Total unknown
10,000[111] to 15,000[112]
Turks in Greece
  Hungary 1,700[114] Turks in Hungary
  Iceland 68[115]
  Ireland 3,000[116] Turks in Ireland
  Italy 22,580 Turkish citizens[117] Turks in Italy
  Kazakhstan[d] 150,000 (Meskhetian Turks only)[8] Turks in Kazakhstan
  Kosovo[e] 50,000[118][78]-100,000[119] (Turkish minority only) Turks in Kosovo
  Latvia 142[120] lv:Turki Latvijā
  Liechtenstein 1,000[121] Turks in Liechtenstein
  Lithuania 35[122]
  Luxembourg 450[123]
  North Macedonia 170,000-200,000[124][125][126] (Turkish minority only) Turks in North Macedonia
  Malta 53[127]
  Moldova Turks in Moldova
  Monaco 57[128]
  Montenegro 104[129] (Turkish minority only) Turks in Montenegro
  Netherlands 400,000-500,000[130] 627,000[131]
Plus 10,000-30,000 Bulgarian Turks.[62]
Turks in the Netherlands List of Dutch Turks
  Norway 16,000[132] Turks in Norway
  Poland 2,500[133] Turks in Poland
  Portugal 250[134]
  Romania 28,226[135] (Turkish minority only)
Turks in Romania
  Russia[f] 120,000-150,000[138] Turks in Russia
  San Marino
  Serbia 647[139] (Turkish minority only) Turks in Serbia
  Slovakia 150[140]
  Slovenia 259[141]
  Spain 4,000[142] Turks in Spain
  Sweden 100,000[143][144]-125,000[145]
Plus 30,000 Bulgarian and Macedonian Turks[146]
Turks in Sweden
   Switzerland 100,000[147]-120,000[148][149] Turks in Switzerland List of Swiss Turks
  Turkey 10,000,000 (In the European region of Turkey only)[150] Turkish people List of Turks
  Ukraine 10,000 (Meskhetian Turks only)[151] Turks in Ukraine
  United Kingdom 500,000 (including 300,000-350,000 Turkish Cypriots)[24][25] Turks in the United Kingdom List of British Turks
Total Excluding Turkey: 5[152]-10,000,000[153]
Including European Turkey: ~ 15-20,000,000


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Akgündüz 2008, 61.
  2. ^ Kasaba 2008, 192.
  3. ^ Twigg et al. 2005, 33.
  4. ^ a b Eminov 1997, 27.
  5. ^ a b Eminov 1997, 28.
  6. ^ Eminov 1997, 31.
  7. ^ Kaser 2010, 88.
  8. ^ a b c d Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13.
  9. ^ Aydıngün et al. 2006, 6.
  10. ^ a b c Fisher 2003, 250.
  11. ^ Drury 1981, 290.
  12. ^ Jennings, Ronald (1993). Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640. New York University Press. ISBN 0814741819.
  13. ^ Iris Origo, The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries Speculum:A Journal of Mediaeval Studies 30
  14. ^ (in Dutch)History of Relations from NLTR400, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands.
  15. ^ Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (2010), Muslims in Britain: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press.
  16. ^ (in Dutch)Rather Turkish than Papist Historian Herman Pleij on Turkish-Dutch relations in 'dit is de dag', EO, Radio 1)
  17. ^ "Turkey's EU accession".
  18. ^ Yilmaz 2005, 153
  19. ^ a b c Sonyel 2000, 147
  20. ^ a b Hüssein 2007, 16
  21. ^ a b c Yilmaz 2005, 154
  22. ^ a b c Ansari 2004, 151
  23. ^ Ansari 2004, 154
  24. ^ a b c d Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
  25. ^ a b Laschet, Armin (17 September 2011). "İngiltere'deki Türkler". Hurriyet. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  26. ^ Panteli 1990, 151
  27. ^ Cassia 2007, 236
  28. ^ a b Kliot 2007, 59
  29. ^ Tocci 2004, 53
  30. ^ Bridgwood 1995, 34
  31. ^ Panayiotopoulos & Dreef 2002, 52
  32. ^ London Evening Standard. "Turkish and proud to be here". Archived from the original on 2011-01-22. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
  33. ^ Strüder 2003, 12
  34. ^ Savvides 2004, 260
  35. ^ Tocci 2004, 61
  36. ^ BBC. "Turkish today by Viv Edwardss". Archived from the original on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
  37. ^ Cassia 2007, 238
  38. ^ Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13-14.
