Lincoln Memorial
Aerial view of the Lincoln Memorial in May 2010
Lincoln Memorial is located in Central Washington, D.C.
Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial is located in the District of Columbia
Lincoln Memorial
LocationNational Mall, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Coordinates38°53′21.4″N 77°3′0.5″W / 38.889278°N 77.050139°W / 38.889278; -77.050139
Area27,336 square feet (2,539.6 m2)
ArchitectHenry Bacon (architect)
Daniel Chester French (sculptor)
Architectural styleGreek Revival[1]
Visitation7,808,182 (2019)[2]
WebsiteLincoln Memorial
NRHP reference No.66000030[1]
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
The Memorial under construction, July 1916
President Warren G. Harding speaking at the dedication, 1922

The Lincoln Memorial is a U.S. national memorial that honors the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. An example of neoclassicism, it is in the form of a classical temple and is located at the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Henry Bacon is the memorial's architect and Daniel Chester French designed the large interior statue of a seated Abraham Lincoln (1920), which was carved in marble by the Piccirilli brothers.[3] Jules Guerin painted the interior murals, and the epitaph above the statue was written by Royal Cortissoz. Dedicated on May 30, 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president. It has been a major tourist attraction since its opening, and over the years, has occasionally been used as a symbolic center focused on race relations and civil rights.

Doric style columns line the temple exterior, and the inscriptions inside include two well-known speeches by Lincoln, the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and World War II Memorial – the national memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966, and was ranked seventh on the American Institute of Architects' 2007 list of America's Favorite Architecture. The memorial is open to the public 24 hours a day, and more than seven million people visit it annually.[4]

History edit

Future site of the Memorial, c. 1912
Chief Justice William Howard Taft, President Harding, and Abraham Lincoln's son, Robert Todd Lincoln, at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922

The first public memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after Lincoln's assassination.[5][6] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time and called for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (3.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project were insufficient.[7]

The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, when, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and United States President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued steadily, and by 1913 Congress had approved the commission's choice of design and location.[7]

There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead, they proposed a simple log cabin shrine. The site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many as either too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington MonumentCapitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.[7][8]

With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, contractor M. F. Comer of Toledo, Ohio; resident member of the memorial's commission, former Senator Joseph C. S. Blackburn of Kentucky; and the memorial's designer, Henry Bacon conducted a groundbreaking ceremony by turning over a few spadefuls of earth.[9] The following month is when actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule. Some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber. As late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922, and presented it to United States President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance.[10] Prominent African Americans were invited to the event and discovered upon arrival they were assigned a segregated section guarded by U.S. Marines.[11]

The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[12]

Exterior edit

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble quarried from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.5 feet (57.8 by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet (2.3 m). Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined slightly toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.[13]

Detail of the Memorial's friezes

Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death and the dates in which they entered the Union.[Note 1] Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll regularly interspersed with projecting lions' heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial's dedication. A bit higher is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was done by Ernest C. Bairstow.[13]

The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Company and the National Foundation and Engineering Company, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) in height.[13]

Leading up to the shrine on the east side are the main steps. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the steps rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the main portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the steps as they approach the entrance are two buttresses each crowned with an 11-foot (3.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble[13] by the Piccirilli Brothers.[14] There are a total of 87 steps (58 steps from the chamber to the plaza and 29 steps from the plaza to the Reflecting Pool).[15]

Interior edit

President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and former Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton walk past President Lincoln's statue to participate in the 2013 50th anniversary ceremony of the historic March on Washington and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech

The Memorial's interior is divided into three chambers by two rows of four Ionic columns, each 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.5 feet (1.7 m) across at their base. The central chamber, housing the statue of Lincoln, is 60 feet (18 m) wide, 74 feet (23 m) deep, and 60 feet (18 m) high.[16] The north and south chambers display carved inscriptions of Lincoln's second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address.[Note 2] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation are by Evelyn Beatrice Longman.[13]

