Malcolm X (sometimes stylized as X) is a 1992 American epic biographical drama film about the African-American activist Malcolm X. Directed and co-written by Spike Lee, the film stars Denzel Washington in the title role, as well as Angela Bassett, Albert Hall, Al Freeman Jr., and Delroy Lindo. Lee has a supporting role, while Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale, the Rev. Al Sharpton, and future South African president Nelson Mandela make a cameo appearance. It is the second of four film collaborations between Washington and Lee.

Malcolm X
Inside the letter "X", Denzel Washington as Malcom X looking towards the viewer with an American flag as a background.
International theatrical release poster
Directed bySpike Lee
Screenplay by
Based on
Produced by
CinematographyErnest Dickerson
Edited byBarry Alexander Brown
Music byTerence Blanchard
Distributed by
Release date
  • November 18, 1992 (1992-11-18)
Running time
201 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$35 million[2]
Box office$73 million

Malcolm X's screenplay, co-credited to Lee and Arnold Perl, is based largely on Alex Haley's 1965 book, The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Haley collaborated with Malcolm X on the book beginning in 1963 and completed it after Malcolm X's death. The film dramatizes key events in Malcolm X's life: his criminal career, his incarceration, his conversion to Islam, his ministry as a member of the Nation of Islam and his later falling out with the organization, his marriage to Betty X, his pilgrimage to Mecca and reevaluation of his views concerning whites, and his assassination on February 21, 1965. Defining childhood incidents, including his father's death, his mother's mental illness, and his experiences with racism are dramatized in flashbacks.

Malcolm X was distributed by Warner Bros. and released in the United States on November 18, 1992. The same year, Denzel Washington won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor for his performance. At the 65th Academy Awards, the movie was nominated for two Oscars including the Academy Award for Best Actor for Washington and Best Costume Design for Ruth E. Carter. In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[3][4]

Plot edit

Malcolm Little is raised in a strong household in rural Michigan by his Grenadian mother and African-American father. When Malcolm is a young boy, their house is burnt down and his father, an activist for black rights, is killed by a chapter of the Black Legion. His death is registered as a suicide and the family receives no compensation. Malcolm's mother's mental state deteriorates and she is admitted to a mental institution. Malcolm and his siblings are put into protective care. Malcolm performs well in school and dreams of being a lawyer, but his teacher discourages it due to his skin color.

In 1944, Malcolm, now a teenager, lives in Boston. One night, he catches the attention of the white Sophia, and the two begin having sex. Malcolm travels to New York City's Harlem with Sophia, where he meets "West Indian" Archie, a gangster who runs a local numbers game, at a bar. The two become friends and start co-operating an illegal numbers racket. One night at a club, Malcolm claims to have bet on a winning number; Archie disputes this, denying him a large sum of money. A conflict ensues between the two and Malcolm returns to Boston after an attempt on his life. Malcolm, Sophia, Malcolm's friend Shorty, and a woman named Peg decide to perform robberies to earn money.

By 1946, the group has accrued a large amount of money from thievery. However, they are later arrested. The two women are sentenced to two years as first offenders in connection with the robberies, while Malcolm and Shorty are sentenced to 8 to 10 years. While incarcerated, Malcolm meets Baines, a member of the Nation of Islam, who directs him to the teachings of the group's leader Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm grows interested in the Muslim religion and lifestyle promoted by the group, and begins to resent white people for mistreating his race. Malcolm is paroled from prison in 1952 after serving six years, and travels to the Nation of Islam's headquarters in Chicago. There, he meets Muhammad, who instructs Malcolm to replace his surname "Little" with "X", which symbolizes his lost African surname that was taken from his ancestors by white slavemasters; he is rechristened as "Malcolm X".

Malcolm returns to New York City's Harlem and begins to preach the Nation's message; over time, his speeches draw large crowds of onlookers. Malcolm proposes ideas such as African-American separation from white Americans. In 1958, Malcolm meets nurse Betty Sanders. The two begin dating, quickly marry and become the parents of four daughters. Several years later, Malcolm is now in a high position as the spokesperson of the Nation of Islam. During this time, Malcolm learns that Muhammad had fathered numerous children out of wedlock, contradicting his teachings and Islam.

