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The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded by Father Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, it was named in honor of the explorer Christopher Columbus. Originally serving as a mutual benefit society to working class and immigrant Catholics in the United States, it developed into a fraternal benefit society dedicated to providing charitable services, including war and disaster relief, actively defending Catholicism in various nations, and promoting Catholic education.[1][2][3] The Knights also support the Catholic Church's positions on public policy issues, and are participants in the New Evangelization.

Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus emblem consists of a shield mounted on a Formée cross.  Mounted on the shield are a fasces, an anchor, and a dagger.
Emblem of the Knights of Columbus
Abbreviation K of C
Motto In service to One,
In service to all.
Formation March 29, 1882; 135 years ago (1882-03-29)
Type Catholic fraternal service organization
Headquarters 1 Columbus Plaza,
New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Founder
Venerable Michael J. McGivney
Supreme Knight
Carl A. Anderson
Supreme Chaplain
Archbishop William E. Lori
Affiliations International Alliance of Catholic Knights
Columbian Squires
Website www.kofc.org

There are 1,918,122 members[4] in nearly 15,000 councils,[5] with 302 councils on college campuses.[4] Membership is limited to practical Catholic men aged 18 or older, and consists of four different degrees, each exemplifying a different principle of the Order.[6][7][nb 1] The Order is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights.[8] Councils are chartered in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and around the world.[9] The Knights' official junior organization, the Columbian Squires, has more than 5,000 circles, and the Order's patriotic arm, the Fourth Degree, has more than 2,500 assemblies.[10] The current Supreme Knight is Carl A. Anderson.

Pope John Paul II referred to the Order as a "strong right arm of the Church," for their support for Church doctrines and Church communities, as well as for their philanthropic and charitable efforts.[11] In 2015, the Order gave over US$175 million directly to charity and performed over 73.5 million man-hours of voluntary service,[12] part of the $1.55 billion given to charity over the past 10 years.[13] The Knight's insurance program has more than 2 million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force.[14] This is backed by $21 billion in assets as of 2014.[14] This places it on the Forbes 1000 list.[14]

Contents

HistoryEdit

FoundingEdit

 
Michael J. McGivney, founder of the Knights of Columbus.
 
St. Mary's Church

Michael J. McGivney, an Irish-American Catholic priest, founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut. He gathered a group of men from St. Mary's Parish for an organizational meeting on October 2, 1881. Several months later, the Order was incorporated under the laws of the state of Connecticut on March 29, 1882.[2] Although its first councils were all in Connecticut, the Order spread throughout New England and the United States in subsequent years. By 1889, there were 300 councils comprising 40,000 knights. Twenty years later, in 1909, there were 230,000 knights in 1,300 councils.[15]

The Order was intended to be a mutual benefit society. These organizations, which combined social aspects and ritual, were especially flourishing during the latter third of the nineteenth century, the so-called "Golden Age of Fraternalism.[16] As a parish priest in an immigrant community, McGivney saw what could happen to a family when the main income earner died. This was before most government support programs were established. He wanted to provide insurance to care for the widows and orphans left behind. In his own life, he temporarily had to suspend his seminary studies to care for his family after his father died.[17]

Because of religious and ethnic discrimination, Roman Catholics in the late 19th century were regularly excluded from labor unions, popular fraternal organizations, and other organized groups that provided such social services.[18] Papal encyclicals issued by the Holy See prohibited Catholics from participating as lodge members within Freemasonry. McGivney intended to create an alternative organization. He also believed that Catholicism and fraternalism could be compatible and wanted to found a society to encourage men to be proud of their American-Catholic heritage.[19]

McGivney traveled to Boston to examine the Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters and to Brooklyn, New York to learn about the recently established Catholic Benevolent League, both of which offered insurance benefits. He found the latter to be lacking the excitement he thought was needed if his organization were to compete with the secret societies of the day. He explored establishing a New Haven Court of the Foresters, but the group's charter in Massachusetts limited them to operating within the Commonwealth. McGivney's committee of St. Mary's parishioners decided to form a new club.[20]

 
Christopher Columbus is the patron and namesake of the Knights.

The name of Columbus was also partially intended as a mild rebuke to Anglo-Saxon Protestant leaders, who upheld the explorer (a Genovese Italian Catholic who had worked for Catholic Spain) as an American hero, yet simultaneously sought to marginalize recent Catholic immigrants. In taking Columbus as their patron, the founders expressed their belief that not only could Catholics be full members of American society, but were instrumental in its foundation.[21] McGivney had originally conceived of the name "Sons of Columbus." James T. Mullen, who would ascend to become the first Supreme Knight, was successful in suggesting that "Knights of Columbus" better expressed the ritualistic nature of the new organization and drew from positive historical associations.[22]

By the time of the first annual convention in 1884, the Order was prospering. The five councils throughout Connecticut had a total of 459 members. Groups from other states were requesting information.[23] The Charter of 1899 included four statements of purpose, including: "To promote such social and intellectual intercourse among its members as shall be desirable and proper, and by such lawful means as to them shall seem best."[24] The new charter showed members' desire to expand the organization beyond a simple mutual benefit insurance society.

The original insurance system devised by McGivney gave a deceased Knight's widow a $1,000 death benefit. Each member was assessed $1 upon a death, and when the number of Knights grew beyond 1,000, the assessment decreased according to the rate of increase.[25] Each member, regardless of age, was assessed equally. As a result, younger, healthier members could expect to pay more over the course of their lifetimes than those men who joined when they were older.[26] There was also a Sick Benefit Deposit for members who fell ill and could not work. Each sick Knight was entitled to draw up to $5 a week for 13 weeks (roughly equivalent to $125.75 in 2009 dollars[27]). If he remained sick after that, the council to which he belonged determined the sum of money given to him.[28]

Creation of the Fourth DegreeEdit

From the earliest days of the Order, members wanted to create a form of hierarchy and recognition for senior members;[29] this issue was discussed at the National Meeting of 1899.[30] As early as 1886, Supreme Knight James T. Mullen had proposed a patriotic degree with its own symbolic dress.[31] The Order established the Grand Cross of the Knights of Columbus, but awarded it only to Cristobal Colón y de La Cerda, Duke of Veragua and descendant of Columbus, when he visited the US in 1893.[29]

About 1,400 members attended the first exemplification of the Fourth Degree at the Lenox Lyceum in New York on February 22, 1900.[29][30] The event was infused with Catholic and patriotic symbols, imagery that "celebrated American Catholic heritage."[32] The two knights leading the ceremony, for example, were the Expositor of the Constitution and the Defender of the Faith.[32] The ritual soon spread to other cities.[29] The new Fourth Degree members returned to their councils, forming assemblies composed of members from several councils. Those assemblies chose the new members.[33]

In 1903, the Board of Directors officially approved a new degree exemplifying patriotism Order-wide, using the New York City model.[29] The Order had a "desire to receive within its ranks only the best" and intended the men should be practicing Catholics. As one measure, each candidate was required to submit a certificate from his parish priest attesting that he had received Holy Communion within the past two weeks.[34]

World War IEdit

To prove that good Catholics could also be good Americans, during World War I the Knights supported the war effort and the troops. It was hoped that this would help mitigate some of the American Anti-Catholicism. Thousands of knights served in the American Expeditionary Forces, including William T. Fitzsimons, considered the first American officer killed in the war.[35]