The Memorial is replete with symbolic elements. The 36 columns represent the states of the Union at the time of Lincoln's death; the 48 stone festoons above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Inside, each inscription is surmounted by a 60-by-12-foot (18.3 by 3.7 m) mural by Jules Guerin portraying principles seen as evident in Lincoln's life: Freedom, Liberty, Morality, Justice, and the Law on the south wall; Unity, Fraternity, and Charity on the north. Cypress trees, representing Eternity, are in the murals' backgrounds. The murals' paint incorporated kerosene and wax to protect the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture.[17]

The ceiling consists of bronze girders ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. Between these are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to increase translucency. But feeling that the statue required even more light, Bacon and French designed metal slats for the ceiling to conceal floodlights, which could be modulated to supplement the natural light; this modification was installed in 1929. The one major alteration since was the addition of an elevator for the disabled in the 1970s.[17]

Undercroft edit

Below the memorial is an undercroft. Due to water seeping through the calcium carbonate within the marble, over time stalactites and stalagmites have formed within it.[18] During construction, graffiti was scrawled on it by workers,[19][20] and is considered historical by the National Park Service.[19] During the 1970s and 1980s, there were regular tours of the undercroft.[21] The tours stopped abruptly in 1989 after a visitor noticed asbestos and notified the Service.[22] For the memorial's centennial in 2022, the undercroft is planned to be open to visitors following a rehabilitation project funded by David Rubenstein.[23][24]

Statue edit


—Epitaph by Royal Cortissoz
Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French

Lying between the north and south chambers of the open-air Memorial is the central hall, which contains the large solitary figure of Abraham Lincoln sitting in contemplation. Its sculptor, Daniel Chester French, supervised the six Piccirilli brothers (Ferruccio, Attilio, Furio, Masaniello, Orazio, and Getulio) in its construction, and it took four years to complete.

The 175-short-ton (159 t) statue, carved from Georgia white marble, was shipped in 28 pieces.[17] Originally intended to be only 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, the sculpture was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) from head to foot considering it would look small within the extensive interior space.[25] If Lincoln were depicted standing, he would be 28 feet (8.5 m) tall.

The widest span of the statue corresponds to its height, and it rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble 10 feet (3.0 m) high, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (5.2 m) deep. Directly beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.5 feet (10.5 m) long, 28 feet (8.5 m) wide, and 6.5 inches (0.17 m) high. Lincoln's arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall.[26] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, one on each side. Between these pilasters, and above Lincoln's head, is engraved an epitaph of Lincoln[17] by Royal Cortissoz.[27]

Sculptural features edit

The sculptor's possible use of sign language is speculated, as the statue's left hand forms an "A" while the right hand portrays an "L"

An urban legend holds that the face of General Robert E. Lee is carved onto the back of Lincoln's head,[28] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former home, Arlington House (now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery). Another popular legend is that Lincoln's hands are shown using sign language to represent his initials, his left hand signing an A and his right signing an L. The National Park Service denies both legends.[28]

However, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, while it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln's hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is possible that French did intend it, because he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a reason to do so, that is, to pay tribute to Lincoln for having signed the federal legislation giving Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees.[29] The National Geographic Society's publication "Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C." states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language.[30][31] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, although there are no extant documents showing that French had Lincoln's hands carved to represent the letters "A" and "L" in American Sign Language, "I think you can conclude that it's reasonable to have that kind of summation about the hands."[32]

Sacred space edit

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is famous for Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.
The location on the steps where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription.

The Memorial has become a symbolically sacred venue, especially for the Civil Rights Movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to perform before an integrated audience at the organization's Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a performance on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 75,000 and a nationwide radio audience.[33] On June 29, 1947, Harry Truman became the first president to address the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The speech took place at the Lincoln Memorial during the NAACP convention and was carried nationally on radio. In that speech, Truman laid out the need to end discrimination, which would be advanced by the first comprehensive, presidentially proposed civil rights legislation.[34]

On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the site of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that approximately 250,000 people came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King Jr., deliver his historic "I Have a Dream" speech before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. King's speech, with its language of patriotism and its evocation of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, was meant to match the symbolism of the Lincoln Memorial as a monument to national unity.[35] Labor leader Walter Reuther, an organizer of the march, persuaded the other organizers to move the march to the Lincoln Memorial from the Capitol Building. Reuther believed the location would be less threatening to Congress and that the occasion would be especially appropriate underneath the gaze of Abraham Lincoln's statue.[36] The D.C. police also appreciated the location because it was surrounded on three sides by water, so that any incident could be easily contained.[37]

Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. King's speech is such a part of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen steps below Lincoln's statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the event.[38]

At the memorial on May 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-night impromptu, brief meeting with protesters who, just days after the Kent State shootings, were preparing to march against the Vietnam War.[39]

Vandalism edit

On September 3, 1942, during World War II, a military anti-aircraft crew accidentally fired a .50 caliber machine gun at the Memorial. Three bullets struck the Memorial, damaging the marble cornice above the entrance. [40] [41] [42]

In September 1962, amid the civil rights movement, vandals painted the words "nigger lover" in one-foot-high (30 cm) pink letters on the rear wall.[43]

On July 26, 2013, the statue's base and legs were splashed with green paint.[44] A 58-year-old Chinese national was arrested and admitted to a psychiatric facility; she was later found to be incompetent to stand trial.[45]

On February 27, 2017, graffiti written in permanent marker was found at the memorial, the Washington Monument, the District of Columbia War Memorial, and the National World War II Memorial, saying "Jackie shot JFK", "blood test is a lie", as well as other claims. Street signs and utility boxes were also defaced. Authorities believed that a single person was responsible for all the vandalism.[46]

On August 15, 2017, Reuters reported that "Fuck law" was spray painted in red on one of the columns. The initials "M+E" were etched on the same pillar. A "mild, gel-type architectural paint stripper" was used to remove the paint without damaging the memorial. However, the etching was deemed "permanent damage." A Smithsonian Institution directional sign several blocks away was also defaced.[47][48]

On September 18, 2017, Nurtilek Bakirov from Kyrgyzstan was arrested when a police officer saw him vandalizing the Memorial at around 1:00 PM EDT. Bakirov used a penny to carve the letters "HYPT MAEK" in what appeared to be Cyrillic letters into the fifth pillar on the north side. As of September 20, 2017, police do not know what the words mean, although there is a possibility that they contain a reference to the vandal's name. Court documents indicate that the letters cannot be completely removed, but could be polished at the cost of approximately $2,000. A conservator for the National Park Service said that the stone would weather over time, helping to obscure the letters, although she characterized it as "permanent damage".[49]

On May 30, 2020, during nationwide protests in the wake of the murder of George Floyd, vandals spray-painted "Yall not tired yet?" beside the steps leading to the memorial. The National World War II Memorial was also vandalized that night.[50][51]

In popular culture edit

With reflecting pool
At sunrise
At dusk

As one of the most prominent American monuments, the Lincoln Memorial is often featured in books, films, and television shows that take place in Washington; by 2003 it had appeared in over 60 films,[52] and in 2009, Mark S. Reinhart compiled some short sketches of dozens of uses of the Memorial in film and television.[53]

Some examples of films include Frank Capra's 1939 film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, where in a key scene the statue and the Memorial's inscription provide inspiration to freshman Senator Jefferson Smith, played by James Stewart.[54] The Park Service did not want Capra to film at the Memorial, so he sent a large crew elsewhere as a distraction while a smaller crew filmed Stewart and Jean Arthur inside the Memorial.[55]

Many of the appearances of the Lincoln Memorial are actually digital visual effects, due to restrictive filming rules.[56] As of 2017, according to the National Park Service, "Filming/photography is prohibited above the white marble steps and the interior chamber of the Lincoln Memorial."[57]

Mitchell Newton-Matza said in 2016 that "Reflecting its cherished place in the hearts of Americans, the Lincoln Memorial has often been featured prominently in popular culture, especially motion pictures."[58] According to Tracey Gold Bennett, "The majesty of the Lincoln Memorial is a big draw for film location scouts, producers, and directors because this landmark has appeared in a considerable number of films."[59]

Jay Sacher writes:

From high to low, the memorial is cultural shorthand for both American ideals and 1960s radicalism. From Forrest Gump's Zelig-like insertion into anti-war rallies on the steps of the memorial, to the villainous Decepticon robots discarding the Lincoln statue and claiming it as a throne. ... The memorial's place in the culture is assured even as it is parodied.[56]

Depictions on U.S. currency edit

From 1959 (the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the memorial, with statue visible through the columns, was depicted on the reverse of the United States one-cent coin, which since 1909 has depicted a bust of Lincoln on its front.[60]

The memorial has appeared on the back of the U.S. five-dollar bill since 1929.[61] The front of the bill bears Lincoln's portrait.