After President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in November 1963, Malcolm comments that the assassination was the product of the white violence that has been prevalent in America since its founding, comparing the killing to "the chickens coming home to roost." This statement damages Malcolm's reputation and Muhammad suspends him from speaking to the press or at temples for 90 days. In early 1964, Malcolm goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca where he meets Muslims from all races, including white. Malcolm, having lost his faith in the Nation of Islam, publicly announces that he is founding the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which teaches tolerance instead of racial separation. He is exiled from the Nation of Islam, and his house is firebombed in early 1965.

On February 21, 1965, Malcolm prepares to speak before a crowd at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, but tragically, disciples of the Nation of Islam shoot him several times. One of Malcolm's bodyguards shoots one of the shooters, Thomas Hagan, in the leg before a furious crowd beats Hagan. Malcolm is transported to a hospital, but is pronounced dead on arrival.

The film concludes with a series of clips showing the aftermath of Malcolm's death. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers a eulogy to Malcolm, and Ossie Davis recites a speech at Malcolm's funeral. Nelson Mandela delivers a speech to a school, quoting an excerpt from one of Malcolm's speeches.

Cast edit

Denzel Washington (pictured in 2000) portrays Malcolm X.

Political activists Bobby Seale and Al Sharpton make cameo appearances as a pair of street preachers. Civil rights attorney William Kunstler appears as the judge who sentences Malcolm and Shorty to prison. Future South African President Nelson Mandela appears as a Soweto school teacher delivering a lecture on X. Spike Lee regular Nicholas Turturro has a minor role as a Boston police officer. Michael Imperioli briefly appears as a news reporter. Vincent D'Onofrio appears as a witness to the Kennedy assassination. Film director John Sayles appears as an FBI agent surveilling Malcolm. Washington's then-eight-year-old son John David Washington appears as a Harlem elementary school student; John David would later go on to star as the lead of Lee's 2018 film BlacKkKlansman.

Ossie Davis provides voiceover narration over the film's closing sequence, reading the eulogy he had originally performed at the real Malcolm's funeral.

Production edit

"It's such a great story, a great American story, and it reflects our society in so many ways. Here's a guy who essentially led so many lives. He pulled himself out of the gutter. He went from country boy to hipster and semi-hoodlum. From there he went to prison, where he became a Muslim. Then he was a spiritual leader who evolved into a humanitarian."— Producer Marvin Worth on his 25-year effort to make a film about the life of Malcolm X.[5]

Producer Marvin Worth acquired the rights to The Autobiography of Malcolm X in 1967. Worth had met Malcolm X, then called "Detroit Red," as a teenager selling drugs in New York City. Worth was fifteen at the time, and spending time around jazz clubs in the area. As Worth remembers: "He was selling grass. He was sixteen or seventeen but looked older. He was very witty, a funny guy, and he had this extraordinary charisma. A great dancer and a great dresser. He was very good-looking, very, very tall. Girls always noticed him. He was quite a special guy."[6]

Early on, the production had difficulties telling the entire story, in part due to unresolved questions surrounding Malcolm X's assassination. In 1971, Worth made a well-received documentary, Malcolm X, which received an Academy Award nomination in that category. The project remained unrealized. However, several major entertainers were attached to it at various times, including Richard Pryor, Eddie Murphy, and director Sidney Lumet.[6]

Screenplay edit

In 1968, Worth commissioned a screenplay from novelist James Baldwin, who was later joined by Arnold Perl, a screenwriter who had been a victim of McCarthy-era blacklisting.[7] However, the screenplay took longer to develop than anticipated. Perl died in 1971.[6]

Baldwin developed his work on the screenplay into the 1972 book One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based on Alex Haley's The Autobiography of Malcolm X. In 1976, Baldwin wrote of his experience, "I think that I would rather be horsewhipped, or incarcerated in the forthright bedlam of Bellevue, than repeat the adventure".[8] Baldwin died in 1987. Several authors attempted drafts, including David Mamet, David Bradley, Charles Fuller and Calder Willingham.[6][9] Once Spike Lee took over as director, he rewrote the Baldwin-Perl script. Due to the revisions, the Baldwin family asked the producer to take his name off the credits. Thus Malcolm X only credits Perl and Lee as the writers and Malcolm X and Alex Haley as the authors of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[6]

Production difficulties edit

The production was considered controversial long before filming began. The crux of the controversy was Malcolm X's denunciation of whites before he undertook his hajj. He was, arguably, not well regarded among white citizens by and large; however, he had risen to become a hero in the African-American community and a symbol of blacks' struggles, particularly during the presidencies of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. In the three years before the movie's release, sales of The Autobiography of Malcolm X had increased 300 percent, and four of his books had a nine-fold increase in sales between 1986 and 1991.[9]