  39. ^ Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
  40. ^ Tomlinson 2005, 107.
  41. ^ a b Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
  42. ^ Cornell 2001, 183.
  43. ^ Minority Rights Group International. "Meskhetian Turks". Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  44. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 168.
  45. ^ Goltz 2009, 124.
  46. ^ a b Ryazantsev 2009, 167.
  47. ^ a b Goltz 2009, 125.
  48. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (18 December 2007). "Report on mass human rights violation". Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  49. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 2003, 21.
  50. ^ Daniloff, Caleb (1997). "Exile of the Meskheti Turks: Still Homesick Half a Century Later". Azerbaijan International. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  51. ^ Pentikäinen & Trier 2004, 19.
  52. ^ Germany.Info (2011). "Immigration and Cultural Issues between Germany and its Turkish Population Remain Complex". German Missions in the United States. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012.
  53. ^ a b c Abadan-Unat 2011, 12.
  54. ^ Şentürk 2008, 420.
  55. ^ Witten Batı Trakya Türkleri Yardımlaşma ve Dayanışma Derneği. "Batı Trakya`da "Aynı Gökyüzü Altında" bir Güldeste". Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  56. ^ a b Clogg 2002, 84.
  57. ^ International Assembly of Western Thrace Turks. "POLITICAL AND CIVIL ORGANISATION COMMISSION". Retrieved 2010-05-19.
  58. ^ a b Şentürk 2008, 427.
  59. ^ Ivanov 2007, 58
  60. ^ Markova 2010, 214
  61. ^ Guentcheva, Kabakchieva & Kolarski 2003, 44.
  62. ^ a b TheSophiaEcho. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands". Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  63. ^ Laczko, Stacher & Klekowski von Koppenfels 2003, 197.
  64. ^ Mancheva 2008, 161.
  65. ^ Balkan Türkleri Kültür ve Dayanışma Derneği. "Avusturya'daki Bulgaristan Türkleri hala Bulgar isimlerini neden taşıyor?". Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  66. ^ BBC (2010-11-10). "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  67. ^ Avrupa Türk-İslam Birliği. "Avusturya Türk İslam Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Birliği:Sosyal Hayat ve Dini Yapı". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  68. ^ Yakın Dünya. "Türkiye'nin Avusturya Büyükelçisi Göçmen Meselesini Gündeme Getirdi". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  69. ^ Andreas Mölzer. "In Österreich leben geschätzte 500.000 Türken, aber kaum mehr als 10–12.000 Slowenen". Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  70. ^ Juedische-Allgemeine. "Erheblicher Anstieg antisemitischer Vorfälle in Wien". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  71. ^ Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 19, ISBN 0313306109
  72. ^ King Baudouin Foundation 2008, 5.
  73. ^ Kaya & Kentel 2007, 27.
  74. ^ "Gündem - Milletvekili Veli Yüksel Hamme Camii Yardımlaşma Gecesine Katıldı". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  75. ^ "Lokum.NL - 'Turk wilde geen schotelantenne op dak'". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^ a b Cole 2011, 368.
  79. ^ Ethnologue. "Languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  80. ^ "Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, popisi 1971. - 2011" (in Croatian). Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  81. ^ Zaman. "Altepe'den Hırvat Müslümanlara moral". Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  82. ^ Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Czech Republic". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  83. ^ Hatay 2007, 40.
  84. ^ International Crisis Group (2010). "CYPRUS: BRIDGING THE PROPERTY DIVIDE". International Crisis Group. p. 2.
  85. ^ Cole 2011, 95.
  86. ^ DR Online. "Tyrkisk afstand fra Islamisk Trossamfund". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  87. ^
  88. ^ Eesti Statistika 2008. "POPULATION BY ETHNIC NATIONALITY, MOTHER TONGUE AND CITIZENSHIP". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  89. ^ Svensk-Turkiska Riksförbundet. "Diyanet İskandinavya'nın en uç noktası Finlandiya'da". Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  90. ^ Zaman France. "La communauté turque compte 611.515 personnes en France". Retrieved 2014-12-21.