See also edit

References edit

Informational notes

  1. ^ The date for Ohio was incorrectly entered as 1802, as opposed to the correct year, 1803.
  2. ^ In the line from the second inaugural, "With high hope for the future," the F in FUTURE was carved as an E. To obscure this error the spurious bottom line of the E is not painted in with black paint.


  1. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  2. ^ "Annual Visitation Highlights". National Park Service. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  3. ^ "Lincoln Memorial National Memorial; Washington, DC National Park Service
  4. ^ "Annual Park Recreation Visitation (1904 – Last Calendar Year)" National Park Service
  5. ^ "Renovation and Expansion of the Historic DC Courthouse" (PDF). DC Court of Appeals. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  6. ^ "Washington's Lincoln: The First Monument to the Martyred President". The Intowner. Archived from the original on 14 January 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  7. ^ a b c NRHP Nomination, p. 4
  8. ^ Thomas, Christopher A. (2002) The Lincoln Memorial and American Life Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 069101194X
  9. ^ "Image 1 of Evening star (Washington, D.C.), February 12, 1914". Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  10. ^ NRHP Nomination, p. 5
  11. ^ Yellin, Eric S. (2013-04-22). Racism in the Nation's Service: Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson's America. UNC Press Books. ISBN 978-1-4696-0721-4.
  12. ^ NRHP Nomination, p. 6
  13. ^ a b c d e NRHP Nomination, p. 2
  14. ^ Concklin, Edward F. (1927) The Lincoln Memorial, Washington. United States Government Printing Office
  15. ^ "Lincoln Memorial - Frequently Asked Questions". National Park Service. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  16. ^ U. S. Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks. Lincoln Memorial Building Statistics
  17. ^ a b c d NRHP Nomination, p. 3
  18. ^ United Press (August 28, 1957) "Lincoln Memorial has some stalactites" Lodi News-Sentinel
  19. ^ a b Avery, Jim (July 19, 2017). "5 World-Famous Landmarks That Have Totally Weirdo Secrets". Cracked. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  20. ^ Rivera and Weinstein, Gloria and Janet (September 2, 2016). "Take a 'Historic Graffiti' Tour Under the Lincoln Memorial". ABC News. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  21. ^ Hodge, Paul (October 27, 1977) "What's Afoot Under Abe Lincoln's Feet?" The Washington Post
  22. ^ Twoomey, Steve (April 9, 1990) "Monuments Losing Battle with Erosion" The Washington Post
  23. ^ Staff (ndg) "Lincoln Center Rehabilitation" National Park Service website
  24. ^ Reid, Chip (November 23, 2016) "Lincoln Memorial to get long-awaited makeover, underground visitor's center" CBS News
  25. ^ Dupré, Judith (2007). Monuments: America's History in Art and Memory. New York: Random House. pp. 86–95. ISBN 978-1-4000-6582-0.
  26. ^ See Buchner, Edmund (1976). "Solarium Augusti und Ara Pacis", Römische Mitteilungen 83: 319–375; (1988). Die Sonnenuhr des Augustus: Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik (Berlin); P. Zanker The Augustan Program of Cultural Renewal Archived 2012-05-30 at for a full discussion of the Augustan solarium and its architectural features.
  27. ^ "Lincoln Memorial Design Individuals". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
  28. ^ a b "Lincoln Memorial: Frequently Asked Questions" on the National Park Service website
  29. ^ Prokopowicz, Gerald J. (2008) Did Lincoln Own Slaves? And Other Frequently Asked Questions About Abraham Lincoln. Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-375-42541-7
  30. ^ Evelyn, Douglas E. and Dickson, Paul A. (1999) On this Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-7922-7499-7
  31. ^ Archived 2009-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Percoco, James A., speech given on April 17, 2008, in the Jefferson Room of the National Archives and Records Administration as part of the National Archive's "Noontime Programs" lecture series. Broadcast on the C-Span cable television network on April 4 and April 5, 2009. Archived January 26, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Eleanor Roosevelt and Marian Anderson". FDR Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  34. ^ Glass, Andrew (2018-06-29). "Truman addresses NAACP, June 29, 1947". Politico. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  35. ^ Fairclough, Adam (1997) "Civil Rights and the Lincoln Memorial: The Censored Speeches of Robert R. Moton (1922) and John Lewis (1963)" Journal of Negro History v.82 pp.408–416.
