Death of Eric Garner
On July 17, 2014, Eric Garner died in Staten Island, New York City, after a New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer put him in what has been described as a chokehold for about 15 to 19 seconds while arresting him. The New York City Medical Examiner's Office attributed Garner's death to a combination of a chokehold, compression of his chest, and poor health. NYPD policy prohibits the use of chokeholds.
A screenshot of Garner tackled by the police
|Date||July 17, 2014|
|Time||c. 3:30 p.m. (EDT)|
|Location||202 Bay Street, Staten Island, New York, U.S.|
|Participants||Daniel Pantaleo and Justin Damico (NYPD officers)|
|Coroner||New York City Medical Examiner|
|Litigation||$5.9 million out-of-court settlement|
NYPD officers approached Garner on suspicion of selling "loosies" (single cigarettes) from packs without tax stamps. After Garner told the police that he was tired of being harassed and that he was not selling cigarettes, the officers went to arrest Garner. When officer Daniel Pantaleo tried to take Garner's wrist behind his back, Garner pulled his arms away. Pantaleo then put his arm around Garner's neck and took him down onto the ground. After Pantaleo removed his arm from Garner's neck, he pushed the side of Garner's face into the ground while four officers moved to restrain Garner, who repeated "I can't breathe" eleven times while lying facedown on the sidewalk. After Garner lost consciousness, officers turned him onto his side to ease his breathing. Garner remained lying on the sidewalk for seven minutes while the officers waited for an ambulance to arrive. The officers and EMTs did not perform CPR on Garner at the scene; according to a spokesman for the PBA, this was because they believed that Garner was breathing and that it would be improper to perform CPR on someone who was still breathing. He was pronounced dead at the hospital approximately one hour later.
The medical examiner concluded that Garner was killed by "compression of neck (choke hold), compression of chest and prone positioning during physical restraint by police". No damage to Garner's windpipe or neck bones was found. The medical examiner ruled Garner's death a homicide. According to the medical examiner's definition, a homicide is a death caused by the intentional actions of another person or persons, which is not necessarily an intentional death or a criminal death.
On December 3, 2014, the Richmond County grand jury decided not to indict Pantaleo. On that day, the United States Department of Justice announced it would conduct an independent investigation. The event stirred public protests and rallies, with charges of police brutality made by protesters. By December 28, 2014, at least 50 demonstrations had been held nationwide specifically for Garner while hundreds of demonstrations against general police brutality counted Garner as a focal point. On July 13, 2015, an out-of-court settlement was announced in which the City of New York would pay the Garner family $5.9 million.
Eric Garner (September 15, 1970 – July 17, 2014) was a 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m) tall, 350-pound (160 kg), 43-year-old African American man. He had been a horticulturist at the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, but quit for health reasons. Garner, who was married to Esaw Garner, had been described by his friends as a "neighborhood peacemaker" and as a generous, congenial person. He was the father of six children, had three grandchildren, and at the time of his death had a 3-month-old child.
Garner had been arrested by the NYPD more than thirty times since 1980 on charges such as assault, resisting arrest, and grand larceny. According to an article in the New York Times many of these arrests had been for allegedly selling unlicensed cigarettes. In 2007, he filed a handwritten complaint in federal court accusing a police officer of conducting a cavity search of him on the street, "digging his fingers in my rectum in the middle of the street" while people passed by. Garner had, according to The New York Times, "recently ... told lawyers at Legal Aid that he intended to take all the cases against him to trial". At the time of the incident, he was out on bail for selling untaxed cigarettes, driving without a license, marijuana possession, and false impersonation.
Daniel Pantaleo is a New York City Police Department officer who was, at the time of Garner's death, age 29 and living in Eltingville, Staten Island. His father was a New York City Fire Department firefighter, and his uncle was an NYPD officer. He graduated from Monsignor Farrell High School and received a bachelor's degree from the College of Staten Island. He joined the NYPD in 2006. Pantaleo was the subject of two civil rights lawsuits in 2013 where plaintiffs accused him of falsely arresting them and abusing them. In one of the cases, he and other officers allegedly ordered two black men to strip naked on the street for a search and the charges against the men were dismissed.