  91. ^ "Sarkozy, Türkiye'yi tehdit etti!". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  92. ^ Fransa Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği. "2011 YILI DİTİB KADIN KOLLARI GENEL TOPLANTISI PARİS DİTİB'DE YAPILDI". Retrieved 2012-02-15.
  93. ^ Cezayir Türkleri: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun etkili mirası, Sputnik (news agency), 2015, Bunların yanında, özellikle İngiltere ve Fransa'da olmak üzere, Avrupa ülkelerinde de binlerce Cezayir Türkü bulunduğunu belirtmek gerekiyor.
  94. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund - Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus - Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.2 - 2017". Statistisches Bundesamt. p. 61. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
  95. ^ Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, p. 55, ISBN 0-306-47757-2, Today, more than 4 million people of Turkish origin are living in Germany.
  96. ^ Rizvi, Kishwar (2015), The Transnational Mosque: Architecture and Historical Memory in the Contemporary Middle East, University of North Carolina Press, p. 36, ISBN 1469621177, least 4 million people of Turkish descent living in Germany.
  97. ^ Audretsch, David B.; Lehmann, Erik E. (2016), The Seven Secrets of Germany: Economic Resilience in an Era of Global Turbulence, Oxford University Press, p. 130, ISBN 0190258691, By 2010 the number of Turkish descent living in Germany had increased to four million.
  98. ^ Weaver-Hightower, Rebecca (2014), "Introduction", in Weaver-Hightower, Rebecca; Hulme, Peter (eds.), Postcolonial Film: History, Empire, Resistance, Routledge, p. 13, ISBN 1134747276, By the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century there were around four million people of Turkish descent living in Germany...
  99. ^ Volkan, Vamik D. (2014), Enemies on the Couch: A Psychopolitical Journey Through War and Peace, Pitchstone Publishing, ISBN 1939578116, Today, for example, it is estimated that more than four million Turks and German citizens with part of full Turkish ancestry live in Germany alone.
  100. ^ Fernández-Kelly, Patricia (2015), "Assimilation through Transnationalism: A Theoretical Synthesis", in Portes, Alejandro; Fernández-Kelly, Patricia (eds.), The State and the Grassroots: Immigrant Transnational Organizations in Four Continents, Berghahn Books, p. 305, ISBN 1782387358, Nearly fifty years later, close to four million Turks and their children continue to reside in the margins of German society
  101. ^ Taras, Raymond (2015), ""Islamophobia never stands still": race, religion, and culture", in Nasar, Meer (ed.), Racialization and Religion: Race, Culture and Difference in the Study of Antisemitism and Islamophobia, Routledge, p. 46, ISBN 1317432444, ...about four million Turks are thought to live in Germany.
  102. ^ Fischer, Tristan (2015), History Future Now, Lulu Press, p. 122, ISBN 132970746X, By 2012 over 4 million people, around 5% of the German population, were of Turkish descent.
  103. ^ Feltes, Thomas; Marquardt, Uwe; Schwarz, Stefan (2013), "Policing in Germany: Developments in the Last 20 Years", in Mesko, Gorazd; Fields, Charles B.; Lobnikar, Branko; Sotlar, Andrej (eds.), Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe, Springer, p. 93, ISBN 1461467209, Approximately four million people with Turkish roots are living in Germany at this time [2013].
  104. ^ Temel, Bülent (2013), "Candidacy versus Membership: Is Turkey the Greatest Beneficiary of the European Union?", The Great Catalyst: European Union Project and Lessons from Greece and Turkey, Lexington Books, p. 345, ISBN 0739174495, Today, there are nearly four million people with Turkish ancestry in Germany, which makes them the largest minority in Germany (5 percent of 82 million people).
  105. ^ Darke, Diana (2014), Eastern Turkey, Bradt Travel Guides, p. 79, ISBN 184162490X, ...five million in Germany...
  106. ^ Karanfil, Gökçen; Şavk, Serkan (2014), "An Introduction from the Editors", in Karanfil, Gökçen; Şavk, Serkan (eds.), Imaginaries Out of Place: Cinema, Transnationalism and Turkey, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 3, ISBN 1443868604, Today, with the numbers reaching nearly five million, Germany accommodates the largest Turkey-related population by far in comparison to any other country.