Supreme Knight James A. Flaherty proposed to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson that the Order establish soldiers' welfare centers in the U.S. and abroad. The organization already had experience, having provided similar services to troops encamped on the Mexican border during Pershing's expedition of 1916.[36] With the slogan "Everyone Welcome, Everything Free," the "huts" became recreation/service centers for doughboys regardless of race or religion. They were staffed by "secretaries," commonly referred to as "Caseys" (for K of C) who were generally men above the age of military service. The centers provided basic amenities not readily available, such as stationery, hot baths, and religious services.[37] One well-known "Casey" was major league baseball player Johnny Evers of ""Tinker-to-Evers-to-Chance," who traveled to France as a member of the Knights of Columbus to organize baseball games for the troops.[38] After the war, the Knights became involved in education, occupational training, and employment programs for the returning troops.[36]

As a result of this, "the Order was infused with the self-confidence that it could respond with organizational skill and with social and political power to any need of Church and society. In this sense, the K. of C. reflected the passage of American Catholicism from an immigrant Church to a well-established and respected religious denomination which had proven its patriotic loyalty in the acid test of the Great War."[39][13]

Conflict with the Ku Klux KlanEdit

Not long after the establishment of the Fourth Degree, during the nadir of American race relations, a bogus oath was circulated claiming that Fourth Degree Knights swore to exterminate Freemasons and Protestants. In addition, they purportedly were prepared to flay, burn alive, boil, kill, and otherwise torture anyone, including women and children, when called upon to do so by church authorities.[40][41] "It is a strange paradox," according to some commentators, that the degree devoted to patriotism should be accused of anti-Americanism.[42]

The "bogus oath" was based on a previous oath falsely attributed to the Jesuits more than three centuries earlier.[43] The Ku Klux Klan, which was growing into a newly powerful force through the 1920s, spread the bogus oath far and wide as part of their contemporary campaign against Catholics (which was part of a campaign against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, of whom many were Catholic).[44][45][46] During the 1928 Presidential election, the Klan printed and distributed a million copies of the oath in an effort to defeat Catholic Democratic candidate Al Smith. Thomas S. Butler (R), U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania, read it into the Congressional Record.[47] The bogus oath was refuted by the Committee of Public Information, a propaganda agency of the U.S. Government established during World War I (the Great War).[42]

Misunderstanding Catholicism, the Klan alleged that Knights were only loyal to the Pope and that they advocated the overthrow of the United States government.[48] Across the country, local, state, and the Supreme Councils offered rewards to anyone who could prove that the widely circulated oath was authentic.[49] No one could, but that did not stop the Klan from continuing to publish and distribute copies. Numerous state councils and the Supreme Council believed that this "violent wave of religious prejudice was actuated by mercenary motives." They believed publication would stop if the KKK were assessed fines or punished by jail time assessed. They began suing distributors for libel.[48] The KKK ended its publication of the false oath. As the Order did not wish to appear motivated by a "vengeful spirit," it asked for leniency from judges when sentencing offenders.[48]

To help combat this misconception, the K of C submitted the actual oath of Fourth Degree members for examination by various groups of prominent non-Catholic men around the country. Many made public declarations attesting to the loyalty and patriotism of the Knights.[50] After examining the true oath, a committee of high-ranking California Freemasons, a group identified as a target in the bogus oath, declared in 1914:

The ceremonial of the Order [of the Knights of Columbus] teaches a high and noble patriotism, instills a love of country, inculcates a reverence of civic duty and holds up the Constitution of our Country as the richest and most precious possession of a Knight of the Order.[51]

Pierce v. Society of SistersEdit

After World War I, many native-born Americans had a revival of concerns about assimilation of immigrants and worries about "foreign" values; they wanted public schools to teach children to be American. Numerous states drafted laws designed to use schools to promote a common American culture, and in 1922, the voters of Oregon passed the Oregon Compulsory Education Act. The law was primarily aimed at eliminating parochial schools, including Catholic schools.[52][53] It was promoted by groups such as the Knights of Pythias, the Federation of Patriotic Societies, the Oregon Good Government League, the Orange Order, and the Ku Klux Klan.[54]

The Compulsory Education Act required almost all children in Oregon between eight and sixteen years of age to attend public school by 1926.[54] Roger Nash Baldwin, an associate director of the ACLU and a personal friend of then-Supreme Advocate and future Supreme Knight Luke E. Hart, offered to join forces with the Order to challenge the law. The Knights of Columbus pledged an immediate $10,000 to fight the law and any additional funds necessary to defeat it.[55]

The case became known as Pierce v. Society of Sisters, a seminal United States Supreme Court decision that significantly expanded coverage of the Due Process Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment. In a unanimous decision, the Court held that the act was unconstitutional and that parents, not the state, had the authority to educate children as they thought best.[56] It upheld the religious freedom of parents to educate their children in religious schools.

Racial integration in the U.S.Edit

Postwar social unrest was also related to the difficulties of absorbing the veterans from the war in the job market. Competition among groups for work heightened tensions. In the 1920s there was growing anti-Semitism in the United States related to economic competition and the fears of social change from decades of changed immigration, a lingering anti-German sentiment left over from World War I, and anti-black violence erupted in numerous locations as well. In this period African Americans were leaving the South by the tens of thousands, to escape oppressive social conditions and find work in the North and Midwestern industrial cities, in what came to be called the Great Migration.

To combat the animus targeted at racial and religious minorities, including Catholics, the Order formed a historical commission which published a series of books on their contributions, among other activities. The "Knights of Columbus Racial Contributions Series" of books included three titles: The Gift of Black Folk, by W. E. B. Du Bois, The Jews in the Making of America by George Cohen, and The Germans in the Making of America by Frederick Schrader.[57]

As the 20th century progressed, some councils in the United States became integrated, but many were not. Given the history of slavery and early development in the US, most African Americans were Protestant. But many in former French or Spanish territories had grown up Catholic. Church officials and organizations encouraged integration. By the end of the 1950s, Supreme Knight Luke E. Hart was actively encouraging councils to accept black candidates.[58] In 1963, Hart attended a special meeting at the White House hosted by President John F. Kennedy to discuss civil rights with other religious leaders. A few months later, a local KofC council rejected a black man's application because of his race, notwithstanding that he was a graduate of Notre Dame University. Six council officers resigned in protest, and the incident made national news. Hart declared that the process for membership would be revised at the next Supreme Convention, but died before he could see it take place.[59]

The 1964 Supreme Convention was scheduled to be held at the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans. A few days before the Convention, new Supreme Knight John W. McDevitt learned the hotel admitted only white guests, under the state's racial segregation policy. He threatened to move the Convention to another venue. The hotel changed its policy and so did the Order. The Convention amended the admissions rule to require that a new applicant could not be rejected by less than one-third of those voting. In 1972 the Supreme Convention amended its rules again, requiring a majority of members voting to reject a candidate.[60]

Recent historyEdit

In 1959, Fidel Castro sent an aide to represent him at a Fourth Degree banquet in honor of the Golden Jubilee of the Order's entry into Cuba.[61] Supreme Knight Luke E. Hart attended a banquet in the Cuban Prime Minister's honor in April of that year sponsored by the Overseas Press Club.[61] He later sent him a letter expressing regret that they were not able to meet in person.[61]

Hart visited President and fellow Knight John F. Kennedy at the White House on Columbus Day, 1961.[nb 2] Hart presented Kennedy with a poster of the American flag with the story of how the Order got the words "under God" inserted in the Pledge of Allegiance.[62]

