Timeline of African-American history

This is a timeline of African-American history, the part of history that deals with African Americans.

Europeans arrived in what would become the present day United States of America on August 9, 1526. With them, they brought families from Africa that they had captured and enslaved with intentions of establishing themselves and future generations of Europeans off of the bodies of these African families.

During the American Revolution of 1776–1783, enslaved African Americans in the South escaped to British lines as they were promised freedom to fight with the British; additionally, many free blacks in the North fight with the colonists for the rebellion, and the Vermont Republic (a sovereign nation at the time) becomes the first future state to abolish slavery. Following the Revolution, numerous slaveholders in the Upper South free their slaves.

The importation of slaves became a felony in 1808.

After the American Civil War began in 1861, tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Later on, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued, formally freeing slaves in the Confederate States of America. After the American Civil War ended, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits slavery (except as punishment for crime), was passed in 1865.

In the mid-20th century, the civil rights movement occurred, and racial segregation and discrimination was thus outlawed.

16th century edit



17th century edit



  • John Punch, a Black indentured servant, ran away with three white servants, James, Gregory, and Victor. After the four were captured, Punch was sentenced to serve Virginian planter Hugh Gwyn for life. This made John Punch the first legally documented slave in colonial Virginia.[5][6][7][8][9]


  • John Casor, a Black man who claimed to have completed his term of indenture, became the first legally recognized slave-for-life in a civil case in colonial Virginia. The court ruled with his master who said he had an indefinite servitude for life.[10]


  • The Colony of Virginia, using the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, proclaimed that children in the colony were born into their mother's social status; therefore children born to enslaved mothers were classified as slaves, regardless of their father's ethnicity or status. This was contrary to English common law for English subjects, which held that children took their father's social status.




  • Both free and enslaved African Americans fought in Bacon's Rebellion alongside white indentured servants.[13]


18th century edit


  • The Virginia Slave Codes of 1705 define as slaves all those servants brought into the colony who were not Christian in their original countries, as well as Native American slaves sold by other Indians to colonists.[citation needed]










1776–1783 American Revolution

  • Thousands of enslaved African Americans in the South escape to British lines, as they were promised freedom to fight with the British. In South Carolina, 25,000 enslaved African Americans, one-quarter of those held, escape to the British or otherwise leave their plantations.[24] After the war, many African Americans are evacuated with the British for England; more than 3,000 Black Loyalists are transported with other Loyalists to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, where they are granted land. Still others go to Jamaica and the West Indies. An estimated 8–10,000 were evacuated from the colonies in these years as free people, about 50 percent of those slaves who defected to the British and about 80 percent of those who survived.[25]
  • Many Black Patriots in the North fight with the rebelling colonists during the Revolutionary War.



  • Pennsylvania becomes the first U.S. state to abolish slavery.
  • Capt. Paul Cuffe and six other African American residents of Massachusetts successfully petition the state legislature for the right to vote, claiming "no taxation without representation."[11]


  • In challenges by Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker, two independent county courts in Massachusetts found slavery illegal under state constitution and declared each to be free persons.


  • Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court affirmed that Massachusetts state constitution had abolished slavery. It ruled that "the granting of rights and privileges [was] wholly incompatible and repugnant to" slavery, in an appeal case arising from the escape of former slave Quock Walker. When the British left New York and Charleston in 1783, they took the last of 5,500 Loyalists to the Caribbean, who brought along with them some 15,000 slaves.[26]



1790–1810 Manumission of slaves

  • Following the Revolution, numerous slaveholders in the Upper South free their slaves; the percentage of free blacks rises from less than one to 10 percent. By 1810, 75 percent of all blacks in Delaware are free, and 7.2 percent of blacks in Virginia are free.[29]




19th century edit

1800–1859 edit

Early 19th century




  • January 1 – The importation of slaves is a felony. This is the earliest day under the United States Constitution that a law could be made restricting slavery.



  • The First African Baptist Church had its beginnings in 1817 when John Mason Peck and the former enslaved John Berry Meachum began holding church services for African Americans in St. Louis.[31] Meachum founded the First African Baptist Church in 1827. It was the first African-American church west of the Mississippi River. Although there were ordinances preventing blacks from assembling, the congregation grew from 14 people at its founding to 220 people by 1829. Two hundred of the parishioners were slaves, who could only travel to the church and attend services with the permission of their owners.[32]





  • March 16 - Freedom's Journal, the first African American newspaper in the U.S., begins publication.


  • September – David Walker begins publication of the abolitionist pamphlet Walker's Appeal.



  • William Lloyd Garrison begins publication of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. He declares ownership of a slave is a great sin, and must stop immediately.
  • August – Nat Turner leads the most successful slave rebellion in U.S. history. The rebellion is suppressed, but only after many deaths.




  • February – The first Institute of Higher Education for African Americans is founded. Founded as the African Institute in February 1837 and renamed the Institute of Coloured Youth (ICY) in April 1837 and now known as Cheyney University of Pennsylvania.




  • The U.S. Supreme Court rules, in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842), that states do not have to offer aid in the hunting or recapture of slaves, greatly weakening the fugitive slave law of 1793.


  • June 1 – Isabella Baumfree, a former slave, changes her name to Sojourner Truth and begins to preach for the abolition of slavery.
  • August – Henry Highland Garnet delivers his famous speech Call to Rebellion.













1860–1874 edit


  • April 12 – The American Civil War begins (secessions began in December 1860), and lasts until April 9, 1865. Tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Contraband camps were set up in some areas, where blacks started learning to read and write. Others traveled with the Union Army. By the end of the war, more than 180,000 African Americans, mostly from the South, fought with the Union Army and Navy as members of the US Colored Troops and sailors.
  • May 2 – The first North American military unit with African-American officers is the 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army (disbanded in February 1862).
  • May 24 – General Benjamin Butler refuses to extradite three escaped slaves, declaring them contraband of war
  • August 6 – The Confiscation Act of 1861 authorizes the confiscation of any Confederate property, including all slaves who fought or worked for the Confederate military.
  • August 30 – Frémont Emancipation in Missouri
  • September 11 – Lincoln orders Frémont to rescind the edict.


1863–1877 Reconstruction Era


1863 Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery.


  • April 12 – The Battle of Fort Pillow, which results in controversy about whether a massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned.
  • October 13 – Controversial election results in approval of Maryland Constitution of 1864; emancipation in Maryland.