Once Warner Bros. agreed to the project, they initially wanted Oscar-nominated Canadian film director Norman Jewison to direct the film. Jewison, director of the seminal civil rights film In the Heat of the Night, was able to bring Denzel Washington into the project to play Malcolm X. Jewison and Washington previously worked together in the 1984 film A Soldier's Story. A protest erupted over the fact that a white director was slated to make the film.[9] Spike Lee was one of the main voices of criticism; since college, he had considered a film adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X to be a dream project. Lee and others felt that it was appropriate that only a black person should direct Malcolm X.[10]

After the public outcry against Jewison, Worth concluded that "it needed a black director at this point. It was insurmountable the other way...There's a grave responsibility here." Jewison left the project, though he noted he gave up the movie not because of the protest, but because he could not reconcile Malcolm's private and public lives and was unsatisfied with Charles Fuller's script. Lee confirmed Jewison's position, stating, "If Norman actually thought he could do it, he would have really fought me. But he bowed out gracefully." Jewison and Denzel Washington would reunite several years later for The Hurricane, in which Washington played imprisoned boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, who spent nearly twenty years in prison for a murder he claimed he did not commit before his conviction was overturned in 1985.

Spike Lee was soon named the director, and he substantially edited the script. "I'm directing this movie and I rewrote the script, and I'm an artist and there's just no two ways around it: this film about Malcolm X is going to be my vision of Malcolm X. But it's not like I'm sitting atop a mountain saying, 'Screw everyone, this is the Malcolm I see.' I've done the research, I've talked to the people who were there."[9] Soon after Spike Lee was announced as the director and before its release, Malcolm X received criticism by black nationalists and members of the United Front to Preserve the Legacy of Malcolm X, headed by poet and playwright Amiri Baraka, who were worried about Lee's portrayal of Malcolm X. One protest in Harlem drew over 200 people.[9][11] Some based their opinion on dislike of Lee's previous films; others were concerned that he would focus on Malcolm X's life before he converted to Islam.[9][11][12] Baraka bluntly accused Spike Lee of being a "Buppie", stating "We will not let Malcolm X's life be trashed to make middle-class Negroes sleep easier", compelling others to write the director and warn him "not to mess up Malcolm's life."[9] Some, including Lee himself, noted the irony that many of the arguments made against him mirrored those made against Jewison.[11]

Although Washington agreed to play Malcolm X while Jewison was scheduled to direct the film, Lee stated he never envisioned any actor other than Washington in the role. The two had previously worked together on Mo' Better Blues (1990), and Lee noted that Washington had "really captured Malcolm" in his Off Broadway performance as him.[13]

Budget issues edit

Spike Lee also encountered difficulty in securing a sufficient budget. Lee told Warners and the bond company that a budget of over US$30 million was necessary; the studio disagreed and offered a lower amount. Following advice from fellow director Francis Ford Coppola, Lee got "the movie company pregnant": taking the movie far enough along into actual production to attempt to force the studio to increase the budget.[10] The film, initially budgeted at $28 million, climbed to nearly $33 million. Lee contributed $2 million of his own $3 million salary. Completion Bond Company, which assumed financial control in January 1992, refused to approve any more expenditures; in addition, the studio and bond company instructed Lee that the film could be no longer than two hours, fifteen minutes in length.[12] The resulting conflict caused the project to be shut down in post-production.[10]

The film was saved by the financial intervention of prominent black Americans, some of whom appear in the film: Bill Cosby, Oprah Winfrey, Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Janet Jackson, Prince, Tracy Chapman, and Peggy Cooper Cafritz, founder of the Duke Ellington School of the Arts. Their contributions were made as donations; as Lee noted: "This is not a loan. They are not investing in the film. These are black folks with some money who came to the rescue of the movie. As a result, this film will be my version. Not the bond company's version, not Warner Brothers'. I will do the film the way it ought to be, and it will be over three hours."[12] The actions of such prominent members of the African American community giving their money helped finish the project as Lee envisioned it.[9][10]

The dissatisfaction Warners had for how Lee funded the film by completing it through the help of his African American friends later resulted in Warner Bros. blocking out Lee from participating in the development of Space Jam, as Lee had approached Joe Pytka about polishing the film's script.[14]