|Full video, recorded by Ramsey Orta and acquired by the Daily News|
On July 17, 2014, at approximately 3:30 p.m., Garner was approached by a plainclothes police officer, Justin Damico, in front of a beauty supply store at 202 Bay Street in Tompkinsville, Staten Island. According to bystanders, including Ramsey Orta, a friend of Garner's who recorded the incident on his cell phone, Garner had just broken up a fight, which may have drawn the attention of the police—although Garner may also have been selling "loosies" (single cigarettes without a tax stamp) in violation of New York state law. Garner is heard on the video saying,
Get away [garbled] for what? Every time you see me, you want to mess with me. I'm tired of it. It stops today. Why would you...? Everyone standing here will tell you I didn't do nothing. I did not sell nothing. Because every time you see me, you want to harass me. You want to stop me [garbled] selling cigarettes. I'm minding my business, officer, I'm minding my business. Please just leave me alone. I told you the last time, please just leave me alone.— Eric Garner
When Pantaleo approached Garner from behind and attempted to handcuff him, Garner swatted his arms away, saying "Don't touch me, please." Pantaleo then put Garner in a chokehold—which is prohibited by NYPD regulations—from behind. Pantaleo then pulled Garner backward in an attempt to bring him to the ground; in the process, Pantaleo and Garner slammed into a glass window, which did not break. As Garner was being brought to the ground, other uniformed officers surrounded him, and Garner went to his knees and forearms and did not say anything for a few seconds. At that point, three uniformed officers and the two plainclothes officers had surrounded him. After 15 seconds, the video showed Pantaleo had removed his arm from around Garner's neck; Pantaleo then used his hands to push Garner's face into the sidewalk. Garner is heard saying "I can't breathe" eleven times while lying facedown on the sidewalk. The arrest was supervised by a female African-American NYPD sergeant, Kizzy Adoni, who did not intercede. Adoni was quoted in the original police report as stating, "The perpetrator's condition did not seem serious and he did not appear to get worse."
Garner lay motionless, handcuffed, and unresponsive for several minutes before an ambulance arrived, as shown in a second video. After Garner lost consciousness, officers turned him onto his side to ease his breathing. Garner remained lying on the sidewalk for seven minutes while the officers waited for an ambulance to arrive. Other than one officer who told the then-unconscious Garner to "breathe in, breathe out", the police made no attempt to resuscitate Garner. The police defended their decision to not perform CPR on Garner because they stated that he was still breathing and that it would have been improper to do CPR on someone who was breathing on his own. When an ambulance arrived on scene, two medics and two EMTs inside the ambulance did not administer any emergency medical aid or promptly place him on a stretcher. According to police, Garner had a heart attack while being transported to Richmond University Medical Center. He was pronounced dead at the hospital one hour later.
A funeral was held for Garner on July 23, 2014, at Bethel Baptist Church in Brooklyn. At the funeral, Al Sharpton gave a speech calling for harsher punitive measures to be taken against the officers responsible for the incident.
On July 20, the officer who grabbed Garner by the neck, Daniel Pantaleo, was put on desk duty and stripped of his service handgun and badge. Officer Justin Damico was allowed to keep his badge and handgun but was also placed on desk duty. Four of the EMTs and paramedics who took Garner to the hospital were suspended on July 21. Two of the paramedics were soon returned to their duties, and the remaining two EMTs were doing non-medical work at the hospital pending the Richmond University Medical Center's own investigation into the incident.
Three weeks after recording his friend's arrest on his cell phone, Ramsey Orta was arrested on weapons charges. Al Sharpton made a statement that prosecuting Orta while also calling him as a witness could constitute a conflict of interest. After prosecutors questioned whether the money raised for his bail was crowd-sourced legally, Orta was released from jail on bail on April 10, 2015.
On August 1, Garner's death was found by the New York City Medical Examiner's Office to be a result of "compression of neck (choke hold), compression of chest and prone positioning during physical restraint by police". Asthma, heart disease, and obesity were cited as contributing factors. There was no damage to the windpipe or neckbones. The medical examiner ruled Garner's death a homicide. According to the medical examiner's definition, a homicide is a death caused by the intentional actions of another person or persons, which is not necessarily an intentional death or a criminal death.
Al Sharpton organized a protest in Staten Island on the afternoon of July 19, and condemned the police's use of the chokehold on Garner, saying that "there is no justification" for it.
On July 28, a protest organized by WalkRunFly Productions and poet Daniel J. Watts was held in Times Square. The protest was in the form of poetry and many Broadway entertainers participated in the event. Al Sharpton originally planned to lead a protest on August 23 in which participants would drive over the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, then travel to the site of the altercation and the office of District Attorney Daniel M. Donovan, Jr. This idea was scrapped in favor of Sharpton leading a march along Bay Street in Staten Island, where Garner died; police estimated that over 2,500 people participated in the march.
Deliberation and verdictEdit
On August 19, Richmond County (Staten Island) District Attorney Daniel M. Donovan, Jr. announced that the case against Pantaleo would go to a grand jury, saying that after considering the medical examiner's findings, his office decided "it is appropriate to present evidence regarding circumstances of his death to a Richmond County Grand Jury." On September 29, the grand jury began hearing evidence in the Garner case. On November 21, Pantaleo testified before the grand jury for about two hours. After having the case for two months, the grand jury decided on December 3 not to indict Pantaleo.
Under New York law, most of the grand jury proceedings were kept secret, including the exact charges sought by the prosecutor, the autopsy report, and transcripts of testimony. Attempts by the New York Civil Liberties Union and others to gain release of that information have been unsuccessful.