  • April 9 – The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed by Congress over Johnson's presidential veto. All persons born in the United States are now citizens.
  • The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Pulaski, Tennessee, made up of white Confederate veterans; it becomes a paramilitary insurgent group to enforce white supremacy.
  • May 1–3 – The Memphis Massacre transpires.
  • July – New Orleans Riot: white citizens riot against blacks.
  • July 21 – Southern Homestead Act of 1866 opens 46 million acres of land in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi; African Americans have priority access until January 1, 1877.
  • September 21 – The U.S. Army regiment of Buffalo Soldiers (African Americans) is formed.
  • One version of the Second Freedmen's Bureau Act is vetoed and fails; another is vetoed and passed via override in July.





  • October 10 – Octavius Catto, a civil rights activist, is murdered during harassment of blacks on Election Day in Philadelphia.
  • US Civil Rights Act of 1871 passed, also known as the Klan Act and Third Enforcement Act.


  • December 11 – P. B. S. Pinchback is sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Disputed gubernatorial election in Louisiana cause political violence for more than two years. Both Republican and Democratic governors hold inaugurations and certify local officials.
  • Elijah McCoy patented his first invention, an automatic lubricator that supplied oil to moving parts while a machine was still operating.[37]


  • April 14 – In the Slaughter-House Cases the U.S. Supreme Court votes 5–4 for a narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court also discusses dual citizenship: State citizens and U.S. citizens.
  • Easter – The Colfax Massacre; more than 100 blacks in the Red River area of Louisiana are killed when attacked by white militia after defending Republicans in local office – continuing controversy from gubernatorial election.
  • The Coushatta Massacre transpires. Republican officeholders are run out of town and murdered by white militia before leaving the state – four of six were relatives of a Louisiana state senator, a northerner who had settled in the South, married into a local family and established a plantation. Five to twenty black witnesses are also killed.


  • Founding of paramilitary groups that act as the "military arm of the Democratic Party": the White League in Louisiana and the Red Shirts in Mississippi, and North and South Carolina. They terrorize blacks and Republicans, turning them out of office, killing some, disrupting rallies, and suppressing voting.
  • September – In New Orleans, continuing political violence erupts related to the still-contested gubernatorial election of 1872. Thousands of the White League armed militia march into New Orleans, then the seat of government, where they outnumber the integrated city police and black state militia forces. They defeat Republican forces and demand that Gov. Kellogg leave office. The Democratic candidate McEnery is installed and White Leaguers occupy the capitol, state house and arsenal. This was called the "Battle of Liberty Place". The White League and McEnery withdraw after three days in advance of federal troops arriving to reinforce the Republican state government.

1875–1899 edit




  • With the Compromise of 1877, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes withdraws federal troops from the South in exchange for being elected President of the United States, causing the collapse of the last three remaining Republican state governments. The compromise formally ends the Reconstruction Era.


  • Spring – Thousands of African Americans refuse to live under segregation in the South and migrate to Kansas. They become known as Exodusters.


  • In Strauder v. West Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that African Americans could not be excluded from juries.
  • During the 1880s, African Americans in the South reach a peak of numbers in being elected and holding local offices, even while white Democrats are working to assert control at state level.[citation needed]



  • Lewis Latimer invented the first long-lasting filament for light bulbs and installed his lighting system in New York City, Philadelphia, and Canada. Later, he became one of the 28 members of Thomas Edison's Pioneers.[38]
  • A biracial populist coalition achieves power in Virginia (briefly). The legislature founds the first public college for African Americans, Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, as well as the first mental hospital for African Americans, both near Petersburg, Virginia. The hospital was established in December 1869, at Howard's Grove Hospital, a former Confederate unit, but is moved to a new campus in 1882.


  • October 16 – In Civil Rights Cases, the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 as unconstitutional.


  • Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published, featuring the admirable African-American character Jim.
  • Judy W. Reed, of Washington, D.C., and Sarah E. Goode, of Chicago, are the first African-American women inventors to receive patents. Signed with an "X", Reed's patent no. 305,474, granted September 23, 1884, is for a dough kneader and roller. Goode's patent for a cabinet bed, patent no. 322,177, is issued on July 14, 1885. Goode, the owner of a Chicago furniture store, invented a folding bed that could be formed into a desk when not in use.
  • Ida B. Wells sues the Chesapeake, Ohio & South Western Railroad Company for its use of segregated "Jim Crow" cars.



  • October 3 – The State Normal School for Colored Students, which would become Florida A&M University, is founded.


  • Mississippi, with a white Democrat-dominated legislature, passes a new constitution that effectively disfranchises most blacks through voter registration and electoral requirements, e.g., poll taxes, residency tests and literacy tests. This shuts them out of the political process, including service on juries and in local offices.
  • By 1900 two-thirds of the farmers in the bottomlands of the Mississippi Delta are African Americans who cleared and bought land after the Civil War.[39]


  • Ida B. Wells publishes her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases.





  • Louisiana enacts the first statewide grandfather clause that provides exemption for illiterate whites to voter registration literacy test requirements.
  • In Williams v. Mississippi the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the voter registration and election provisions of Mississippi's constitution because they applied to all citizens. Effectively, however, they disenfranchise blacks and poor whites. The result is that other southern states copy these provisions in their new constitutions and amendments through 1908, disfranchising most African Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites until the 1960s.
  • November 10 – Coup d'état begins in Wilmington, North Carolina, resulting in considerable loss of life and property in the African-American community and the installation of a white supremacist Democratic Party regime.


20th century edit

1900–1949 edit


  • Since the Civil War, 30,000 African-American teachers had been trained and put to work in the South. The majority of blacks had become literate.[42]




  • May 15 – Sigma Pi Phi, the first African-American Greek-letter organization, is founded by African-American men as a professional organization, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Orlando, Florida hires its first black postman.[citation needed]


  • July 11 – First meeting of the Niagara Movement, an interracial group to work for civil rights.[44]





  • February 12 – Planned first meeting of group which would become the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group devoted to civil rights. The meeting actually occurs on May 31, but February 12 is normally cited as the NAACP's founding date.
  • May 31 – The National Negro Committee meets and is formed; it will be the precursor to the NAACP.
  • August 14 – A lynch mob moves through Springfield, Illinois burning the homes and businesses of black people and black sympathisers, killing many.


  • May 30 – The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name.
  • September 29 – Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed; the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League.
  • The NAACP begins publishing The Crisis.



1914 January 9 – Phi Beta Sigma fraternity was founded at Howard University

  • Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson orders physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.[45][46][47]



  • January – Carter Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history.
  • March 23 – Marcus Garvey arrives in the U.S. (see Garveyism).
  • Los Angeles hires the country's first black female police officer.[citation needed]
  • The Great Migration begins and lasts until 1940. Approximately one and a half million African Americans move from the Southern United States to the North and Midwest. More than five million migrate in the Second Great Migration from 1940 to 1970, which includes more destinations in California and the West.