Request for black interviewers edit

"I'm doing what every other person in Hollywood does: they dictate who they want to do interviews with. Tom Cruise, Robert Redford, whoever. People throw their weight around. Well, I get many requests now for interviews, and I would like African-Americans to interview me. [. . .] Spike Lee has never said he only wants black journalists to interview him. What I'm doing is using whatever clout I have to get qualified African-Americans assignments. The real crime is white publications don't have black writers, that's the crime."
– Spike Lee explaining his request for black interviewers[15]

A month before the film was released, Lee asked that media outlets send black journalists to interview him. The request proved controversial. While it was common practice for celebrities to pick interviewers who were known to be sympathetic to them, it was the first time in many years in which race had been used as a qualification. Lee clarified that he was not barring white interviewers from interviewing him, but that he felt, given the subject matter of the film, that black writers have "more insight about Malcolm than white writers."[15]

The request was turned down by the Los Angeles Times, but several others agreed including Premiere magazine, Vogue, Interview and Rolling Stone. The Los Angeles Times explained they did not give writer approval. The editor of Premiere noted that the request created internal discussions that resulted in changes at the magazine: "Had we had a history of putting a lot of black writers on stories about the movie industry we'd be in a stronger position. But we didn't. It was an interesting challenge he laid down. It caused some personnel changes. We've hired a black writer and a black editor."[15]

Filming edit

Malcolm X's widow, Dr. Betty Shabazz, served as a consultant to the film.[11] The Fruit of Islam, the defense arm of the Nation of Islam, provided security for the movie.[13]

When Denzel Washington took the role of Malcolm X in the play, When the Chickens Come Home to Roost, which dealt with the relationship between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, he admitted he knew little about Malcolm X and had not yet read The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Washington prepared by reading books and articles by and about Malcolm X and went over hours of tape and film footage of speeches. The play opened in 1981 and earned Washington a warm review by Frank Rich, who was at the time the chief theater critic of The New York Times. Upon being cast in the film, he interviewed people who knew Malcolm X, among them Betty Shabazz and two of his brothers. Although they had different upbringings, Washington tried to focus on what he had in common with his character: during the making of the movie Washington was close to Malcolm X's age when he was assassinated, both men were from large families, both of their fathers were ministers, and both were raised primarily by their mothers.[13]

Malcolm X is the first non-documentary, and the first American film, to be given permission to film in Mecca (or within the Haram Sharif). A second unit film crew was hired to film in Mecca because non-Muslims, such as Lee, are not allowed inside the city. Lee fought very hard to get filming in Mecca but Warners initially refused to put up the money for location shooting. New Jersey was considered for filming the Mecca segments. In the end, Lee got money and permission together for filming in Mecca.[16]

In addition to Nelson Mandela, the film featured cameos by Christopher Plummer (as the prison's Catholic chaplain), Peter Boyle (as a police officer), William Kunstler (as a judge), as well as activists Al Sharpton and Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale (as street preachers).[17]

The film was made shortly after Mandela's 1990 release from prison and during the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa. Lee explained that he made "the connection between Soweto and Harlem, Nelson and Malcolm, and what Malcolm talked about: pan-Africanism, trying to build these bridges between people of color. He is alive in children in classrooms in Harlem, in classrooms in Soweto."[7] Mandela ends the film with a quote from Malcolm X himself, with Malcolm in a film clip saying the last four words. The quote goes: "We declare our right on this earth, to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being, in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary."

Music edit

Release edit

External videos
  "Malcolm X, The Movie: Cinema as History", panel discussion at the American University School of Communication, March 1, 1993 C-SPAN

Malcolm X was released in North America on November 18, 1992. The film released overseas in 1993, between February and March in Europe.[18]

Home media edit

Malcolm X was released by The Criterion Collection on Ultra HD Blu-ray and Blu-ray Disc on November 22, 2022.[19]

Box office edit

In the United States and Canada, the film grossed $9.9 million in its opening weekend, finishing third after Home Alone 2: Lost in New York ($30 million) and Bram Stoker's Dracula ($15 million).[6] According to Box Office Mojo, the film ended its domestic run with a gross of $48,169,910.[20] Due to the budget issues and costs of promotion, Warner Bros. claimed the film lost over $30 million in 1992.[21]

Upon its United Kingdom release in 1993, it grossed £2,140,598[22] ($3,209,292).[23] Limited UK re-releases sold 136 tickets in 2016 and 172 tickets in 2017.[24] The film also sold 594,984 tickets in France,[25] 127,306 tickets in Germany,[25] and 133,798 tickets in Spain.[18] In South Korea, it sold 28,159 tickets in the capital city of Seoul.[26] The film grossed $24,933,000 internationally in its original release,[27] for a worldwide total of $73,102,910.