In 1997, the cause for McGivney's canonization was opened in the Archdiocese of Hartford. It was placed before the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in 2000. The Father Michael J. McGivney Guild was formed in 1997 to promote his cause, and it currently has more than 140,000 members.[63] Membership in the Knights of Columbus does not automatically make one a member of the guild, nor is membership restricted to Knights; members must elect to join. On March 15, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI approved a decree recognizing McGivney's "heroic virtue," significantly advancing the priest's process toward sainthood. McGivney may now be referred to as the "Venerable Servant of God." If the cause is successful, he would be the first priest born in the United States to be canonized as a saint.[64]

According to Massimo Faggioli, the Knights of Columbus are "'an extreme version' of a post-Vatican II phenomenon, the rise of discrete lay groups that have become centers of power themselves."[13] In March 2016 the Knights of Columbus delivered to US Secretary of State John Kerry a 280 page report entitled Genocide Against Christians in the Middle East. This led the US State Department to declare that "ISIS's systematic massacre of Christians in the Middle East had reached genocidal proportions." [65]

Degrees and principlesEdit

The Order is dedicated to the principles of Charity, Unity, Fraternity, and Patriotism. A First Degree exemplification ceremony, by which a man joins the Order, explicates the virtue of charity. He is said to be a First Degree Knight of Columbus; after participating in the subsequent degrees, each of which focuses on another virtue, he rises to that status. Upon reaching the Third Degree, a gentleman is a full member. Priests do not participate directly in Degree exemplifications as laymen do, but rather take the degree by observation.[citation needed]

The first ritual handbook, printed in 1885, contained only sections teaching Unity and Charity.[66] Supreme Knight Mullen, along with primary ritual author Daniel Colwell, believed that the initiation ceremony should be held in three sections "in accord with the 'Trinity of Virtues, Charity, Unity, and Brotherly love.'"[66] The third section, expounding Fraternity, was officially adopted in 1891.[66]

Fourth degreeEdit

 
Fourth Degree Emblem
 
Knights of Columbus Color Corps marching in full regalia for a St. Patrick's Day Parade in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Rank Color
Supreme Master Dark Blue Cape and Chapeau
Vice Supreme Master Light Blue Cape and Chapeau
Master Gold Cape and Chapeau
District Marshal Green Cape and Chapeau
Faithful Navigator White Cape and Chapeau
Assembly Commander Purple Cape and Chapeau
Color Corps Members Red Cape and White Chapeau

After taking their third degree, knights are eligible to receive their fourth degree, the primary purpose of which is to foster the spirit of patriotism and to encourage active Catholic citizenship. Fourth degree members, in addition to being members of their individual councils, are also members of Fourth Degree assemblies which typically comprise members of several councils. As of 2013, there were 3,109 assemblies worldwide.[67]

Fewer than 18% of Knights join the Fourth Degree, which is optional. Its members are referred to as "Sir Knight." Of a total 1,703,307 Knights in 2006, there were 292,289 Fourth Degree Knights.[10] This number increased to 335,132 in 2013.[67] A waiting period of one year from the time the third degree was taken was eliminated in 2013, and now any Third Degree Knight is eligible to join the Fourth Degree.[67]

A new Military Overseas Europe Special District was established in 2013 to oversee assemblies of military personnel serving on that continent.[67][68] Over 100 Department of Defense civilian employees and active-duty personnel based in Germany, Italy, and Britain took part in a special Fourth Degree Exemplification Ceremony at Ramstein Air Force Base in Germany in 2013.[67][68] In that year exemplifications were also held in Camp Zama, Japan, and Yongsan Garrison in Seoul, Korea, where there are existing assemblies.[68]

Knights volunteer at 136 of the 153 Veteran's Affairs Medical Centers.[67]

Color corpsEdit

Fourth Degree Knights may optionally purchase and wear the full regalia and join an assembly's Color Corps. The Color Corps is the most visible arm of the Knights, as they are often seen in parades and other local events wearing their colorful regalia. Official dress for the Color Corps is a black tuxedo, baldric, white gloves, cape, and naval chapeau. In warm climates and during warm months, a white dinner jacket may be worn, if done as a unit.[69]

Baldrics are worn from the right shoulder to left hip and are color specific by nation. In the United States, Panama, and the Philippines, baldrics are red, white, and blue. Red and white baldrics are used in Canada and Poland; red, white, and green in Mexico; and blue and white in Guatemala.[70] Service baldrics include a scabbard for a sword and are worn over the coat while social baldrics are worn under the coat.[70]

The colors on a Fourth Degree Knight's cape and chapeau denote the office he holds within the Degree. Faithful Navigators and Past Faithful Navigators are permitted to carry a white handled silver sword. Masters and Vice Supreme Masters, as well as Former Masters and Former Vice Supreme Masters, are also denoted by their gold swords.[69]

On August 1, 2017, at the 135th annual Supreme Convention in St. Louis, Missouri, Supreme Knight Carl A. Anderson announced a new uniform of the Fourth Degree to include a blue blazer with the emblem as a patch and on the buttons, a white shirt, a Fourth Degree tie, dark gray slacks and a beret with the emblem.[71] According to some Catholic news sources, the new uniform is considered controversial by some of its members, drawing criticism for its attempt to make its members appear (at first glance) to be military veterans as opposed to a fraternal religious group.[72]

Charitable givingEdit

Year US dollars donated[67] Volunteer hours donated[67]
2012 $167,549,817 70,113,207
2011 $158,000,000 70,053,000
2010 $155,000,000 70,049,000
2009 $151,000,000 69,252,000
2008 $150,000,000 68,784,000

Charity is the foremost principle of the Knights of Columbus. According to one commentator, "there is hardly a corner of the Catholic world where the resources of this international force have not left an impression."[13] This has allowed the Knights and its high ranking officers to "become powerful and influential in ways unimaginable in 1882... and no other lay group can match the Knights' ability to leave its mark on the church."[13]

In 2015, the Order gave more than $175 million directly to charity and performed over 73.5 million man hours in volunteer service.[13] According to Independent Sector, this service has a value of more than $1.7 billion. The total charitable contributions, from the past decade, ending December 31, 2015 rose to $15 billion. Finally in 2015, Knights of Columbus, on an average per member basis, contributed 38 hours of community service.[73] Much of the financial effort went to initiatives of the Vatican and the U.S. bishops.[13]

More than $1.2 million was donated to Habitat for Humanity in 2013, in addition to 1.4 million volunteer hours.[67] Over 80,500 winter coats were distributed in 2012 to children in cold weather areas as well.[67] Since 2009, the Order has spent $38 million to install ultrasound machines in hospitals in poor communities and poor countries.[74] The very first ever national blood drive was sponsored by the Order in 1938.[67] In 2013, council blood drives attracted more than 423,000 donors.[67]

United in Charity, a general, unrestricted endowment fund, was introduced at the 2004 Supreme Council meeting to support and ensure the overall long-term charitable and philanthropic goals of the Order. The fund is wholly managed, maintained, and operated by Knights of Columbus Charities, Inc., a 501(c)(8) charitable organization.[75] Before United in Charity was formed, all requests for funds were met with the general funds of the Order or in combination with specific appeals.[76]

Global Catholic donationsEdit

 
The Order funded the first renovation of the façade of St. Peter's Basilica in over 350 years.[77]

The Vicarius Christi Fund has an endowment of $20 million and has earned more than $35 million since its establishment in 1981 for the Pope's personal charities.