  • Mary Turner was a 33-year-old lynched in Lowndes County, Georgia who was Eight months pregnant. Turner and her child were murdered after she publicly denounced the extrajudicial killing of her husband by a mob. Her death is considered a stark example of racially motivated mob violence in the American south, and was referenced by the NAACP's anti-lynching campaign of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.





  • November 12 – Sigma Gamma Rho sorority, was founded at Butler University



  • Knights of Columbus commissions and publishes The Gift of Black Folk: The Negroes in the Making of America by civil rights activist and NAACP cofounder W. E. B. Du Bois as part of the organization's Racial Contribution Series.
  • Spelman Seminary becomes Spelman College.

1925–1949 edit









  • Hocutt v. Wilson unsuccessfully challenged segregation in higher education in the United States.







1940s to 1970

  • Second Great Migration – In multiple acts of resistance and in response to factory labor shortages in World War II, more than 5 million African Americans leave the violence and segregation of the South for jobs, education, and the chance to vote in northern, midwestern, and western cities (mainly to the West Coast).






1945–1975 The Civil Rights Movement.


  • April 5–6 – Freeman Field Mutiny, in which black officers of the U.S. Army Air Corps attempt to desegregate an all-white officers' club in Indiana.
  • August – The first issue of Ebony.[57]





1950–1959 edit





  • January 5 – Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge criticizes television shows for depicting blacks and whites as equal.
  • January 28 – Briggs v. Elliott: after a District Court had ordered separate but equal school facilities in South Carolina, the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear the case as part of Brown v. Board of Education.
  • March 7 – Another federal court upholds segregated education laws in Virginia.
  • April 1 – Chancellor Collins J. Seitz finds for the black plaintiffs (Gebhart v. Belton, Gebhart v. Bulah) and orders the integration of Hockessin elementary and Claymont High School in Delaware based on assessment of "separate but equal" public school facilities required by the Delaware constitution.
  • September 4 – Eleven black students attend the first day of school at Claymont High School, Delaware, becoming the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurs without incident or notice by the community.
  • September 5 – The Delaware State Attorney General informs Claymont Superintendent Stahl that the black students will have to go home because the case is being appealed. Stahl, the School Board and the faculty refuse and the students remain. The two Delaware cases are argued before the Warren U.S. Supreme Court by Redding, Greenberg and Marshall and are used as an example of how integration can be achieved peacefully. It was a primary influence in the Brown v. Board case. The students become active in sports, music and theater. The first two black students graduated in June 1954 just one month after the Brown v. Board case.
  • Ralph Ellison authors the novel Invisible Man which wins the National Book Award.



  • May 3 – In Hernandez v. Texas, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States are entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • May 17 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • July 11 – The first White Citizens' Council meeting takes place, in Mississippi.
  • July 30 – At a special meeting in Jackson, Mississippi called by Governor Hugh White, T.R.M. Howard of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, along with nearly one hundred other black leaders, publicly refuse to support a segregationist plan to maintain "separate but equal" in exchange for a crash program to increase spending on black schools.
  • September 2 – In Montgomery, Alabama, 23 black children are prevented from attending all-white elementary schools, defying the recent U.S. Supreme Court ruling.
  • September 7 – District of Columbia ends segregated education; Baltimore, Maryland follows suit on September 8
  • September 15 – Protests by white parents in White Sulphur Springs, WV force schools to postpone desegregation another year.
  • September 16 – Mississippi responds by abolishing all public schools with an amendment to its State Constitution.
  • September 30 – Integration of a high school in Milford, Delaware collapses when white students boycott classes.
  • October 4 – Student demonstrations take place against integration of Washington, DC public schools.
  • October 19 – Federal judge upholds an Oklahoma law requiring African-American candidates to be identified on voting ballots as "negro".
  • October 30 – Desegregation of U.S. Armed Forces said to be complete.
  • November – Charles Diggs Jr., of Detroit is elected to Congress, the first African American elected from Michigan.
  • Frankie Muse Freeman is the lead attorney for the landmark NAACP case Davis et al. v. the St. Louis Housing Authority, which ended legal racial discrimination in public housing with the city. Constance Baker Motley was also an attorney for NAACP: it was a rarity to have two women attorneys leading such a high-profile case.


  • January 7 – Marian Anderson (of 1939 fame) becomes the first African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera.
  • January 15 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10590, establishing the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce a nondiscrimination policy in Federal employment.
  • January 20 – Demonstrators from CORE and Morgan State University stage a successful sit-in to desegregate Read's Drug Store in Baltimore, Maryland
  • April 5 – Mississippi passes a law penalizing white students who attend school with blacks with jail and fines.
Rosa Parks pictured in 1955
  • May 7 – NAACP and Regional Council of Negro Leadership activist Reverend George W. Lee is killed in Belzoni, Mississippi.
  • May 31 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in "Brown II" that desegregation must occur with "all deliberate speed".
  • June 8 – University of Oklahoma decides to allow black students.
  • June 23 – Virginia governor and Board of Education decide to continue segregated schools into 1956.
  • June 29 – The NAACP wins a U.S. Supreme Court suit which orders the University of Alabama to admit Autherine Lucy.
  • July 11 – Georgia Board of Education orders that any teacher supporting integration be fired.
  • July 14 – A Federal Appeals Court overturns segregation on Columbia, SC buses.
  • August 1 – Georgia Board of Education fires all black teachers who are members of the NAACP.
  • August 13 – Regional Council of Negro Leadership registration activist Lamar Smith is murdered in Brookhaven, Mississippi.
  • August 28 – Teenager Emmett Till is killed for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi.
  • November 7 – The Interstate Commerce Commission bans bus segregation in interstate travel in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, extending the logic of Brown v. Board to the area of bus travel across state lines. On the same day, the U.S. Supreme Court bans segregation on public parks and playgrounds. The governor of Georgia responds that his state would "get out of the park business" rather than allow playgrounds to be desegregated.
  • December 1 – Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, starting the Montgomery bus boycott. This occurs nine months after 15-year-old high school student Claudette Colvin became the first to refuse to give up her seat. Colvin's was the legal case which eventually ended the practice in Montgomery.
  • Roy Wilkins becomes the NAACP executive secretary.