  107. ^ Markovic, Nina; Yasmeen, Samina (2016), "Engaging Europe's Muslims: The European Union and Muslim Migrants during Eurozone Crisis", in Yasmeen, Samina; Markovic, Nina (eds.), Muslim Citizens in the West: Spaces and Agents of Inclusion and Exclusion, Routledge, p. 65, ISBN 1317091213, Demographic data on religious and ethnic backgrounds is difficult to gather as much of the data collection in Germany is based on nationality by country rather than ethnic group or religion...General consensus, however, suggests that Germany has 82 million residents...of which more than 5 million are considered to be Turkish origin. Many Turks and Kurds came to West Germany between the 1950s and 1970s...
  108. ^ "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  109. ^ Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association 2009, 2.
  110. ^ Ergener & Ergener 2002, 106.
  111. ^ Madianou 2005, 36-37.
  112. ^ a b Pettifer & Nazarko 2007, 68.
  113. ^ Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association 2009, 6.
  114. ^ Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Hungary". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  115. ^ Statistics Iceland. "Population by origin, citizenship and country of birth". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  116. ^ Lacey 2007, 2.
  117. ^ "ISTAT". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  118. ^ Warrander & Knaus 2008, 32.
  119. ^ "Kosova'da Ilk Türk Bayramı". Medya73. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  120. ^ PMLP. "Latvijas iedzivotaju sadalijums pec nacionala sastava un valstiskas piederibas" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  121. ^ Fürstentum Liechtenstein 2007, 6.
  122. ^ Statistics Lithuania RSS. "Population by place of birth and sex". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  123. ^ du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. "Etat civil et population du Luxembourg: Ventilation par nationalité du répertoire". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  124. ^ Abrahams 1996, 53.
  125. ^ Cole 2011, 369.
  126. ^ Ethnologue languages. "Turkish". Retrieved 2009-03-25.
  127. ^ Amore 2005, 15.
  128. ^ Kettani, H. (2014). The World Muslim Population, History & Prospect. Singapore: Research Publishing Service
  129. ^ Statistical Office of Montenegro. "Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, etnicity, religion and mother tongue, per municipalities" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  130. ^ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2008, 11.
  131. ^ "90 ülkeden 2 bin Türk işadamı geliyor". Sabah. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  132. ^ Statistics Norway. "Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background 1 January 2010". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  133. ^ Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Poland". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  134. ^ Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Portugal". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  135. ^ National Institute of Statistics 2011, 10
  136. ^ Phinnemore 2006, 4.
  137. ^ Constantin, Goschin & Dragusin 2008, 59.
  138. ^ Ryazantsev 2009, 159.
  139. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности - „Остали" етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени" (PDF).
  140. ^ Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. "Long-term immigration by country of last residence and age in 2006". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  141. ^ Statistical Office Of The Republic Of Slovenia. "Population by ethnic affiliation, Slovenia, Census 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2002". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  142. ^ Hürriyet Daily News. "Turkey 'more democratic' under Erdoğan, says Spanish Muslim leader". Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  143. ^ Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. "Turkiet är en viktig bro mellan Öst och Väst". Retrieved 2011-04-14.
  144. ^ Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. "Ankara Historia". Retrieved 2011-04-14.
  145. ^ Hava, Ergin (15 April 2011). "Swedish trade minister Ewa Björling calls on Turkey to cooperate in third countries". Sundays Zaman. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  146. ^ Laczko, Stacher & Klekowski von Koppenfels 2002, 187.
  147. ^ The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. "Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Turkey". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  148. ^ The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. "Diaspora und Migrantengemeinschaften aus der Türkei in der Schweiz" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-12-16.
  149. ^ Türkische Gemeinschaft Schweiz. "VERANSTALTUNGEN - PROJEKTE". Retrieved 2011-02-09.
  150. ^ Tapon 2012, 535.
  151. ^ Aydıngün 2006, 14.
  152. ^ "The Turkish Diaspora in Europe and the Euro-Turks Barometer Survey - AICGS". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  153. ^ Pashayan 2012, 82.


^ a: Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia. However the population figures are for the entire state.
^ b: Cyprus is physiographically an island in the water basin of Western Asia and it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
^ c: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the population figures include the entire state.
^ d: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers. However, population figures refer to the entire country.
^ e: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear.
^ f: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. However the population figures include the entire state.


External linksEdit


  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 99 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 13 later withdrew their recognition.