Constance Baker Motley (née Baker; September 14, 1921 – September 28, 2005) was an American jurist and politician, who served as a Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.
Constance Baker Motley
|Senior Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York|
September 30, 1986 – September 28, 2005
|Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York|
May 31, 1982 – September 30, 1986
|Preceded by||Lloyd Francis MacMahon|
|Succeeded by||Charles L. Brieant|
|Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York|
August 30, 1966 – September 30, 1986
|Appointed by||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Preceded by||Archie Owen Dawson|
|Succeeded by||Kimba Wood|
|Borough President of Manhattan|
February 23, 1965 – August 30, 1966
|Preceded by||Edward R. Dudley|
|Succeeded by||Percy Sutton|
|Member of the New York Senate|
from the 21st district
February 4, 1964 – February 23, 1965
|Preceded by||James Lopez Watson|
|Succeeded by||Jeremiah B. Bloom|
September 14, 1921
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
|Died||September 28, 2005 (aged 84)|
New York City, U.S.
Joel Motley Jr.
A key strategist of the civil rights movement, she was state senator, and Borough President of Manhattan in New York City before becoming a United States federal judge. She obtained a role with the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund as a staff attorney in 1946 after receiving her law degree, and continued her work with the organization for more than twenty years.
She was the first Black woman to argue at the Supreme Court and argued 10 landmark civil rights cases, winning nine. She was a law clerk to Thurgood Marshall, aiding him in the case Brown v. Board of Education.
Motley was also the first African-American woman appointed to the federal judiciary, serving as a United States district judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.
In 1965, Motley was elected President of the Borough of Manhattan to fill a one-year vacancy. She was the first woman to hold the office. As president, she authored a revitalization plan for Harlem and East Harlem, successfully fighting for $700,000 to improve these and other underserved areas of the city.
Early life edit
Constance Baker was born on September 14, 1921, in New Haven, Connecticut, the ninth of twelve children. Her parents, Rachel Huggins and McCullough Alva Baker, were immigrants from the Caribbean Island Nevis. Before coming to the United States, Rachel worked as a seamstress and a teacher while McCullough worked as a cobbler. After they immigrated, her mother served as a domestic worker, and her father worked as a chef for different Yale University student societies, including the secret society Skull and Bones. Motley describes her parents' education as being equivalent "to the tenth grade in the States". Her mother, Rachel Baker, served as a community activist. She founded the New Haven NAACP.
At 15, she read works by James Weldon Johnson and W.E.B. DuBois, which inspired her interest in Black history. She met a minister who taught classes in Black history that focused her attention on civil rights and the underrepresentation of black lawyers.
While in high school, Motley became president of the New Haven Negro Youth Council and was secretary of the New Haven Adult Community Council. In 1939, she graduated with honors from Hillhouse High School. Although she had already formed a desire to practice law, Motley lacked the means to attend college, and instead went to work for the National Youth Administration. She also continued her involvement in community activities. Through this work she encountered local businessman and philanthropist Clarence W. Blakeslee, who, after hearing Motley speak at a New Haven community center, offered to pay for her education. With his financial help, she started college at Fisk University, a historically black college in Nashville, Tennessee, but after one year, she transferred to New York University, where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics in 1943. She received her Bachelor of Laws in 1946 from Columbia Law School.
In October 1945, during her second year at Columbia Law School, future United States Supreme Court Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall hired her as a law clerk. She was assigned to work on court martial cases that were filed after World War II.
Civil rights work edit
Motley is widely acknowledged as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, especially its legal battles. After graduating from Columbia's Law School in 1946, she was hired by the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF) as a civil rights lawyer. As the fund's first female attorney, she became Associate Counsel to the LDF, making her a lead trial attorney in a number of early and significant civil rights cases including representing Martin Luther King Jr., the Freedom Riders, and the Birmingham Children Marchers. She visited Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. while he sat in jail, as well as spent a night with civil rights activist Medgar Evers under armed guard.
In 1950, she wrote the original complaint in the case of Brown v. Board of Education. The first African-American woman ever to argue a case before the U.S. Supreme Court, in Meredith v. Fair she won James Meredith's effort to be the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi in 1962. Motley was successful in nine of the ten cases she argued before the Supreme Court. The tenth decision, regarding jury composition, was eventually overturned in her favor. She was otherwise a key legal strategist in the civil rights movement, helping to desegregate Southern schools, buses, and lunch counters.