  • January 2 – Georgia Tech president Blake R. Van Leer stands up to Governor Marvin Griffin threats to bar Georgia Tech and Pittsburgh player Bobby Grier over segregation.
  • January 9 – Virginia voters and representatives decide to fund private schools with state money to maintain segregation.
  • January 16 – FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover writes a rare open letter of complaint directed to civil rights leader T. R. M. Howard after Howard charged in a speech that the "FBI can pick up pieces of a fallen airplane on the slopes of a Colorado mountain and find the man who caused the crash, but they can't find a white man when he kills a Negro in the South."[60]
  • January 24 – Governors of Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia agree to block integration of schools.
  • February 1 – Virginia legislature passes a resolution that the U.S. Supreme Court integration decision was an "illegal encroachment".
  • February 3 – Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama. Whites riot for days, and she is suspended. Later, she is expelled for her part in further legal action against the university.
  • February 24 – The policy of Massive Resistance is declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr.
  • February/March – The Southern Manifesto, opposing integration of schools, is created and signed by members of the Congressional delegations of Southern states, including 19 senators and 81 members of the House of Representatives, notably the entire delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. On March 12, it is released to the press.
  • February 13 – Wilmington, Delaware school board decides to end segregation.
  • February 22 – Ninety black leaders in Montgomery, Alabama are arrested for leading a bus boycott.
  • February 29 – Mississippi legislature declares U.S. Supreme Court integration decision "invalid" in that state.
  • March 1 – Alabama legislature votes to ask for federal funds to deport blacks to northern states.
  • March 12 – U.S. Supreme Court orders the University of Florida to admit a black law school applicant "without delay".
  • March 22 – Martin Luther King Jr. sentenced to fine or jail for instigating Montgomery bus boycott, suspended pending appeal.
  • April 11 – Singer Nat King Cole is assaulted during a segregated performance at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • April 23 – U.S. Supreme Court strikes down segregation on buses nationwide.
  • May 26 – Circuit Judge Walter B. Jones issues an injunction prohibiting the NAACP from operating in Alabama.
  • May 28 – The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins.
  • June 5 – The Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) is founded at a mass meeting in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • September 2–11 – Teargas and National Guard used to quell segregationists rioting in Clinton, TN; 12 black students enter high school under Guard protection. Smaller disturbances occur in Mansfield, TX and Sturgis, KY.
  • September 10 – Two black students are prevented by a mob from entering a junior college in Texarkana, Texas. Schools in Louisville, KY are successfully desegregated.
  • September 12 – Four black children enter an elementary school in Clay, KY under National Guard protection; white students boycott. The school board bars the 4 again on September 17.
  • October 15 – Integrated athletic or social events are banned in Louisiana.
  • November 5 – Nat King Cole hosts the first show of The Nat King Cole Show. The show went off the air after only 13 months because no national sponsor could be found.
  • November 13 – In Browder v. Gayle, the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Alabama laws requiring segregation of buses. This ruling, together with the ICC's 1955 ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach banning "Jim Crow laws" in bus travel among the states, is a landmark in outlawing "Jim Crow" in bus travel.
  • December 20 – Federal marshals enforce the ruling to desegregate bus systems in Montgomery.
  • December 24 – Blacks in Tallahassee, Florida begin defying segregation on city buses.
  • December 25 – The parsonage in Birmingham, Alabama occupied by Fred Shuttlesworth, movement leader, is bombed. Shuttlesworth receives only minor scrapes.
  • December 26 – The ACMHR tests the Browder v. Gayle ruling by riding in the white sections of Birmingham city buses. 22 demonstrators are arrested.
  • Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission formed.
  • Director J. Edgar Hoover orders the FBI to begin the COINTELPRO program to investigate and disrupt "dissident" groups within the United States.


  • February 8 – Georgia Senate votes to declare the 14th and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution null and void in that state.
  • February 14 – Southern Christian Leadership Conference is formed; Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is named its chairman.
  • April 18 – Florida Senate votes to consider U.S. Supreme Court's desegregation decisions "null and void".
  • May 17 – The Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom in Washington, DC is at the time the largest nonviolent demonstration for civil rights, and features Dr. King's "Give Us The Ballot" speech.
  • September 2 – Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to block integration of Little Rock Central High School.
  • September 6 – Federal judge orders Nashville public schools to integrate immediately.
  • September 15 – New York Times reports that in three years since the decision, there has been minimal progress toward integration in four southern states, and no progress at all in seven.
  • September 24 – President Dwight Eisenhower federalizes the National Guard and also orders US Army troops to ensure Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas is integrated. Federal and National Guard troops escort the Little Rock Nine.
  • September 27 – Civil Rights Act of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower.
  • October 7 – The finance minister of Ghana is refused service at a Dover, Delaware restaurant. President Eisenhower hosts him at the White House to apologize October 10.
  • October 9 – Florida legislature votes to close any school if federal troops are sent to enforce integration.
  • October 31 – Officers of NAACP arrested in Little Rock for failing to comply with a new financial disclosure ordinance.
  • November 26 – Texas legislature votes to close any school where federal troops might be sent.


  • January 18 – Willie O'Ree breaks the color barrier in the National Hockey League, in his first game playing for the Boston Bruins.
  • June 29 – Bethel Baptist Church (Birmingham, Alabama) is bombed by Ku Klux Klan members, killing four girls.
  • June 30 – In NAACP v. Alabama, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the NAACP was not required to release membership lists to continue operating in the state.
  • July – NAACP Youth Council sponsored sit-ins at the lunch counter of a Dockum Drug Store in downtown Wichita, Kansas. After three weeks, the movement successfully got the store to change its policy of segregated seating, and soon afterward all Dockum stores in Kansas were desegregated.
  • August 19 – Clara Luper and the NAACP Youth Council conduct the largest successful sit-in to date, on drug store lunch-counters in Oklahoma City. This starts a successful six-year campaign by Luper and the council to desegregate businesses and related institutions in Oklahoma City.
  • August – Jimmy Wilson sentenced to death in Alabama for stealing $1.95; Secretary of State John Foster Dulles asks Governor Jim Folsom to commute his sentence because of international criticism.
  • September 2 – Governor J. Lindsay Almond of Virginia threatens to shut down any school if it is forced to integrate.
  • September 4 – Justice Department sues under Civil Rights Act to force Terrell County, Georgia to register blacks to vote.
  • September 8 – A Federal judge orders Louisiana State University to desegregate; 69 African Americans enroll successfully on September 12.
  • September 12 – In Cooper v. Aaron the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the states were bound by the Court's decisions. Governor Faubus responds by shutting down all four high schools in Little Rock, and Governor Almond shuts one in Front Royal, Virginia.
  • September 18 – Governor Lindsay closes two more schools in Charlottesville, Virginia, and six in Norfolk on September 27.
  • September 29 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that states may not use evasive measures to avoid desegregation.
  • October 8 – A Federal judge in Harrisonburg, VA rules that public money may not be used for segregated private schools.
  • October 20 – Thirteen blacks arrested for sitting in front of bus in Birmingham.
  • November 28 – Federal court throws out Louisiana law against integrated athletic events.
  • December 8 – Voter registration officials in Montgomery refuse to cooperate with US Civil Rights Commission investigation.
  • Publication of Here I Stand, Paul Robeson's manifesto-autobiography.