  36. ^ Maraniss, David (2015). Once in a Great City: A Detroit Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-4767-4838-2. OCLC 894936463.
  37. ^ Jennings, Peter and Brewster, Todd (1998) The Century: A Chronicle of the 20th Century. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385483278
  38. ^ "Stand Where Martin Luther King, Jr. Gave the "I Have a Dream" Speech". National Park Service. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  39. ^ Director: Joe Angio (2007-02-15). Nixon a Presidency Revealed (television). History Channel.
  40. ^ Pohl, Robert S. (2013-08-20). Urban Legends & Historic Lore of Washington, D.C. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 9781625846648.
  41. ^ "Washington During Wartime" Architect of the Capital (Retrieved May 19, 2022)
  42. ^ "Lincoln Memorial Hit By Machine Gun Bullets" Madera Tribune (4 September 1942)
  43. ^ "Vandals Deface Lincoln Memorial" Ocala Star-Banner (September 27, 1962)
  44. ^ Fard, Maggie Fazeli & Ruane, Michael E. (July 26, 2013). "Lincoln Memorial is shut down after vandals splash paint on it". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  45. ^ Alexander, Keith L. (January 6, 2015) "Case dismissed against woman accused of throwing green paint on D.C. landmarks" The Washington Post
  46. ^ Staff (February 21, 2017) "World War II Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, DC War Memorial Vandalized" NBC 4 Washington News
  47. ^ Staff (August 15, 2017) "Lincoln Memorial Vandalized With Red Spray Paint" NBC 4 Washington News
  48. ^ Reuters (August 15, 2017) "Lincoln Memorial in Washington Defaced With Expletive" The New York Times
  49. ^ Mower, Justin Wm. (September 19, 2017). "Police arrest man accused of vandalizing the Lincoln Memorial with a penny". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  50. ^ LeBlanc, Paul (31 May 2020). "Famed DC monuments defaced after night of unrest". CNN. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  51. ^ @NationalMallNPS (31 May 2020). "In the wake of last night's demonstrations, there are numerous instances of vandalism to sites around the National Mall. For generations, the Mall has been our nation's premier civic gathering space for non-violent demonstrations, and we ask individuals to carry on that tradition" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  52. ^ Rosales, Jean K. and Jose, Michael R. (2003) DC Goes to the Movies: A Unique Guide to Reel Washington iUniverse. p.149 ISBN 9780595267972
  53. ^ Reinhart, Mark S. (2009). Abraham Lincoln on Screen: Fictional and Documentary Portrayals on Film and Television. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5261-3.
  54. ^ Toney, Veronica (September 17, 2015). "It's not just 'Forrest Gump.' The National Mall has had an iconic role in many movies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  55. ^ Rosales, Jean K. and Jose, Michael R. (2003) DC Goes to the Movies: A Unique Guide to Reel Washington iUniverse. p.245 ISBN 9780595267972
  56. ^ a b Sacher, Jay (May 6, 2014). Lincoln Memorial: The Story and Design of an American Monument. Chronicle Books. pp. 83–85. ISBN 9781452131986. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  57. ^ "Permit FAQS" National Park Service
  58. ^ Mitchell Newton-Matza (2016). Historic Sites and Landmarks that Shaped America. ABC-CLIO. p. 324. ISBN 9781610697507.
  59. ^ Tracey Gold Bennett (2014). Washington, D.C., Film and Television. Arcadia. p. 27. ISBN 9781439642764.
  60. ^ Bowers, Q. David (2008). A Guide Book of Lincoln Cents. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing. pp. 45, 49–51. ISBN 978-0-7948-2264-4.
  61. ^ "$5" (PDF). U.S. Currency Education Program. United States Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-28.

Further reading

External links edit

External videos
  Laser Scan: Lincoln Memorial (0:33), DJS Associates from the Lincoln Memorial Project