Beyond her work with LDF, Motley continued her civil rights work as an elected official. In 1964, she was elected to the New York State Senate and devoted much of her time to advocate for housing equality for majority-Black and Latino, low-income tenants. She also endorsed urban renewal projects and looked to improve the neighborhoods in New York City that needed aid.
Political and judicial firsts edit
Motley was elected on February 4, 1964, to the New York State Senate (21st district), to fill the vacancy caused by the election of James Lopez Watson to the New York City Civil Court. She was the first African American woman to sit in the State Senate. She took her seat in the 174th New York State Legislature, was re-elected in November 1964 to the 175th New York State Legislature, and resigned her seat when she was chosen as the first woman as Manhattan Borough President on February 23, 1965, after her predecessor was elected to a state judicial position. In November 1965, she was elected to a full four-year term. J. Raymond Jones was influential in helping her reach these positions.
Federal judicial service edit
Motley was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson on January 26, 1966, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Judge Archie Owen Dawson. Senator James Eastland of Mississippi delayed her confirmation process for seven months. Eastland was in opposition to her past desegregation work including Brown v. Board of Education and Meredith v. Fair. He used his influence as chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee to disrupt Motley's nomination, and went as far as accusing her of being a member of the Communist Party. Despite opposition, she was confirmed by the United States Senate on August 30, 1966, and received her commission the same day, becoming the first African American female federal judge. She served as Chief Judge from 1982 to 1986. She assumed senior status on September 30, 1986. Her service terminated on September 28, 2005, due to her death in New York City.
Notable cases edit
Motley was the presiding judge on the case of Blank v. Sullivan & Cromwell, a landmark case for women lawyers. In Blank, the plaintiffs accused a law firm of sex discrimination. Due to the nature of this case and Motley's gender and race, there were calls for her to withdraw from the case assuming she would be biased. In response, she pointed to her history of impartial decisions, sometimes ruling against the plaintiff in discrimination cases.
In Belknap v. Leary, 427 F.2d 496 (2d Cir. 1970)., another highly publicized case, Motley admonished the New York City police for not providing Vietnam war protesters with adequate protection against violence in the streets.
Motley ruled against the plaintiff in the case of Mullarkey v. Borglum in 1970. This case involved female tenants in New York City arguing that their male landlord was violating their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights. The defendants cited the landlord's overreach of power but failed to detail the landlord's legal failings. Motley ruled in favor of the defendant, rejecting the plaintiffs' claim of sex discrimination and going against her former advocacy for tenants during her time in the New York State Senate.
Motley handed down a breakthrough decision for women in sports broadcasting in 1978, when she ruled that a female reporter must be allowed into a Major League Baseball locker room. In Ludtke v. Kuhn, Melissa Ludtke filed a lawsuit against Bowie Kuhn, the Major League Baseball Commissioner, The American League President Leland MacPhail, and three New York City officials over the New York Yankees gendered policy forbidding female sports reporters from entering the Yankees locker room.
Honors and awards edit
In 2011, she was honored posthumously with the 13th Ford Freedom Award for her accomplishments that helped disadvantaged communities.
In 2016, the Chester, Connecticut Land Trust purchased land across from her former second home. The parcel was eventually dedicated as the "Judge Constance Baker Motley Preserve". A small kiosk, picnic area, and trail are available to the public.
On October 6, 2019, her property located in Chester, Connecticut was designated a site on the Connecticut Freedom Trail. The site is just one of 140 that honor African-Americans throughout the state.
The Harlem Historical Society authored a street co-naming resolution honoring Motley for her service as an American civil rights activist, lawyer, judge, state senator, and Harlem resident. The portion of Edgecombe Avenue between 159th and 160th streets was co-named "Constance Baker Motley Place".
Personal life edit
Constance Baker married Joel Motley Jr., a real estate and insurance broker, in 1946 at Saint Luke's Episcopal Church in New Haven, Connecticut. They lived in Harlem, New York City and maintained a second home in Chester, Connecticut from 1965 until her death in 2005.
Baker and Motley were married for 59 years, until her death of congestive heart failure on September 28, 2005, fourteen days after her 84th birthday, at NYU Downtown Hospital in New York City. Her funeral was held at the Connecticut church where she had been married; a public memorial service was held at Riverside Church in Manhattan.
She left one son, Joel Wilson Motley III, co-chairman of Human Rights Watch, and three grandchildren. During the early twenty-first century, Motley became a part of the Just The Beginning Foundation, a foundation dedicated to preserving African American judges who improve the African American community through their work.