  • January 9 – One Federal judge throws out segregation on Atlanta, GA buses, while another orders Montgomery registrars to comply with the Civil Rights Commission.
  • January 12 – Motown Records is founded by Berry Gordy.
  • January 19 – Federal Appeals court overturns Virginia's closure of the schools in Norfolk; they reopen January 28 with 17 black students.
  • February 2 – A high school in Arlington, VA desegregates, allowing four black students.
  • April 10 – Three schools in Alexandria, Virginia desegregate with a total of nine black students.
  • April 18 – King speaks for the integration of schools at a rally of 26,000 at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC.
  • April 24 – Mack Charles Parker is lynched three days before his trial.
  • November 20 – Alabama passes laws to limit black voter registration.
  • A Raisin in the Sun, a play by Lorraine Hansberry, debuts on Broadway. The 1961 film version will star Sidney Poitier.[57]

1960–1969 edit



  • January 11 – Rioting over court-ordered admission of first two African Americans (Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne Hunter-Gault) at the University of Georgia leads to their suspension, but they are ordered reinstated.
  • January 31 – Member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and nine students were arrested in Rock Hill, South Carolina for a sit-in at a McCrory's lunch counter.
  • March 6 – JFK issues Executive Order 10925, which establishes a Presidential committee that later becomes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
  • May 4 – The first group of Freedom Riders, with the intent of integrating interstate buses, leaves Washington, D.C. by Greyhound bus. The group, organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), leaves shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court has outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals.[63]
  • May 14 – The Freedom Riders' bus is attacked and burned outside of Anniston, Alabama. A mob beats the Freedom Riders upon their arrival in Birmingham. The Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi, and spend forty to sixty days in Parchman Penitentiary.[63]
  • May 17 – the Nashville Student Movement, coordinated by Diane Nash and James Bevel, takes up the Freedom Ride, signaling the increased involvement of SNCC.
  • May 20 – Freedom Riders are assaulted in Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station.
  • May 21 – Dr. King, the Freedom Riders, and congregation of 1,500 at Reverend Ralph Abernathy's First Baptist Church in Montgomery are besieged by mob of segregationists; Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sends federal marshals to protect them.
  • May 29 – Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, citing the 1955 landmark ICC ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company and the U.S. Supreme Court's 1960 decision in Boynton v. Virginia, petitions the ICC to enforce desegregation in interstate travel.
  • June–August – U.S. Department of Justice initiates talks with civil rights groups and foundations on beginning Voter Education Project.
  • July – SCLC begins citizenship classes; Andrew J. Young hired to direct the program. Bob Moses begins voter registration in McComb, Mississippi.
  • September – James Forman becomes SNCC's Executive Secretary.
  • September 23 – The Interstate Commerce Commission, at Robert F. Kennedy's insistence, issues new rules ending discrimination in interstate travel, effective November 1, 1961, six years after the ICC's own ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company.
  • September 25 – Voter registration activist Herbert Lee killed in McComb, Mississippi.
  • November 1 – All interstate buses required to display a certificate that reads: "Seating aboard this vehicle is without regard to race, color, creed, or national origin, by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission."[64]
  • November 1 – SNCC workers Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon and nine Chatmon Youth Council members test new ICC rules at Trailways bus station in Albany, Georgia.[65]
  • November 17 – SNCC workers help encourage and coordinate black activism in Albany, Georgia, culminating in the founding of the Albany Movement as a formal coalition.[65]
  • November 22 – Three high school students from Chatmon's Youth Council arrested after using "positive actions" by walking into white sections of the Albany bus station.[65]
  • November 22 – Albany State College students Bertha Gober and Blanton Hall arrested after entering the white waiting room of the Albany Trailways station.[65]
  • December 10 – Freedom Riders from Atlanta, SNCC leader Charles Jones, and Albany State student Bertha Gober are arrested at Albany Union Railway Terminal, sparking mass demonstrations, with hundreds of protesters arrested over the next five days.[66]
  • December 11–15 – Five hundred protesters arrested in Albany, Georgia.
  • December 15 – King arrives in Albany, Georgia in response to a call from W. G. Anderson, the leader of the Albany Movement to desegregate public facilities.[63]
  • December 16 – Dr. King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia demonstration. He is charged with obstructing the sidewalk and parading without a permit.[63]
  • December 18 – Albany truce, including a 60-day postponement of King's trial; King leaves town.[67]
  • Whitney Young is appointed executive director of the National Urban League and begins expanding its size and mission.
  • Black Like Me written by John Howard Griffin, a white southerner who deliberately tanned and dyed his skin to allow him to directly experience the life of the Negro in the Deep South, is published, displaying the brutality of "Jim Crow" segregation to a national audience.


  • January 18–20 – Student protests over sit-in leaders' expulsions at Baton Rouge's Southern University, the nation's largest black school, close it down.
  • February – Representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). A grant request to fund COFO voter registration activities is submitted to the Voter Education Project (VEP).
  • February 26 – Segregated transportation facilities, both interstate and intrastate, ruled unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court.
  • March – SNCC workers sit-in at U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy's office to protest jailings in Baton Rouge.
  • March 20 – FBI installs wiretaps on NAACP activist Stanley Levison's office.
  • April 3 – Defense Department orders full racial integration of military reserve units, except the National Guard.
  • April 9 – Corporal Roman Duckworth shot by a police officer in Taylorsville, Mississippi.
  • June – Leroy Willis becomes first black graduate of the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences.
  • June – SNCC workers establish voter registration projects in rural southwest Georgia.
  • July 10 – August 28 SCLC renews protests in Albany; King in jail July 10–12 and July 27 – August 10.
  • August 31 – Fannie Lou Hamer attempts to register to vote in Indianola, Mississippi.
  • September 9 – Two black churches used by SNCC for voter registration meetings are burned in Sasser, Georgia.
  • September 20 – James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
  • September 30-October 1 – U.S. Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black orders James Meredith admitted to Ole Miss.; he enrolls and a riot ensues. French photographer Paul Guihard and Oxford resident Ray Gunter are killed.
  • October – Leflore County, Mississippi, supervisors cut off surplus food distribution in retaliation against voter drive.
  • October 23 – FBI begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC.
  • November 7–8 – Edward Brooke selected Massachusetts Attorney General, Leroy Johnson elected Georgia State Senator, Augustus F. Hawkins elected first black from California in Congress.
  • November 20 – Attorney General Kennedy authorizes FBI wiretap on Stanley Levison's home telephone.
  • November 20 – President Kennedy upholds 1960 presidential campaign promise to eliminate housing segregation by signing Executive Order 11063 banning segregation in Federally funded housing.