Critical reception edit

Upon release, the film received widespread critical acclaim. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating 89% based on 72 reviews, with an average rating of 7.70/10. The critics' consensus states: "Anchored by a powerful performance from Denzel Washington, Spike Lee's biopic of the legendary civil rights leader brings his autobiography to life with an epic sweep and a nuanced message."[28] On Metacritic, the film holds a weighted average score of 72 out of 100, based on 9 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[29] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an "A+" to "F" scale.[30]

Critic Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times ranked the film No. 1 on his Top 10 list for 1992 and described the film as "one of the great screen biographies, celebrating the sweep of an American life that bottomed out in prison before its hero reinvented himself."[31] In 1999, Ebert and director Martin Scorsese, the latter sitting in for Ebert's late co-host Gene Siskel, both ranked Malcolm X among the ten best films of the 1990s.[32]

Accolades edit

Denzel Washington's portrayal of Malcolm X was widely praised and he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Washington lost to Al Pacino (Scent of a Woman), a decision which Lee criticized, saying "I'm not the only one who thinks Denzel was robbed on that one."[33]

Award[34] Category Nominee(s) Result
20/20 Awards Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
Best Cinematography Ernest R. Dickerson Nominated
Best Costume Design Ruth E. Carter Nominated
Academy Awards[35] Best Actor Denzel Washington Nominated
Best Costume Design Ruth E. Carter Nominated
Artios Awards[36] Best Casting for Feature Film – Drama Robi Reed Won
Awards Circuit Community Awards Best Motion Picture Marvin Worth and Spike Lee Nominated
Best Director Spike Lee Nominated
Best Actor in a Leading Role Denzel Washington Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Arnold Perl and Spike Lee Nominated
Best Costume Design Ruth E. Carter Nominated
Berlin International Film Festival[37] Golden Bear Spike Lee Nominated
Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
Boston Society of Film Critics Awards[38] Best Actor Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards[39] Best Film Won
Best Director Spike Lee Won
Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
Best Supporting Actor Al Freeman Jr. Nominated
Best Screenplay Arnold Perl and Spike Lee Nominated
Most Promising Actress Angela Bassett Nominated
Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
Golden Globe Awards[40] Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards[41] Best Actor Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards[42] Best Actor Runner-up
MTV Movie Awards Best Movie Nominated
Best Male Performance Denzel Washington Won
MTV Video Music Awards Best Video from a Film "Revolution" – Arrested Development Nominated
NAACP Image Awards Outstanding Motion Picture Won
Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Denzel Washington Won
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture Al Freeman Jr. Won
Delroy Lindo Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture Angela Bassett Won
National Board of Review Awards[43] Top Ten Films 10th Place
National Film Preservation Board[44][45] National Film Registry Inducted
National Society of Film Critics Awards[46] Best Actor Denzel Washington 3rd Place
Best Supporting Actor Delroy Lindo 3rd Place
New York Film Critics Circle Awards[47] Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
Political Film Society Awards Exposé Nominated
Southeastern Film Critics Association Awards[48] Best Picture 5th Place
Best Actor Denzel Washington Won
USC Scripter Awards[49] Arnold Perl and Spike Lee (screenwriters);
Malcolm X and Alex Haley (authors)