The Order also has eleven separate funds totaling $18 million to assist men and women who are discerning religious vocations pay tuition and other expenses.[78] The multimillion-dollar Pacem in Terris Fund aids the Catholic Church's efforts for peace in the Middle East. In 2012, $1.8 million was given by state and local councils to seminaries, with an additional $5.9 million in direct assistance to seminarians.[67] A further $20 million went to church facilities and $7.4 million to Catholic schools from state and local councils.[67] Since 2014, the Order raised more than $17 million to help Christian refugees, with a focus on Iraq and Syria.[79] The Vox Clara Committee received $100,000 in support of its efforts to translate liturgical texts.[13]

United States bishopsEdit

The Knights give to individual churches and diocese, but is also a major donor to the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.[13] They have spent more than $1.4 million between 2010 and 2014 to provide workshops for the bishops coordinated by the National Catholic Bioethics Center.[13]

Catholic communicationsEdit

Since the 1960s, the Knights' Satellite Uplink Program has provided funding to broadcast a number of papal events, including the annual Easter and Christmas Masses, as well as the World Day of Peace in Assisi, World Youth Days, the opening of the Holy Door at St. Peter's Basilica for the Millennial Jubilee, Pope John Paul II's visit to Nazareth, and several other events.[13][80] In missionary territories the Order also pays for the satellite downlink.[80][13] It also purchased "a mobile unit with recording and transmitting equipment to enable Vatican television to broadcast in high definition."[13]

In recent years a contribution of $100,000 was made to support the Holy See's strategic communications office.[13] The Knights are major sponsors of the Eternal Word Television Network, the Association for Catholic Information, the Catholic News Agency, and Crux.[13] According to John L. Allen Jr., Crux's editor, has said that while the Knights sponsor a major portion of their budget, the Order has no control over content.[13]

The disabledEdit

The Knights have a tradition of supporting those with physical and developmental disabilities. More than $382 million has been given over the past three decades to groups and programs that support the intellectually and physically disabled,[10] with $4.1 million donated in 2012 alone.[67]

One of the largest recipients of funds in this area is the Special Olympics.[67] In 2012, there were more than 107,000 Knights who donated 315,000 hours of service at nearly 20,000 Special Olympics events.[67] Individual councils donated $3.7 million to the Special Olympics in 2013.[67] The Order's support for the Special Olympics goes back to the very first games in 1968.[67]

In 2012, more than 5,000 wheelchairs were distributed in 10 countries in a partnership with the Global Wheelchair Mission.[67]

Disaster reliefEdit

Aside from their other charitable activities, The Knights of Columbus gave significant charitable contributions to the people of Haiti in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake in January 2010. The Order also donated 1,000 wheelchairs to the people of Haiti in partnership with the Global Wheelchair Mission.[81] Recognizing that the need was still great in Haiti some seven months after the disaster, the Knights of Columbus partnered with Project Medishare in August 2010 for an initiative entitled, "Healing Haiti's Children." The initiative, backed by a more than $2.5 million commitment from the Knights of Columbus provides free prosthetic limbs and a minimum of two years of rehab to every child who suffered an amputation from injuries sustained during the earthquake.[67][82] As of 2013, more than 800 children had already been aided by the program.[67]

After the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, a local council in Newtown, Connecticut, established a program asking people to pray a minimum of three Hail Marys for the victims and their families. Over 100,000 people pledged to say 3.25 million prayers.[67]

More than $500,000 was donated to Hurricane Sandy relief efforts, and $202,000 to victims of the April 2012 tornadoes in Oklahoma.[67] After West Fertilizer Company explosion in Texas, nearly a quarter of a million dollars were raised.[67] In total, more than $3.3 million were donated by individual councils for disaster relief in 2012.[67]

Insurance programEdit

HistoryEdit

Year Reserve Fund Assets
1896[83] $12,000

The original insurance system devised by McGivney gave a deceased Knight's widow a $1,000 death benefit. Each member was assessed $1 upon a death, and when the number of Knights grew beyond 1,000, the assessment decreased according to the rate of increase.[25] Each member, regardless of age, was assessed equally. As a result, younger, healthier members could expect to pay more over the course of their lifetimes than those men who joined when they were older.[26] There was also a Sick Benefit Deposit for members who fell ill and could not work. Each sick Knight was entitled to draw up to $5 a week for 13 weeks (roughly equivalent to $125.75 in 2009 dollars[27]). If he remained sick after that, the council to which he belonged determined the sum of money given to him.[28]

The need for a reserve fund for times of epidemic was seen from the earliest days, but it was rejected several times before finally being established in 1892.[84]

Since its first loan to St. Rose Church in Meriden, Connecticut in the late 1890s, the Knights of Columbus have made loans to parishes, dioceses, and other Catholic institutions.[85] By 1954, over $300 million had been loaned and the program "never lost one cent of principal or interest."[85]

In the post World War II era, the interest rates on long-term bonds dipped below levels at which the Order's insurance program could sustain itself, and Supreme Knight Hart moved the order into a more aggressive program of investing in real estate.[86] Under his leadership, the Order established a lease-back investment program in which the Order wold buy a piece of property and then lease it back to the original owner "upon terms generally that would bring to our Order a net rental equal to the normal mortgage interest rate."[86]

Late in 1953 it was learned that the land upon which Yankee Stadium was built was for sale. On December 17, 1953, the Order purchased the property for $2.5 million and then leased it back for 28 years at $182,000 a year with the option to renew the lease for three additional terms of 15 years at $125,000 a year.[85] In 1971 the City of New York took the land by eminent domain.[87]

Between 1952 and 1962, 18 pieces of land were purchased as part of the lease-back program for a total of $29 million. During this time, the amount of money invested in common stock also increased.[85]

Modern programEdit

Year Insurance in
force (billions)
[67]
Assets
(billions)
[67]
2012 $88.4 $19.4
2011 $83.5 $18.0
2010 $79.0 $16.9
2009 $74.3 $15.5
2008 $70.1 $14.1

The Order offers a modern, professional insurance operation with more than $100 billion of life insurance policies in force and $19.8 billion in assets as of June 2013,[88] a figure more than double the 2000 levels.[67][88] Nearly 80,000 life certificates were issued in 2013, almost 30,000 more than the Order's closest competitor, to bring the total to 1.73 million.[67] The program has a $1.8 billion surplus.[67]

Over $286 million in death benefits were paid in 2012 and $1.7 billion were paid between 2000 and 2010.[67] This is large enough to rank 49th on the A. M. Best list of all life insurance companies in North America.[89] Since the founding of the Order, $3.5 billion in death benefits have been paid.[90] Premiums in 2012 were nearly $1.2 billion, and dividends paid out totaled more than $274 million.[67] Over the same time period, annuity deposits rose 4.2%, compared to an 8% loss for the industry as a whole.[67]

Every day in 2012 more than $10 million was invested, for a total of $2.7 billion on the year, and an annual income of $905 million.[67] The Order maintains a two prong investment strategy. A company must first be a sound investment before stock in it is purchased, and secondly the company's activities must not conflict with Catholic social teaching.[67] Citing the awards they have won, the Order calls themselves "champions of ethical investing."[13] The Order also provides mortgages to churches and Catholic schools at "very competitive rates" through its ChurchLoan program.[67]

Products include permanent and term life insurance, as well as annuities, long term care insurance, and disability insurance.[88] The insurance program is not a separate business offered by the Order to others but is exclusively for the benefit of members and their families.[91] According to the Fortune 1000 list, the Knights of Columbus ranked 880 in total revenue in 2017[92] and, with more than 1,500 agents, was 925th in size in 2015.[67] All agents are members of the Order.[citation needed]