  • January 18 – Incoming Alabama governor George Wallace calls for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in his inaugural address.
  • April 3–May 10 – The Birmingham campaign, organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights challenges city leaders and business owners in Birmingham, Alabama, with daily mass demonstrations.
  • April – Mary Lucille Hamilton, Field Secretary for the Congress of Racial Equality, refuses to answer a judge in Gadsden, Alabama, until she is addressed by the honorific "Miss". It was the custom of the time to address white people by honorifics and people of color by their first names. Hamilton is jailed for contempt of court and refuses to pay bail. The case Hamilton v. Alabama is filed by the NAACP. It was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in 1964 that courts must address persons of color with the same courtesy extended to whites.
  • April 7 – Ministers John Thomas Porter, Nelson H. Smith and A. D. King lead a group of 2,000 marchers to protest the jailing of movement leaders in Birmingham.
  • April 12 – Dr. King is arrested in Birmingham for "parading without a permit".
  • April 16 – Dr. King's Letter from Birmingham Jail is completed.
  • April 23 – CORE activist William L. Moore is murdered in Gadsden, Alabama.
  • May 2–4 – Birmingham's juvenile court is inundated with African-American children and teenagers arrested after James Bevel launches his "D-Day" youth march. The actions spans three days to become the Birmingham Children's Crusade.[68]
  • May 9–10 – After images of fire hoses and police dogs turned on protesters are televised, the Children's Crusade lays the groundwork for the terms of a negotiated truce on Thursday, May 9 puts an end to mass demonstrations in return for rolling back oppressive segregation laws and practices. Dr. King and Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth announce the settlement terms on Friday, May 10, only after King holds out to orchestrate the release of thousands of jailed demonstrators with bail money from Harry Belafonte and Robert Kennedy.[69]
  • May 11–12 – Double bombing in Birmingham, probably conducted by the KKK in cooperation with local police, precipitates rioting, police retaliation, intervention of state troopers, and finally mobilization of federal troops.
  • May 13 – In United States of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. the City of Jackson, Mississippi et al., the United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit rules the city's attempt to circumvent laws desegregating interstate transportation facilities by posting sidewalk signs outside Greyhound, Trailways and Illinois Central terminals reading "Waiting Room for White Only — By Order Police Department" and "Waiting Room for Colored Only – By Order Police Department" to be unlawful.[70]
  • May 24 – A group of Black leaders (assembled by James Baldwin) meets with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to discuss race relations.
  • May 29 – Violence escalates at NAACP picket of Philadelphia construction site.[71]
  • May 30 – Police attack Florida A&M anti-segregation demonstrators with tear gas; arrest 257.[72]
  • June 9 – Fannie Lou Hamer is among several SNCC workers badly beaten by police in the Winona, Mississippi, jail after their bus stops there.
  • June 11 – "The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door": Alabama Governor George Wallace stands in front of a schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama in an attempt to stop desegregation by the enrollment of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. Wallace only stands aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard. Later in life he apologizes for his opposition to racial integration then.
  • June 11 – President Kennedy makes his historic civil rights address, promising a bill to Congress the next week. About civil rights for "Negroes", in his speech he asks for "the kind of equality of treatment which we would want for ourselves."
  • June 12 – NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers is assassinated in Jackson, Mississippi. (His murderer is convicted in 1994.)[73]
  • Summer – 80,000 blacks quickly register to vote in Mississippi by a test project to show their desire to participate.
  • June 19 – President Kennedy sends Congress (H. Doc. 124, 88th Cong., 1st session) his proposed Civil Rights Act.[74] White leaders in business and philanthropy gather at the Carlyle Hotel to raise initial funds for the Council on United Civil Rights Leadership
  • August 28 – Gwynn Oak Amusement Park in Northwest Baltimore, County, Maryland is desegregated.
  • August 28 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is held. King gives his I Have a Dream speech.[75]
  • September 10 – Birmingham, Alabama City Schools are integrated by National Guardsmen under orders from President Kennedy.
  • September 15 – 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham kills four young girls. That same day, in response to the killings, James Bevel and Diane Nash begin the Alabama Project, which will later grow into the Selma Voting Rights Movement.
  • September 19 - Iota Phi Theta fraternity was founded at Morgan State College (now Morgan State University)
  • November 10 – Malcolm X delivers "Message to the Grass Roots" speech, calling for unity against the white power structure and criticizing the March on Washington.
  • November 22 – President Kennedy is assassinated. The new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, decides that accomplishing Kennedy's legislative agenda is his best strategy, which he pursues.[76]


The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.





  • February 1 – Two Memphis sanitation workers are killed in the line of duty, exacerbating labor tensions.
  • February 8 – The Orangeburg massacre occurs during university protest in South Carolina.
  • February 12 – First day of the (wildcat) Memphis sanitation strike
  • March – While filming a prime time television special, Petula Clark touches Harry Belafonte's arm during a duet. Chrysler Corporation, the show's sponsor, insists the moment be deleted, but Clark stands firm, destroys all other takes of the song, and delivers the completed program to NBC with the touch intact. The show is broadcast on April 8, 1968.[82]
  • April 3 – King returns to Memphis; delivers "Mountaintop" speech.
  • April 4 – Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • April 4–8 and one in May 1968 – In response to the killing of Dr. King, over 150 cities experience rioting.
  • April 11 – Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed. The Fair Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act – it bans discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. The law is passed following a series of contentious open housing campaigns throughout the urban North. The most significant of these campaigns were the Chicago Open Housing Movement of 1966 and organized events in Milwaukee during 1967–68. In both cities, angry white mobs attacked nonviolent protesters.[83][84]
  • May 12 – Poor People's Campaign marches on Washington, DC.
  • June 6 – Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, is assassinated after winning the California presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory.
  • September 17 – Diahann Carroll stars in the title role in Julia, as the first African-American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker.
  • October 3 – The play The Great White Hope opens; it runs for 546 performances and later becomes a film.
  • October – Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games.
  • November 22 – First interracial kiss on American television, between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek.
  • In Powe v. Miles, a federal court holds that the portions of private colleges that are funded by public money are subject to the Civil Rights Act.
  • Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African-American woman elected to Congress.