During her time as a federal judge for the Southern District of New York, Motley made efforts to reach out to other African-American women in her position. One of the women she reached out to was Judge Anne Elise Thompson who received a personal note from Motley on the day she was appointed to be a judge for the District of New Jersey.
In 2005, the University of Pennsylvania Law School's American Constitution Society (ACS) student chapter began to host National Writing Competitions annually in honor of Constance Baker Motley.
With her work on Ludtke v. Kuhn, Motley became a pivotal figure to Melissa Ludtke. Ludtke published an article in 2018 praising the work that Motley accomplished throughout her life despite the discrimination she experienced.
Federal judge Ketanji Brown Jackson cited Motley as an influence on her own career in a speech accepting President Joe Biden's nomination to become an associate justice of the Supreme Court. Jackson and Motley share the same birthday.
An award-winning biographical documentary, Justice is a Black Woman: The Life and Work of Constance Baker Motley, was broadcast on Connecticut Public Television in 2012. A documentary short, The Trials of Constance Baker Motley, premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival on April 19, 2015.
See also edit
- MacLean, Nancy (July 1, 2002). "Using the Law for Social Change: Judge Constance Baker Motley". Journal of Women's History. 14 (2): 136–139. doi:10.1353/jowh.2002.0048. ISSN 1527-2036. S2CID 144084950.
- "U.S. Courts: Constance Baker Motley – Judiciary's Unsung Rights Hero." Targeted News Service, February 21, 2020.
- Roisman, Florence Wagman (April 25, 2016). "An Extraordinary Woman: The Honorable Constance Baker Motley". Indiana Law Review. 49 (3): 677. doi:10.18060/4806.0102. ISSN 2169-320X.
- Hohmann, James (February 3, 2022). "The legacy of Constance Baker Motley". The Washington Post. p. A19. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- "Eyes on the Prize; Interview with Judge Constance Baker Motley". American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
- "B.P. Gale Brewer, C. Virginia Fields, And Ruth Messinger Honor Constance Baker Motley". harlemworldmagazine.com. June 18, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- "Constance Baker Motley". blackhistory.news.columbia.edu. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- "Rep. Rangel Introduces Resolution Recognizing Life, Achievements of U.S. District Court Judge." US Fed News Service, Including US State News, February 28, 2007.
- Hines, C.D., Hines, C.W. & Harrow, S. (2011). The African American Odyssey. New Jersey: Pearson
- Mertes, Tom (June 1, 2020). "Charles Postel. Equality: An American Dilemma, 1866–1896". Book review. American Political Thought. 9 (3): 505–508. doi:10.1086/709614. ISSN 2161-1580. S2CID 241706136.
- Martin, Douglas (September 29, 2005). "Constance Baker Motley, 84, Civil Rights Trailblazer, Lawmaker and Judge, Dies". The New York Times. p. 10.
- THE, ASSOCIATED P. "NEW YORK, Constance Motley, 84, Federal Judge: [CITY Edition]." Newsday, September 29, 2005, pp. A48.
- "Judge Constance Baker Motley to Receive 88th Spingarn Award." The Crisis, vol. 110, no. 4, Jul 2003, pp. 64.
- Holley, Joe (September 29, 2005). "Constance Motley Dies; Rights Lawyer, Judge". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Identity Matters: The Case of Judge Constance Baker Motley". Columbia Law Review. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- "Title IX: 40 Years and Counting: Melissa Ludtke speaks about Ludtke/Time Inc. vs. Kuhn and MLB" (Video). Wellesley Athletics. Wellesley College. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on December 22, 2021.
- Greene, Melissa Fay (December 25, 2005). "Pride and Prejudice: Constance Baker Motley b. 1921". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
- MRS. MOTLEY WINS SENATE ELECTION in The New York Times on February 5, 1964 (subscription required)
- MRS. MOTLEY WINS MANHATTAN POST in The New York Times on February 24, 1965 (subscription required)
- Constance Baker Motley, Equal justice under law: an autobiography, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998. ISBN 0-374-14865-1.
- "Motley, Constance Baker - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov.
- Mrs. Motley Inducted as Federal Judge in The New York Times on September 10, 1966 (subscription required)
- "Blank v. Sullivan & Cromwell - Case Brief for Law Students | Casebriefs". Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "Collection: Constance Baker Motley papers | Smith College Finding Aids". Retrieved May 13, 2020. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 3.0 license.