The Order's insurance program is the most highly rated program in North America.[67] For 40 consecutive years, the Order has received A. M. Best's highest rating, A++.[67][93] Additionally, the Order is certified by the Insurance Marketplace Standards Association for ethical sales practices.[10] Standard & Poor's downgraded the insurance program's financial strength/credit rating from AAA to AA+ in August 2011 not due to the Order's financial strength, but due to its lowering of the long-term sovereign credit rating of the United States to AA+.[94][95][nb 3] Additionally, the insurance program has a low 3.5% lapse rate of the 1.9 million members and their families who are insured.[67][88]

OrganizationEdit

Year Membership[67] Councils[67]
2013 1,843,587 14,606
2012 1,830,000 14,400
2011 1,820,000 14,200
2010 1,810,000 14,000
2009 1,790,000 13,700

As of 2015 there were 1,918,122 knights, and membership has grown each year for 44 consecutive years. Each member belongs to one of 15,342 councils around the world. In addition, there is a "round table"[nb 4] presence in Lithuania.[67] Membership is limited to men who are 18 years of age or older and are practicing Catholics, i.e. "an applicant or member accepts the teaching authority of the Catholic Church on matters of faith and morals, aspires to live in accord with the precepts of the Catholic Church, and is in good standing in the Catholic Church."[7]

Knights of Columbus councils, Fourth Degree assemblies, and Columbian Squire circles have similar officers. In the councils, officer titles are prefixed with "Worthy," while in assemblies officer titles are prefixed with "Faithful." In addition to the Columbian Squires' officers listed below, there is an adult position of "Chief Counselor" that helps oversee the circle.[96]

Council Assembly Circle
Grand Knight Navigator Chief Squire
Chaplain* Friar* Father Prior
Deputy Grand Knight Captain Deputy Chief Squire
Chancellor Admiral Marshal Squire
Recorder Scribe Notary Squire
Financial Secretary** Comptroller Bursar Squire
Treasurer Purser Bursar Squire
Lecturer* nonexistent nonexistent
Advocate nonexistent nonexistent
Warden Pilot Marshal Squire
Inside Guard Inner Sentinel Sentry
Outside Guard Outer Sentinel Sentry
Trustee (3 Year) Trustee (3 Year) nonexistent
Trustee (2 Year) Trustee (2 Year) nonexistent
Trustee (1 Year) Trustee (1 Year) nonexistent
nonexistent Color Corp Commander* nonexistent

(*Appointed annually by each council's Grand Knight or assembly's Navigator)

(**Appointed for a 3-year term by the Supreme Knight)

Supreme CouncilEdit

Supreme Knight Supreme Chaplain
Carl A. Anderson Archbishop William E. Lori
Deputy Supreme Knight Patrick E. Kelly
Supreme Secretary Michael O'Connor
Supreme Treasurer Ronald Schwarz
Supreme Advocate John Marrella
Supreme
Warden
Francis Drouhard
Supreme
Master
Dennis Stoddard

The Supreme Council is the governing body of the Order and is composed of elected representatives from each jurisdiction. In a manner similar to shareholders at an annual meeting, the Supreme Council elects seven members each year to the Supreme Board of Directors for three-year terms. The twenty-one member board then chooses from its own membership the senior operating officials of the Order, including the Supreme Knight and Deputy Supreme Knight.[97]

Supreme KnightsEdit

Term of office Supreme Knight Prior office Deputy Supreme Knight


1 February 2, 1882 to May 17, 1886   James T. Mullen John Dowling[98]
2 1886 to 1897 John J. Phelan June 15, 1884 to William Hassett[99]
3 March 2, 1897 to February 8, 1898   James E. Hayes First State Deputy of Massachusetts 1897 to February 8, 1898 John J. Cone[100]
4 February 8, 1898-1899 John J. Cone First New Jersey State Deputy,
Deputy Supreme Knight
Served remainder of Hayes term.
5 April 1, 1899 to August 31, 1909 Edward L. Hearn State Deputy of Massachusetts April 1, 1899[101] to June 3, 1903[102] John W. Hogan
June 3, 1903[102] to Patrick T. McArdle[103][104]
James A. Flaherty[105]
6 September 1, 1909 to August 31, 1927   James A. Flaherty Deputy Supreme Knight 1909[106] to 1927[107] Martin H. Carmody[106]
7 September 1, 1927 to August 31, 1939 Martin H. Carmody Deputy Supreme Knight,
Michigan State Deputy
1927[106] to 1933[108] John F. Martin
1933[108] to 1939 Francis P. Matthews
8 1939 to 1945   Francis P. Matthews Deputy Supreme Knight[109] 1939 to 1945 John E. Swift
9 1945-1953 John E. Swift Deputy Supreme Knight[110]
Massachusetts State Deputy[111]
1945[112] to 1949[113] Timothy Galvin
1949[113] to 1960[114] William J. Mulligan
10 September 1, 1953 to February 19, 1964   Luke E. Hart Supreme Advocate
1960[114] to 1964[115] John W. McDevitt[115]
11 1964 to 1977 John W. McDevitt Deputy Supreme Knight 1964 to 1966 John H. Griffin[115][116]
12 January 21, 1977 to September 30, 2000 Virgil C. Dechant
1984 to 1997 Ellis Flynn[117]
1997-2000 Robert F. Wade[118]
13 October 1, 2000 to present   Carl A. Anderson Supreme Secretary,
Vice President for Public Policy
2000 to 2006 Jean Migneault[119]
2006 to 2013 Dennis Savoie[120][121]
2013 to 2017 Logan T. Ludwig[122]
January 1, 2017 to present[122] Patrick E. Kelly


Supreme ConventionEdit

 
George W. Bush greets Fourth Degree Knights at the 122nd Annual Convention.

The Knights of Columbus invites the head of state of every country in which they operate to the annual Supreme Convention.[123] In 1971, U.S. President Richard Nixon gave the keynote address at the States Dinner; Secretary of Transportation and Knight John Volpe had arranged this first appearance of a U.S. President at a Supreme Council gathering.[124]

President Ronald Reagan spoke at the Centennial Convention in 1982.[125] Reagan presented the Order with a President's Volunteer Action Award at the White House in 1984.[126] President George H.W. Bush appeared in 1992. President Bill Clinton sent a written message while he was in office, and President George W. Bush sent videotaped messages before he attended in person at the 2004 convention.[127] President Barack Obama has also sent written messages during his term in office.[128]

AssembliesEdit

Fourth degree members belong to one of 3,109 assemblies, including 75 created in 2012.[67] The first assembly in Europe was established in 2012,[67] and in 2013 a new assembly for Boston-area college councils was created at Harvard University.[129] As of 2013 there were 335,132 Fourth Degree members, including 15,709 who joined the ranks of the Patriotic Degree the year before.[67]

College councilsEdit

In 1898, Keane Council 353 was established at The Catholic University of America, though in later years it moved off campus.[130][nb 5] The University of Notre Dame Council 1477 was founded in 1910,[131] and was followed by the councils at Saint Louis University and Benedictine College.[132] In 1919, Mount St. Mary's College and Seminary Council 1965 became the first council attached to a college and seminary, at what is now Mount St. Mary's University.[133][134]

In each autumn since 1966, the Supreme Council has hosted a College Council Conference at their headquarters in New Haven, Connecticut.[135][136] Awards are given for the greatest increases in membership, the best Youth, Community, Council, Family, and Church activities, and the overall Outstanding College Council of the year. The most recent winner of the Outstanding College Council Award was The Catholic University of America Council.[137]

Promotion of the Catholic faithEdit

Anti-religious discrimination effortsEdit

Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society."[138] In 1914, it established a Commission on Religious Prejudices.[138] The Commission conducted research to discover the sources of religious discrimination, conducted an education campaign to correct editors and journalists who published bigoted statements, and supported the Department of Justice in criminal libel prosecution.[139] They also called on the Postmaster General to ban such publications.[140] They recruited Protestant clergy to the cause, and had success in changing the tone of coverage in places such as the Associated Press.[140]

As part of the effort, the Order distributed pamphlets, and lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America.[141] Copies of the Commission's 1915 report were sent to the 25 most prominent citizens in every local council's community, as determined by the local council.[141] By 1917, the number of anti-Catholic publications in the country dropped from 60 to only two or three.[142] The Commission also noted the decline of bigotry in both elections and bills filed in state legislatures.[142]

Chair of American historyEdit

 
The Knights of Columbus presented a check to The Catholic University of America on the steps of the University's McMahon Hall in 1904 to establish a Chair of American History.