  • January 8–18 – Student protesters at Brandeis University take over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American Department. This is approved by the University on April 24.
  • February 13 – National Guard with teargas and riot sticks crush a pro-black student demonstration at University of Wisconsin.
  • February 16 – After 3 days of clashes between police and Duke University students, the school agrees to establish a Black Studies program.
  • February 23 – UNC Food Worker Strike begins when workers abandon their positions in Lenoir Hall protesting racial injustice
  • April 3–4 – National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of MLK's assassination.
  • April 19 – Armed African-American students protesting discrimination take over Willard Straight Hall, the student union building at Cornell University. They end the seizure the following day after the university accedes to their demands, including an Afro-American studies program.
  • April 25–28 – Activist students takeover Merrill House at Colgate University demanding Afro-American studies programs.
  • May 8 – City College of New York closed following a two-week-long campus takeover demanding Afro-American and Puerto-Rican studies; riots among students break out when the school tries to reopen.
  • June – The second of two US federal appeals court decisions confirms members of the public hold legal standing to participate in broadcast station license hearings, and under the Fairness Doctrine finds the record of segregationist TV station WLBT beyond repair. The FCC is ordered to open proceedings for a new licensee.[85]
  • September 1–2 – Race rioting in Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.
  • October 29 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education orders immediate desegregation of public schools, signaling the end of the "all deliberate speed" doctrine established in Brown II.
  • December – Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, is shot and killed while asleep in bed during a police raid on his home.
  • United Citizens Party is formed in South Carolina when Democratic Party refuses to nominate African-American candidates.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research founded at Harvard University.
  • The Revised Philadelphia Plan is instituted by the Department of Labor.
  • The Congressional Black Caucus is formed.

1970–2000 edit




  • January 25 – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first major-party African-American candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination.
  • November 16 – In Baton Rouge, two Southern University students are killed by white sheriff deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state. The university's Smith-Brown Memorial Union is named as a memorial to them.
  • November 16 – The infamous Tuskegee syphilis experiment ends. Begun in 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service's 40-year experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis has been described as an experiment that "used human beings as laboratory animals in a long and inefficient study of how long it takes syphilis to kill someone."



  • July 25 – In Milliken v. Bradley, the U.S. Supreme Court in a 5–4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision reinforces the trend of white flight.
  • Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective, the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color formed in New York City.


  • April 30 – In the pilot episode of Starsky and Hutch, Richard Ward plays an African-American supervisor of white American employees for the first time on TV.





















  • June 7 – James Byrd Jr. is brutally murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. The scene is reminiscent of earlier lynchings. In response, Byrd's family create the James Byrd Foundation for Racial Healing.
  • October 23 – The film American History X is released, powerfully highlighting the problems of urban racism.



21st century edit

2001–2010 edit






  • March 26 – Capitol Hill police fail to recognize Cynthia McKinney as a member of Congress.



  • June 3 – Barack Obama receives enough delegates by the end of state primaries to be the presumptive Democratic Party of the United States nominee.[90]
  • July 12 – Cynthia McKinney accepts the Green Party nomination in the Presidential race.
  • July 30 – United States Congress apologizes for slavery and "Jim Crow".
  • August 28 – At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, in a stadium filled with supporters, Barack Obama accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States.
  • November 4 – Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States of America, opening his victory speech with, "If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer."[91]



  • March 14 – Disney officially crowns its first African-American Disney Princess, Tiana.
  • July 19 – Shirley Sherrod first is pressured to resign from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and immediately thereafter receives its apology after she is inaccurately accused of being racist towards white Americans.
  • August 3 – Fair Sentencing Act reducing sentencing disparity between crack and powder cocaine to an 18:1 ratio.

2011–2020 edit








2021-2022 edit



  • A 2022 Buffalo shooting occurs killing 10, with the shooter live streaming the attack on Twitch . The majority of victims are African American, with the shooter driving over 200km to reach the supermarket in which it occurred in.[98]