- "Constance Baker Motley (1921-2005)". Brown@50 – Fulfilling the Promise. Howard University School of Law. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "Ludtke v. Kuhn, 461 F. Supp. 86 (S.D.N.Y. 1978)". Justia Law. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Candace Award Recipients 1982-1990, Page 3". National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from the original on March 14, 2003.
- "Congressional Tribute to Constance Baker Motley Act Introduced." US Fed News Service, Including US State News
- "Ford Freedom Awards Honors Judge Constance Baker Motley and Judge Damon J. Keith." Michigan Chronicle,
- "Motley Preserve". chesterlandtrust.org. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- "Judge Constance Baker Motley property to be site on CT Freedom Trail". ctinsider.com. October 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- "Constance Baker Motley Place – Naming Resolution" (PDF). harlemhistory.org. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- "Site Lines: Constance Baker Motley's Chester Retreat". ctexplored.com. May 19, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
- Constance (Baker) Motley, The New York Times, September 30, 2005.
- "Constance Baker Motley: Judiciary's Unsung Rights Hero". United States Courts. February 20, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "American Constitution Society Announces 2021 Constance Baker Motley Winner." Targeted News Service, May 4, 2021.
- Ludtke, Melissa (September 22, 2018). "We Stood on Their Shoulders: Are they strong enough for us now?". Medium. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Heumann, Judith E.; Joiner, Kristen (2021). Rolling Warriors: The Incredible, Sometimes Awkward, True Story of a Rebel Girl on Wheels Who Helped Spark a Revolution. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. pp. 63–67. ISBN 9780807003596. OCLC 1237653289.
- "My Story | U.S. Senator Kamala Harris of California". www.harris.senate.gov. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
- Griffiths, Brent D. "Ketanji Brown Jackson links her historic Supreme Court nomination to the first Black federal judge: 'I stand on Judge Motley's shoulders'". Business Insider. Insider. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- Tribeca Film Festival 2015 Guide.
- "Civil Rights Queen: Constance Baker Motley and the Struggle for Equality". Publishers Weekly. Vol. 268, no. 41. October 11, 2021. p. 62. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
- Brown-Nagin, Tomiko (2022). Civil Rights Queen: Constance Baker Motley and the Struggle for Equality (First ed.). New York: Pantheon. ISBN 9781524747183. OCLC 1274172133.
Further reading edit
- Ahmed, Siraj. “Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History: the Blackexperience in the Americas.” Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History: the Blackexperience in the Americas, by Colin A. Palmer, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, p. 1495.
- Brown-Nagin, Tomiko. Civil Rights Queen (Vintage, 2023), scholarly biography
- Hardy, Sheila; Hardy, P. Stephen (2007). Extraordinary people of the civil rights movement. New York: Children's Press. ISBN 9780516298474.
- Hudson, Cheryl; Ted Canady. “13th Annual Ford Freedom Awards Celebrates ‘Champions of Justice.’” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, May 11, 2011, Ford Freedom Awards
- Pendergast, Sara; Pendergast, Tom (2006). Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles from the International Black Community. Vol. 55. Detroit, Michigan: Thomson Gale. ISBN 9781414410203.
- Plowden, Martha Ward (2002). Famous firsts of Black women (2nd ed.). Gretna, La.: Pelican Pub. Co. ISBN 9781565541979.
- Rachel Christmas Derrick, "A Columbian Ahead of Her Time", Columbia Magazine, Spring 2004.
- Hodgson, Godfrey, "Constance Baker Motley", The Guardian, October 1, 2005.
- Larry Neumeister, "Legendary Civil Rights Lawyer Constance Baker Motley Dies at 84", Newsday (Associated Press), September 28, 2005.
- Judge Constance Baker Motley - Brown@50, Howard University School of Law
- "Judge Constance Baker Motley: A Life in Pursuit of Justice", obituary notice in The Defender (newsletter of the NAACP LDF), winter 2006.
- Dale Megan Healey, "Constance Baker Motley Is the Civil Rights Movement's Unsung Heroine," Vice Magazine, April 17, 2015.
- Gary L. Ford Jr. Constance Baker Motley, One Woman's Fight for Civil Rights and Equal Justice under Law, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 2017. ISBN 9780817319571.
- John C. Walker, The Harlem Fox: J. Raymond Jones at Tammany 1920:1970, New York: State University New York Press, 1989.
Primary sources edit
- Ford Freedom Awards
- Constance Baker Motley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- Just The Beginning Foundation
- Constance Baker Motley's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project
- Constance Baker Motley papers at the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College Special Collections