On March 7, 1899, Phillip Garrigan, Vice Rector of The Catholic University of America, addressed the National Council, as the Supreme Convention was then called, asking for establishment of a Knights of Columbus Chair of American History at the University, to counter the somewhat anti-Catholic bias of history-writing at the time.[130] The convention enthusiastically accepted the proposal. By March 5, 1901, Supreme Knight Edward L. Hearn reported unhappily to the national convention that only $10,000 has been collected of the $50,000 commitment made two years earlier. It would take an additional three years to collect the total amount.

Over 10,000 Knights were on hand on April 13, 1904 to present a $55,633.79 check[143] ($1,399,831.80 in 2012 dollars[144]) to endow the Knights of Columbus Chair of American History Cardinal James Gibbons, Chancellor of the University and a strong supporter of the Knights. The outdoor ceremony was held on the steps of the University's McMahon Hall.[130] The gigantic check was ten feet high and four feet wide, and was beautifully executed on vellum in the style of an illuminated manuscript.[130] The check represented "the Order's first response to a call from the American Church," which demonstrates to any doubters, and the early Knights did encounter opposition within the Church, that the Order was thoroughly Catholic.[145]

EvangelizationEdit

Since its founding, the Knights of Columbus has been involved in evangelization. The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performing a valuable anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism.[146] In response to a defamatory "bogus oath" circulated by the KKK, in 1914 the Knights set up a framework for a lecture series and educational programs to combat anti-Catholic sentiment. It was with this experience in setting up educational programs that they were able to run education and occupational skills training for veterans returning from World War I.

In 1948, the Knights started the Catholic Information Service (CIS) to provide low-cost Catholic publications for the general public as well as for parishes, schools, retreat houses, military installations, correctional facilities, legislatures, the medical community, and for individuals who request them. Since then, CIS has printed millions of booklets, and thousands of people have enrolled in CIS correspondence and on-line courses. This was "in response to blatant anti-Catholic bias in other religious media in order to educate non-Catholics about the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church."[147]

AwardsEdit

The Order sponsors a number of international awards. The first, the Gaudium et Spes Award, is named after the document from the Second Vatican Council, and is the highest honor bestowed by the Order. It "is awarded only in special circumstances and only to individuals of exceptional merit" and comes an honorarium of $100,000.[148] Since its institution in 1992, it has only been awarded twelve times.[148] The award "recognizes individuals for their exemplary contributions to the realization of the message of faith and service in the spirit of Christ as articulated in the document for which it is named."[149]

The second international award, also only given "when merited," is the Caritas Award. Named for the theological virtue alternatively translated as either charity or love, it recognizes "extraordinary works of charity and service." It has been awarded five times since its establishment in 2013.[150] The Saint Michael Award was established in conjunction with the Caritas Award to recognize members of the Order who have exemplified a lifetime of service on behalf of the Knights of Columbus.[150]

Additionally, at its annual convention each year, the Order recognizes other individuals and councils with awards. These include the Family of the Year award, and prizes for the best activities in the categories of church, community, council, culture of life, family, and youth. Additionally, top selling general and field insurance agents are recognized, as are top recruiting individuals and councils.[150]

Political activitiesEdit

While the Knights of Columbus support political awareness and activity, United States councils are prohibited by tax laws from engaging in candidate endorsement and partisan political activity due to their non-profit status.[151] Public policy activity is limited to issue-specific campaigns, typically dealing with Catholic family and life issues. They state that

In addition to performing charitable works, the Knights of Columbus encourages its members to meet their responsibilities as Catholic citizens and to become active in the political life of their local communities, to vote and to speak out on the public issues of the day. ... In the political realm, this means opening our public policy efforts and deliberations to the life of Christ and the teachings of the Church. In accord with our Bishops, the Knights of Columbus has consistently maintained positions that take these concerns into account. The Order supports and promotes the social doctrine of the Church, including a robust vision of religious liberty that embraces religion’s proper role in the private and public spheres.[152]

The Order has adopted resolutions opposing communism,[153] advocating a Culture of Life,[154] defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman,[155] in defense of religious liberty,[156] and promoting faithful citizenship.[157] As part of their efforts to build a cuture of life, Supreme Conventions have adopted resolutions prohibiting people "who do not support the legal protection of unborn children, or who advocate the legalization of assisted suicide or euthanasia" from attending Knights of Columbus events or bestowing honors upon them.[158]

The leadership of the Order has been, at times, both liberal and conservative. Martin H. Carmody and Luke E. Hart were both political conservatives, but John J. Phelan was a Democratic politician prior to becoming Supreme Knight,[159] John Swift's "strong support for economic democracy and social-welfare legislation marks him as a fairly representative New Deal anti-communist,"[160] and Francis P. Matthews was a civil rights official and member of Harry Truman's cabinet. The current Supreme Knight, Carl A. Anderson, previously served in Ronald Reagan's White House.

During the 20th century, the Order established the Commission on Religious Prejudices, and the Knights of Columbus Historical Commission which combated racism.[161] It was also supportive of trade unionism, and published the works "of the broad array of intellectuals," including George Schuster, Samuel Flagg Bemis, Allan Nevins, and W.E.B. DuBois.[161] During the Cold War, the Order had a history of anti-socialist, anti-communist crusades.[162] "If the Knights displayed a conservative tenor, it was not political conservatism but rather cultural conservatism."[160]

While the Knights were active politically from an early date, in the years following the Second Vatican Council, as the "Catholic anti-defamation character" of the order began to diminsh as Catholics became more accepted, the leadership "attempted to stimulate the membership to a greater awareness of the religious and moral issues confronting the Church."[13] That led to the creation of a "variety of new programs reflecting the proliferation of the new social ministries of the church."[39][13]

The Knights of Columbus were among the groups that welcomed Pope Benedict XVI on the South Lawn of the White House on April 16, 2008, the pontiff's 81st birthday, during his visit to the U.S.[163]

Cristero WarEdit

Following the Mexican Revolution, the new government began persecuting the Church. To destroy the Church's influence over the Mexican people, anti-clerical statutes were inserted into the Constitution, beginning a 10-year persecution of Catholics that resulted in the deaths of thousands, including several priests who were also knights of Columbus. Leaders of the Order began speaking out against the Mexican government. Columbia, the official magazine of the Knights, published articles critical of the regime. After the November 1926 cover of Columbia portrayed Knights carrying a banner of liberty and warning of "The Red Peril of Mexico," the Mexican legislature banned both the Order and the magazine throughout the country.[164]

In 1926, a delegation of Supreme Council officers met with President Calvin Coolidge to share with him their concerns about the persecution of Catholics in Mexico. The Order subsequently launched a $1 million campaign to educate Americans about the attacks on Catholics and the Church in the Cristero War.[126] The organization produced pamphlets in English and Spanish denouncing the anticlerical Mexican government and its policies. So much printed material was smuggled into Mexico that the government directed border guards be aware of women bringing Catholic propaganda into the country hidden in their clothes.[165] Twenty-five martyrs from the conflict would eventually be canonized, including six knights.[166][167]