See also edit

Footnotes edit

  1. ^ Peck, Douglas T. (2001). "Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's Doomed Colony of San Miguel de Gualdape". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 85 (2): 183–198. ISSN 0016-8297. JSTOR 40584407.
  2. ^ Milanich, Jerald T. (2018). Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville: Library Press at UF. ISBN 978-1-947372-45-0. OCLC 1021804892.
  3. ^ Slavery in Colonial Georgia. Original entry by Betty Wood, Girton College, Cambridge, England, 09/19/2002. Last edited by NGE Staff on 09/29/2020. www.google.com/amp/s/m.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/slavery-colonial-georgia%3famp. Retrieved March. 15, 2021.
  4. ^ "Africans, Virginia's First – Encyclopedia Virginia". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  5. ^ Jordan, Winthrop (1968). White Over Black: American attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807871419.
  6. ^ Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  7. ^ Donoghue, John (2010). "Out of the Land of Bondage": The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition" (PDF). The American Historical Review. 115 (4): 943–974. doi:10.1086/ahr.115.4.943.
  8. ^ "Slavery and Indentured Servants". Library of Congress, American Memory. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  9. ^ "John Punch". PBS. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  10. ^ John Henderson Russell. The Free Negro In Virginia, 1619–1865, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1913, pp. 29–30, scanned text online.
  11. ^ a b c d Ponder, Erik. "LibGuides: African American Studies Research Guide: Milestones in Black History". libguides.lib.msu.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  12. ^ Baker, Billy and Crimaldi, Laura. "Black and free, woman bought Boston parcel in 1670." Boston Globe, May 20, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  13. ^ Blackburn, Robin (1998). The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. Verso. pp. 256–58. ISBN 9781859841952.
  14. ^ "Interactive Timeline 1619-2019 | 400 Years of Resistance to Slavery and Injustice". 400years.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  15. ^ Ferenc M. Szasz, "The New York Slave Revolt of 1741: A Re-Examination," New York History (1967): 215–230. in JSTOR
  16. ^ John K. Thornton, "African dimensions of the Stono rebellion," American Historical Review (1991): 1101–1113. in JSTOR
  17. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 288.
  18. ^ Berry, Faith (2001). From Bondage to Liberation. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. p. 50. ISBN 0-8264-1370-6.
  19. ^ Rollins, Charlemae (1965). Famous American Negro Poets. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0396051294.
  20. ^ Kachun, Mitch (Summer 2009). "From Forgotten Founder to Indispensable Icon: Crispus Attucks, Black Citizenship, and Collective Memory". Journal of the Early Republic. 29 (2): 249–86. doi:10.1353/jer.0.0072. S2CID 144216986.
  21. ^ Kachun, Mitch (2017). First Martyr of Liberty: Crispus Attucks in American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199910861.
  22. ^ Phillis Wheatley: America's second Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers by Henry Louis Gates, Basic Civitas Books, 2003, p. 5.
  23. ^ MacLeod, Duncan J. (1974). Slavery, Race and the American Revolution. Cambridge UP. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9780521205023.
  24. ^ "The American Revolution and Slavery", Digital History. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
  25. ^ Cassadra Pybus, "Jefferson's Faulty Math: the Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution", William and Mary Quarterly, 2005, 62#2: 243–264. in JSTOR
  26. ^ Allen, Robert S. (1982). Loyalist Literature: An Annotated Bibliographic Guide to the Writings on the Loyalists of the American Revolution. Dundurn. p. 30. ISBN 9780919670617.
  27. ^ Raboteau, Albert J. (2004). Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-517413-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  28. ^ Brooks, Walter H. (April 1, 1922). "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and its Promoters". The Journal of Negro History. 7 (2): 172–196. doi:10.2307/2713524. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2713524. S2CID 149920027.
  29. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, pp. 78 and 81.
  30. ^ "PBS documentary". PBS. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  31. ^ Wilbon, Roderick (April 28, 2017). "First Baptist Church of St. Louis, oldest African-American church west of the Mississippi River, celebrates its 200th anniversary". Retrieved 2022-02-14.
  32. ^ "First African Baptist Church History (S0006)" (PDF). State Historical Society of Missouri. 1974.
  33. ^ The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself: Electronic Edition. [1] page58
  34. ^ Wormley, G. Smith."Prudence Crandall", The Journal of Negro History Vol. 8, No. 1 January 1923.
  35. ^ "Connecticut's "Black Law" (1833)". Citizens All (project). Yale University. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-03-19. Lacking no legal means to prevent Prudence Crandall from opening her school, Andrew Judson, a local politician, pushed legislation through the Connecticut Assembly outlawing the establishment of schools 'for the instruction of colored persons belonging to other states and countries.'
  36. ^ "Morehouse Legacy". morehouse.edu. Morehouse College. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  37. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 292.
  38. ^ a b Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 293.
  39. ^ John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000
  40. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. pp. 295–296.
  41. ^ Williams, Yvonne, "Harvard", in Young, p. 99.
  42. ^ James D. Anderson, Black Education in the South, 1860–1935, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1988, pp. 244–245.
  43. ^ Sean Dennis Cashman (1992). African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights, 1900-1990. NYU Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 9780814714416.
  44. ^ a b Taylor, Quintard (ed.), "African American History Timeline: 1901-2000", BlackPast.org, Seattle, Washington, retrieved November 1, 2014
  45. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 41. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  46. ^ Wolgemuth, Kathleen L. (April 1959). "Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation". The Journal of Negro History. 44 (2). Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.: 158–173. doi:10.2307/2716036. JSTOR 2716036. S2CID 150080604.
  47. ^ Blumenthal, Henry (January 1963). "Woodrow Wilson and the Race Question". The Journal of Negro History. 48 (1). Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.: 1–21. doi:10.2307/2716642. JSTOR 2716642. S2CID 149874271.
  48. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 300.
  49. ^ Monroe H. Little, Review of James Madison's A Lynching in the Heartland, History-net Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  50. ^ Angela Y. Davis,Women, Race & Class. New York: Vintage Books, 1983, pp. 194–195.
  51. ^ "America's First Sit-Down Strike: The 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In". City of Alexandria. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  52. ^ "Divine's Followers Give Aid to Strikers – With Evangelist's Sanction They 'Sit Down' in Restaurant". The New York Times. US. September 23, 1939. Retrieved July 20, 2010. [The workers] are seeking wage increases, shorter hours, a closed shop and cessation of what they charge has been racial discrimination.
  53. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 215.
  54. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. pp. 301–302.
  55. ^ "Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944)". Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  56. ^ McGuire, Danielle L. (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. Random House. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-0-307-26906-5.
  57. ^ a b c Jessie Carney Smith, ed. (2010). "Timeline". Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35797-8.
  58. ^ Morgan v. Virginia, 1946
  59. ^ For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology
  60. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009, pp. 154–55.
  61. ^ "The Virginia Center for Digital History". Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  62. ^ Carson, Clayborne (1998). The autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Grand Central Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-446-52412-4.
  63. ^ a b c d The King Center, The Chronology of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. "1961". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  64. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford University Press. p. 439. ISBN 0-19-513674-8.
  65. ^ a b c d Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 527–530. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7.
  66. ^ Branch, pp.533–535
  67. ^ Branch, pp. 555–556
  68. ^ Branch, pp. 756–765.
  69. ^ Branch, pp. 786–791.
  70. ^ UNITED STATES of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. The City of Jackson, Mississippi, Allen Thompson, Douglas L. Lucky and Thomas B. Marshall, Commissioners of the City of Jackson, and W.D. Rayfield, Chief of Police of the City of Jackson, United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit, May 13, 1963.
  71. ^ "Northern City Site of Most Violent Negro Demonstrations", Rome News-Tribune (CWS), May 30, 1963.
  72. ^ "Tear Gas Used to Stall Florida Negroes, Drive Continues", Evening News (AP), May 31, 1963.
  73. ^ "Medgar Evers". Retrieved October 30, 2014.
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Further reading edit

  • Finkelman, Paul (ed.), Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century (5 vols, 2009) excerpt and text search
  • Hornsby, Jr., Alton (ed.), Chronology of African American History (2nd edn 1997) 720pp.
  • Hornsby, Jr., Alton (ed.), Black America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia (2 vol 2011) excerpt
  • Lowery, Charles D., and John F. Marszalek, Encyclopedia of African-American civil rights: from emancipation to the present (Greenwood, 1992).
  • Palmer, Colin A. (ed.), Encyclopedia Of African American Culture And History: The Black Experience In The Americas (2nd edn, 6 vol, 2005)
    • first edition was: Salzman, Jack, et al. (eds), Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History (5 vols, 1995)

External links edit