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District (Taiwan)

Districts are administrative subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities of Taiwan. There are two types of district in the administrative scheme.

District
CategoryTownships/cities and districts
LocationTaiwan
Found inSpecial municipality, city
Created byLocal Government Act[1]
Created1999-01-25
Number170 (as of 2019)
GovernmentNone[i]
SubdivisionsVillage

Regular districts are governed as branches of the municipality/city government of the city government. District chiefs appointed by the mayors, with four years of term. The special municipal mountain indigenous district is a type of local government body. District chiefs as well as district council members are directly elected by the people in the district with four years of term.

TerminologyEdit

Name Chinese Mandarin
Pinyin
Taiwanese
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
District khu
Mountain indigenous district 直轄市山地原住民區 zhíxiáshì shāndì
yuánzhùmín qū
Ti̍t-hat-chhī soaⁿ-tē
goân-chū-bîn khu

HistoryEdit

The first administrative divisions entitled "districts" were established in the 1900s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the World War II, nine (9) out of eleven (11) prefectural cities established by the Japanese government were reform into provincial cities. These cities are Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan and Taipei. The wards ( ku) and towns ( machi) under those cities were merged into larger districts. At the same time, the districts ( kun) under prefectures also reformed as county-controlled districts.

Divisions before 1945 Divisions after 1945 to 1950
Name Kanji Japanese
Hepburn
Taiwanese
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Name Chinese Mandarin
Pinyin
Taiwanese
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Ward (under cities) ku khu District (under cities) khu
District (under prefectures) kun kūn District (under counties) khu

In August 1950, another administrative division reform was performed in Taiwan, the size of counties shrink and all townships are all directly administered by the county. County-controlled districts were all defunct in this reform. At the same time provincial cities including Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Pingtung were downgraded to county-controlled cities, districts of these cities were also defunct. This makes district the type of division exclusively under the five remaining provincial cities: Kaohsiung, Keelung, Taichung, Tainan and Taipei.

When Taipei was promoted as a special municipality by the central government in 1967, several townships surrounding the city were merged into Taipei City and were reorganized as its districts. Afterwards, through another reorganization in 1990, the 12 current districts were formed. In addition, Kaohsiung, the largest city in southern Taiwan, was promoted as a special municipality in 1979. Siaogang Township was also merged to Siaogang District.

In December 2010, the four new special municipalities were established namely Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, and Tainan. Subsequently, all the county-controlled cities and townships in Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei Counties were reformed as districts of the new Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, and New Taipei cities respectively. Their names, nevertheless, remained the same. The same thing happened to Taoyuan on 25 December 2014 where there are additional new 13 districts from the former county.

These municipalities and provincial cities use district administrative centers for public affairs services to serve the residents of these districts. Also, the directors of these districts and administrative centers are appointed by the mayors, with four years per term.

On 4 February 2014, six districts were reclassified as Special Municipal Mountain Indigenous District (Chinese: 直轄市山地原住民區; pinyin: Zhíxiáshì Shāndì Yuánzhùmín Qū; or shortened as Mountain Indigenous District (山地原住民區; Shāndì Yuánzhùmín Qū)): Wulai in New Taipei, Fuxing in Taoyuan, Heping in Taichung, along with Namasia, Maolin, and Taoyuan in Kaohsiung.

DistrictsEdit

In Taiwan, districts are the only subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities. Currently, there are 164 districts and 6 mountain indigenous districts located in the special municipalities and the provincial cities.

Former districtsEdit

District changes between 1945 and 1950Edit

City Districts Aftermath
1945 – 1946 1946 – 1950
Changhua Chang-pei (彰北區) Changhua county-controlled city
Districts were defunct
Chang-hsi (彰西區)
Chang-nan (彰南區)
Ta-chu (大竹區)
Chiayi Tung-men (東門區) Hsin-tung (新東區) Chiayi county-controlled city
Districts were defunct
Then East and West Districts, Chiayi (provincial city)
Tung-shan (東山區)
Nan-men (南門區) Hsin-nan (新南區)
Pa-chiang (八獎區)
Hsi-men (西門區) Hsin-hsi (新西區)
Chu-wei (竹圍區)
Pei-men (北門區) Hsin-pei (新北區)
Pei-chen (北鎮區)
(part of
Tainan County)
Shui-shang (水上區) Shuishang Township, Chiayi County
Tai-pao (太保區) Taibao City, Chiayi County
Hsinchu East (東區) Hsinchu county-controlled city
Districts were defunct
Then East and North Districts, Hsinchu (provincial city)
South (南區)
West (西區)
North (北區)
Hsiang-shan (香山區) Hsiang-shan Township in Hsinchu County,
then Xiangshan District, Hsinchu (provincial city)
(part of
Hsinchu County)
Chu-tung (竹東區) Zhudong Township, Hsinchu County
Pao-shan (寶山區) Baoshan Township, Hsinchu County
Pingtung Central (中區) Pingtung county-controlled city
Districts were defunct
East (東區)
South (南區)
North (北區)
(part of
Kaohsiung County)
Wan-tan (萬丹區) Wandan Township, Pingtung County
Chang-chih (長治區) Changzhi and Linluo Townships, Pingtung County
Chiu-ju (九如區) Jiuru Township, Pingtung County

District reforms in TaipeiEdit

1945 – 1968 1968 – 1990 After 1990
Chien-cheng (建成區) Datong
Yen-ping (延平區)
Ta-tung (大同區)
Cheng-chung (城中區) Zhongzheng
Ku-ting (古亭區)
Shuang-yuan (雙園區) Wanhua
Lung-shan (龍山區)
(part of
Taipei County)
Ching-mei (景美區) Wenshan
Mu-cha (木柵區)

See alsoEdit

Overview of administrative divisions of Taiwan
Republic of China
Free area[ii] Mainland area
Special municipalities[G][iii] Provinces[iv] Not administered[v]
Counties[G] Cities[G][vi]
Districts[O] Mountain indigenous districts[G] Townships and county-administered cities[G][vii] Districts[O]
Villages[O][viii]
Neighborhoods
Notes
[G] Has an administrative body with an elected leader and a legislative body with elected members
[O] Has a governmental office for managing local affairs and carrying out commissioned tasks by superior agency


NotesEdit

  1. ^ Mountain indigenous districts have self-governing bodies consisting of a district office and a representative council; there are currently six such districts
  2. ^ Also known as the Taiwan area or Tai–Min area (Chinese: 臺閩地區; literally: 'Taiwan–Fujian area')
  3. ^ In Chinese, special municipalities, cities, and county-administered cities have the word shi (Chinese: ; literally: 'city') in their official names
  4. ^ Nominal; provincial governments have been abolished
  5. ^ Constitutionally having the same structure as the free area
  6. ^ Cities are sometimes called provincial cities (Chinese: 省轄市) to distinguish them from the other two types of cities.
  7. ^ In Chinese, there are two types of townships: xīang (Chinese: ) and zhèng (Chinese: ); there is little practical difference between the two
  8. ^ In Chinese, villages of xīang townships are known as tsūn (Chinese: ), those of other types are known as (Chinese: )

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Local Government Act - Article Content - Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 13 November 2019.