Peace activitiesEdit

Shortly after entering World War II, the Order established a War Activities Committee to keep track of all activities undertaken during the war.[168] They also, in Januray 1943, established a Peace Program Committee to develop a "program for shaping and educating public opinion to the end that Catholic principles and Catholic philosophy will be properly represented at the peace table at the conclusion of the present war."[169] The Committee conferred with scholars, theologians, philosophers, and sociologists, and proposed a program adopted at the 1943 Supreme Convention.[170]

Pro-labor activitiesEdit

In 1914, the Order paid the salaries of David Goldstein, who was born Jewish but converted to Catholicism after reading the pro-labor papal encyclical Rerum Novarum, and Peter W. Collins, the general secretary of the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, to lecture around the country.[171] Local councils were instructed to open up the lectures to the public free of charge.[171]

In 1946, in his first address to the Supreme Convention as Supreme Knight, Swift proposed a new program eventually called The Knights of Columbus Crusade for the Preservation and Promotion of American Ideals.[172] It was similar to the 1943 Peace Program, except it highlighted Catholic philosophy and Catholic Social Teaching regarding the working man.[172] This was one part of a larger Catholic anti-communist effort.[173].

The Crusade listed the workingman's rights as including the right "to a job, to a family living wage, to collective bargaining and to strike, to Joint-Management, enroute to Joint Ownership of Industry."[174] Unti joint ownership happened, workers were also entitled to all forms of social security, including unemployment, disability, and old-age insurance, according to the Crusade.[174] The Crusade's plan also listed 10 "Abuses of Unrestrained Capitalism."[175]

The Crusade officially launched in December 1946 and was endorsed by President Truman.[176] By August 1948 over 1,300 local councils had established discussion groups based on the topics. As part of the Crusade, several hundred radio stations played segments produced by the Order on the evils of communism and the harshness of life in Russia.[177] It also took out advertisements in newspapers and distributed copies of Fulton Sheen's Communism and the Conscience of the West.[178]

Opposition to same sex marriageEdit

Since 2005 the Knights have given at least $14 million to fight the introduction of same-sex marriage in several states, including at least $1.9 million given directly to the National Organization for Marriage. In 2008, they were the largest single donor in support of California's Proposition 8, which banned same-sex marriage in California.[179] In 2012, the Knights and its local councils contributed $1 million to support similar ballot campaigns in Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, and Washington. In Massachusetts it led the drive to collect the 170,000 petitions in an effort to ban same-sex marriage.[180][181]

In a 2005 attempt to stop the Canadian parliament from legalizing same-sex marriage with the Civil Marriage Act, the Order funded a campaign that included 800,000 postcards encouraging members of parliament to reject the measure. As it was in the United States, this effort was criticized by some gay marriage supporters.[182]

Culture of LifeEdit

 
Tens of thousands of Knights of Columbus placards are handed out at the March For Life.

As part of their commitment to a culture of life, the Knights "oppose any governmental action or policy that promotes abortion, embryonic stem cell research, human cloning, euthanasia, assisted suicide, or other offenses against life"[183] including the death penalty.[184]

The Knights have consistently donated to pro-life causes, including millions annually to the recently established Ultrasound Initiative. "Ultrasound exams, which are medically necessary throughout pregnancy for a variety of diagnostic reasons, use ultrasound waves to scan a woman’s abdomen, creating a picture or “sonogram” of the baby in her uterus. Without K of C support, most pregnancy care centers would be unable to purchase the ultrasound machines, each usually costing tens of thousands of dollars."[185] By paying for the machines in hospitals throughout the United States and Canada, women are better able to visualize their unborn child, thus discouraging abortion.[186] The Order also supports women in crisis pregnancies with alternatives to abortion, including adoption.[183]

Other issuesEdit

In 1954, lobbying by the Order helped convince the U.S. Congress to add the phrase "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance. President Dwight Eisenhower wrote to Supreme Knight Luke E. Hart thanking the Knights for their "part in the movement to have the words 'under God' added to our Pledge of Allegiance."[187] Similar lobbying convinced many state legislatures to adopt October 12 as Columbus Day, and led to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's confirmation of Columbus Day as a federal holiday in 1937.[188] In the 1980s, the Knights supported an amendment to the United States Constitution permitting prayer in public school.[189]

On April 9, 2006, the Board of Directors commented on the "U.S. immigration policy [which] has become an intensely debated and divisive issue on both sides of the border between the U.S. and Mexico." They called "upon the President and the U.S. Congress to agree upon immigration legislation that not only gains control over the process of immigration, but also rejects any effort to criminalize those who provide humanitarian assistance to illegal immigrants, and provides these immigrants an avenue by which they can emerge from the shadows of society and seek legal residency and citizenship in the U.S."[190]

Notable KnightsEdit

 
President John F. Kennedy was a Fourth Degree member of Bunker Hill Council No. 62.[191]

Many notable Catholic men from all over the world have been Knights of Columbus. In the United States, some of the most notable include John F. Kennedy; Ted Kennedy;[62] Al Smith;[192] Sargent Shriver;[193] Samuel Alito; John Boehner;[194] Ray Flynn;[195] Jeb Bush;[196] and Sergeant Major Daniel Daly,[197] a two-time Medal of Honor recipient.[198]

Many notable clerics are also Knights, including Cardinal William Joseph Levada, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; Cardinal Sean O'Malley, Archbishop of Boston; and Cardinal Jaime Sin, former Archbishop of Manila. In the world of sports, Vince Lombardi, the famed former coach of the Green Bay Packers;[199] wrestler Lou Albano;[200] James Connolly, the first Olympic gold-medal champion in modern times;[201] Floyd Patterson, former heavyweight boxing champion;[202] and baseball legend Babe Ruth[203] were all knights.

On October 15, 2006, Bishop Rafael Guizar Valencia (1878–1938) was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI in Rome. In 2000, six other Knights, known as the Mexican martyrs who were killed during the repression following the 1920s revolution, were declared saints by Pope John Paul II.[204]

Emblems of the OrderEdit

Emblem of the OrderEdit

The emblem of the Order was designed by Past Supreme Knight James T. Mullen and adopted at the second Supreme Council meeting on May 12, 1883. Shields used by medieval knights served as the inspiration. The emblem consists of a shield mounted on a Formée cross, which is an artistic representation of the cross of Christ. This represents the Catholic identity of the Order.[205]

Mounted on the shield are three objects: a fasces; an anchor; and a dagger. In ancient Rome, the fasces was carried before magistrates as an emblem of authority. The Order uses it as "symbolic of authority which must exist in any tightly-bonded and efficiently operating organization."[205] The anchor represents Christopher Columbus, patron of the Order. The short sword, or dagger, was a weapon used by medieval knights. The shield as a whole, with the letters "K of C," represents "Catholic Knighthood in organized merciful action."[205]

Fourth Degree emblemEdit

 
Fourth Degree emblem.