American Film Institute edit

The film is recognized by the American Film Institute in several lists:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Malcolm X (15)". British Board of Film Classification. January 21, 1993. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  2. ^ "Malcolm X Box Office Information". The Numbers. Nash Information, LLC. Archived from the original on August 27, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  3. ^ "Hollywood Blockbusters, Independent Films and Shorts Selected for 2010 National Film Registry". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  4. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  5. ^ Bernard Weinraub, A Movie Producer Remembers The Human Side of Malcolm X Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 23, 1992; retrieved June 18, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Bernard Weinraub, A Movie Producer Remembers The Human Side of Malcolm X Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 23, 1992; retrieved June 8, 2008.
  7. ^ a b Sheila Rule, FILM; Malcolm X: The Facts, the Fictions, the Film Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 15, 1992; accessed May 23, 2008.
  8. ^ Baldwin, James (1976). The Devil Finds Work. New York: The Dial Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-8037-1916-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h David Ansen and Spike Lee, The Battle For Malcolm X Archived May 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Newsweek, Retrieved May 31, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d Scott Tobias, Malcolm X Archived February 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Onion A/V Club, February 15, 2005, Retrieved February 19, 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d Evelyn Nieves, Malcolm X: Firestorm Over a Film Script Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, August 9, 1991; retrieved May 15, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c Lena Williams, Spike Lee Says Money From Blacks Saved 'X' Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, May 20, 1992; retrieved May 15, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c Lena Williams, Playing With Fire Archived June 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, October 25, 1992; retrieved May 15, 2008.
  14. ^ Lawrence, Derek (November 15, 2016). "Space Jam: The story behind Michael Jordan's improbable victory". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on April 9, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  15. ^ a b c Bernard Weinraub, Spike Lee's Request: Black Interviewers Only Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, October 29, 1992, Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  16. ^ Spike, Lee (2002). Fuchs, Cynthia (ed.). Spike Lee: interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1578064708. OCLC 48163614.
  17. ^ Vincent Canby, Review/Film; 'Malcolm X', as Complex as Its Subject Archived May 15, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 18, 1992, Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  18. ^ a b "Малкольм Икс – дата выхода в России и других странах" [Malcolm X - Release Dates in Russia and Other Countries]. KinoPoisk (in Russian). Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  19. ^ Duralde, Alonso (November 9, 2022). "What's New on DVD/Blu-ray in November: 'Power of the Dog,' 'Moonage Daydream,' 'Earth Girls Are Easy' and More". The Wrap. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  20. ^ "Malcolm X (1992)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
  21. ^ Cashmore, Ellis (1997). The Black Culture Industry. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 9781134809387. Archived from the original on May 15, 2021. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  22. ^ "Malcolm X (1993)". 25th Frame. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  23. ^ "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) - United Kingdom". World Bank. 1993. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  24. ^ "Film #60531: Malcolm X". Lumiere. European Audiovisual Observatory. Archived from the original on July 19, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Malcolm X (1992)". JP's Box-Office (in French). Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  26. ^ "KOFIC 영화관 입장권 통합전산망". Korean Film Council (in Korean). September 2018. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  27. ^ Klady, Leonard (January 3, 1994). "Int'l top 100 earn $8 bil". Variety. p. 1.
  28. ^ "Malcolm X Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  29. ^ "Malcolm X (1992)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  30. ^ "Find CinemaScore" (Type "Malcolm X" in the search box). CinemaScore. Archived from the original on May 28, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  31. ^ Ebert, Roger (December 31, 1992). "The Best 10 Movies of 1992". Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  32. ^ Anderson, Jeffrey M. "The Best Films of the 1990s". Combustible Celluloid. Archived from the original on January 24, 2001. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
  33. ^ "Spike Lee on Malcolm X". Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  34. ^ "Malcolm X (1992) : Awards". IMDb. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  35. ^ "The 65th Academy Awards (1993) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Archived from the original on November 9, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  36. ^ "Nominees/Winners". Casting Society of America. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  37. ^ "Berlinale: 1993 Prize Winners". Archived from the original on March 21, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
  38. ^ "BSFC Winners: 1990s". Boston Society of Film Critics. July 27, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  39. ^ "1988-2013 Award Winner Archives". Chicago Film Critics Association. January 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  40. ^ "Malcolm X – Golden Globes". HFPA. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  41. ^ "KCFCC Award Winners – 1990-99". December 14, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  42. ^ "The Annual 18th Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards". Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  43. ^ "1992 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  44. ^ a b "'Empire Strikes Back' among 25 film registry picks". Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  45. ^ a b Barnes, Mike (December 28, 2010). "'Empire Strikes Back', 'Airplane!' Among 25 Movies Named to National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  46. ^ "Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics. December 19, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  47. ^ "1992 New York Film Critics Circle Awards". Mubi. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  48. ^ "1992 SEFA Awards". Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  49. ^ "Past Scripter Awards". USC Scripter Award. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  50. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  51. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  52. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers Nominees" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  53. ^ "AFI's Top 10 Epic Nominees". Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016.

External links edit