The Fourth Degree emblem features a dove, a cross, and a globe. In the tradition of the Knights these symbols "typify the union of the three Divine Persons in one Godhead, referred to as the most Blessed Trinity."[205] The red, white, and blue are taken from the American flag and represent patriotism, the basic principle of the Fourth Degree. Styled with the continents of the western hemisphere in white, the blue globe represents God the Father. A red Isabella cross, for the queen who sponsored Columbus, serves as a symbol of God the Son. The white dove is a symbol of peace and God the Holy Spirit. Columbus' name in Italian (Colombo) also means "dove."[205]

Columbian Squires emblemEdit

The emblem of the Squires symbolizes the ideals which identify a squire. On the arms of a Maltese cross are the letters "P," which represents the physical development necessary to make the body as strong as the spirit; "I," which stands for the intellectual development needed for cultural and mental maturity; "S," which represents the spiritual growth and practice of our faith; and "C," which stands for the development of citizenship and civic life. The larger letters: "C," representing Christ and also Christopher Columbus; "S," the Squires; and "K," the Knights of Columbus, by whom the Squires program is sponsored, are intertwined in the center of the cross. They are the three foundations of the program.[citation needed]

The Latin motto, "Esto Dignus," encircles the emblem. Translated into English, it means "Be Worthy."

Auxiliary groupsEdit

Women's auxiliariesEdit

Many councils also have women's auxiliaries.[206] At the turn of the 20th century two were formed by local councils and each took the name the Daughters of Isabella.[207] Using the same name, both groups expanded and issued charters to other circles but never merged. The newer organization renamed itself the Catholic Daughters of the Americas in 1921 and both have structures independent of the Knights of Columbus.[208] Other groups are known as the Columbiettes. In the Philippines, the ladies' auxiliary is known as the Daughters of Mary Immaculate.[209]

Columbian SquiresEdit

Squire Advancement Program
Level 1: Page
Level 2: Shield Bearer
Level 3: Swordsman
Level 4: Lancer
Level 5: Squire of the Body of Christ

The Knights' official junior organization is the Columbian Squires. Founded in 1925 in Duluth, Minnesota, this international fraternity for boys 10–18 has grown to over 5,000 circles.[210] According to Brother Barnabas McDonald, F.S.C., the Squires' founder: "The supreme purpose of the Columbian Squires is character building."[96]

Squires have fun and share their Catholic faith, help people in need, and enjoy the company of friends in social, family, athletic, cultural, civic and spiritual activities. Through their local circle, Squires work and socialize as a group of friends, elect their own officers, and develop into Catholic leaders.[211] When Squires process in a color guard, they wear blue capes, similar to those worn by members of the Fourth Degree, and black berets.[212]

Each circle is supervised by a Knights of Columbus council or assembly, and has an advisory board made up of either the Grand Knight, the Deputy Grand Knight and Chaplain, or the Faithful Navigator, the Faithful Captain, and Faithful Friar.[96] Circles are either council based, parish based, or school based, depending on the location of the circle and the Knight counselors.[96]

Squire RosesEdit

The Squire Roses are a youth sorority run by individual state councils for Catholic girls between the ages of 10 and 19. Founded by Russell DeRose and the Virginia State Council of the Knights of Columbus in 1996, the Roses are a sister organization to the Squires.[213]

Similar organizationsEdit

The Knights of Columbus is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights, which includes fifteen fraternal orders such as the Knights of Saint Columbanus in Ireland, the Knights of Saint Columba in the United Kingdom, the Knights of Peter Claver in the United States, the Knights of the Southern Cross in Australia and New Zealand, the Knights of Marshall in Ghana, the Knights of Da Gama in South Africa, and the Knights of Saint Mulumba in Nigeria.[8] The Loyal Orange Institution, also known as the Orange Order, is a similar organization for Protestant Christians.[214][215]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to the Knights, who a practical Catholic is one who accepts the teaching authority of the Catholic Church on faith and morals, and aspires to live in accordance with Church teachings.[7]
  2. ^ Kennedy, the only Catholic to be elected President of the United States, was a Fourth Degree member of Bunker Hill Council No. 62 and Bishop Cheverus General Assembly. At the meeting, the president told Hart that his younger brother, Ted Kennedy, had received "his Third Degree in our Order three weeks before."[62]
  3. ^ Other US insurance groups also downgraded by S&P from AAA to AA+ were New York Life, Northwestern Mutual, TIAA, and USAA as, like the Knights of Columbus, their assets are highly concentrated in the U.S. and they have significant holdings in U.S. Treasury and agency securities.
  4. ^ The Round Table Program was designed to help every parish to have a Knights of Columbus presence in parishes that are not able to support a full council.
  5. ^ On June 5, 1898, Keane Council #353, was instituted with 66 charter members, and Lawrence O. Murray, Comptroller of the Currency, as Grand Knight. It "formed its nucleus in the Catholic University," in the words of Philip Garrigan, one of Keane's founders and vice-rector of the University. It was named for Irish-born Bishop John J. Keane, first rector of the University (1889–1896), and later Archbishop of Dubuque, Iowa. First meetings are in the Typographical Temple, then move to Grand Army Hall on October 12, 1898, then to the Maccabee Temple the following June.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Knights of Columbus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  2. ^ a b "History". Knights of Columbus. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  3. ^ CNN, By Rose Arce and Carol Costello. "Election Day may reveal shift on same-sex marriage - CNNPolitics.com". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Supreme Knight's Report Highlights Order's Charity". kofc.org. 
  5. ^ https://www.linkedin.com/company/knights-of-columbus-insurance
  6. ^ "These Men they Call Knights" (PDF). Knights of Columbus Supreme Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2013. A practical Catholic is one who lives up to the Commandments of God and the Precepts of the Church. 
  7. ^ a b c http://www.kofc.org/en/join/why-joing-knights-of-columbus.html
  8. ^ a b "Member Orders". International Alliance of Catholic Knights. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2006. 
  9. ^ "Find A Council". Knights of Columbus. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Supreme Knight's Annual Report". Archived from the original on August 6, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Knights of Columbus leaders praise John Paul II's legacy to world's laity". Catholic News Agency. April 29, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Carl A. (October 2016). "Annual Report of the Supreme Knight". Columbia. p. 20. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Roberts, Tom (May 15, 2017). "Knights of Columbus' financial forms show wealth, influence". National Catholic reporter. Retrieved January 18, 2018. 
  14. ^ a b c "Knights of Columbus reach $100 billion in life insurance". Catholic News Agency. November 9, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2018. 
  15. ^ "A Diverse Church". The Catholic University of America Archives. Retrieved August 9, 2013. 
  16. ^ Glenn, Brian J. "Rhetoric of Fraternalism: Its Influence on the Development of the Welfare State 1900-1935". Retrieved December 24, 2015. 
  17. ^ Brinkley & Fenster 2006, p. 51.
  18. ^ Kauffman 1982, pp. 8-9.
  19. ^ Kauffman 1982, p. 17.
  20. ^ Brinkley & Fenster 2006, pp. 116–117.
  21. ^ "Christopher Columbus – 500 Years Later". Knights of Columbus. 1947. Retrieved July 11, 2012. By taking the name of Columbus, the Knights were able to remind the entire country of the Catholic roots of the New World, and to highlight the fact that faithful Catholics could also be good citizens ... 
  22. ^ Kauffman 1982, p. 16.
  23. ^ Brinkley & Fenster 2006, p. 171.
  24. ^ Kauffman 1982, p. 73.
  25. ^ a b Kauffman 1982, p. 22.
  26. ^ a b Kauffman 1982, pp. 36–37.
  27. ^ a b "Historical Currency Conversions". Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Brinkley & Fenster 2006, p. 123.
  29. ^ a b c d e Egan & Kennedy 1920, p. 117.
  30. ^ a b Kauffman 1982, pp. 137–139.
  31. ^ Kauffman 2001, p. 15.
  32. ^ a b Kauffman 2001, p. 2.
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