After the Staten Island grand jury did not indict Pantaleo on December 3, citizens in New York City and San Francisco gathered in protest, demonstrating with several die-ins, making speeches and rallies against the indictment. On December 5, thousands gathered in protest on the Boston Common in Boston, and then marched in the downtown area, blocking traffic, especially on I-90, in addition to staging "die-ins." Protests also occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Minneapolis, and Atlanta. At least 300 people were arrested at the New York City protests on December 4 and 5, most of them for charges of disorderly conduct or refusal to clear the streets, but two for assault on a police officer. On December 6, 300 protesters marched in Berkeley, California as well. On December 10, 76 protesters were arrested at Westfield shopping centre in Shepherd's Bush in west London, England, during a rally to show solidarity with rallies in the United States. Protesters have made use of Garner's last words, "I can't breathe", as a slogan and chant against police brutality since Garner's death and Officer Pantaleo's grand jury decision. By December 28, at least 50 protests in support of Garner had occurred globally, and many other Black Lives Matter-related demonstrations had occurred.
Counter-protests were also launched in support of police, specifically for the NYPD. On December 19, during a New York City protest about the grand jury decision, supporters of the NYPD held a counter-demonstration, wearing shirts with the phrase, "I can breathe, thanks to the NYPD", on them, holding signs with phrases like "Bluelivesmatter", and chanting, "Don't resist arrest."
On December 20, two NYPD officers were killed in an ambush in Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. The suspected gunman, Ismaaiyl Brinsley, cited Garner's death at the hands of police (as well as that of Michael Brown) as reasons to kill police officers. Brinsley then entered the New York City Subway and committed suicide.
As a result of Garner's death, Police Commissioner William Bratton ordered an extensive review of the NYPD's training procedures, specifically focusing on the appropriate amount of force that can be used while detaining a suspect. An unnamed NYPD official quoted in the New York Post said that the $35 million retraining efforts were ineffective and a "waste of time." Patrick Lynch, leader of the police union Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, challenged the claim that a chokehold was used, further stating that the union would be able to find many use-of-force experts who would also challenge the claim that a chokehold was used. Lynch also attributed Garner's death to resisting arrest and, "a lack of the respect for law enforcement, resulting from the slanderous, insulting, and unjust manner in which police officers are being portrayed." Edward D. Mullins, the head of the union representing police sergeants, called on members not to slow down police response across the city by supervising every arrest. He also commented saying that the use of the term "chokehold" by the chief medical examiner's office was political. Police union officials and Pantaleo's lawyer argued that Pantaleo did not use the chokehold, but instead used a NYPD-taught takedown move because Garner was resisting arrest.
An Indiana police officer sold T-shirts saying "Breathe Easy. Don't Break the Law." A veteran San Jose Police Officer, Phillip White, tweeted: "Threaten me or my family and I will use my God given and law appointed right and duty to kill you. #CopsLivesMatter", which sparked controversy.
In an interview with CNN, Garner's daughter Erica felt that it was pride and not racism that led to the officer choking her father. She continued: "It was about the officer's pride. It was about my father being 6'4" and 350 pounds and he wants to be the top cop that brings a man down."
Erica held a vigil and "die-in" on December 11, 2014, on Staten Island in memory of her father, near where he died. On her Twitter account, she vowed to continue to lead protests in Staten Island twice a week, lying down in the spot where her father collapsed and died.
One of Garner's daughters, Emerald Snipes, created a fund for his kids for Christmas as Garner used to play Santa Claus. Garner's daughters Erica and Emerald, his widow Esaw, and his stepfather Ben Carr all went to the Justice for All March in Washington, D.C.
After the announcement of the grand jury decision, when asked whether she accepted Pantaleo's condolences, Garner's widow said, "The time for remorse would have been when my husband was yelling to breathe." She added, "No, I don't accept his apology. No, I could care less about his condolences ... He's still working. He's still getting a paycheck. He's still feeding his kids, when my husband is six feet under and I'm looking for a way to feed my kids now."
New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio called Garner's death a "terrible tragedy." De Blasio, at a July 31 roundtable meeting in response to the death, convened with police officers and political activists, called upon mutual respect and understanding. On August 1, in a statement, the mayor urged all parties involved to create a dialogue, and find a path "to heal the wounds from decades of mistrust and create a culture where the police department and the communities they protect respect each other." New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said that New York State should consider appointing a special prosecutor to handle cases of alleged police brutality. He told CNN: "We have a problem. Let's acknowledge it."
Two U.S. Presidents have expressed thoughts about Garner's death. Barack Obama addressed the grand jury's decision by making a speech, stating that Garner's death and the legal outcome of it is an "American problem". Obama also reacted by saying that Garner's death "speaks to the larger issues" of trust between police and civilians. Former U.S. President George W. Bush said he found the verdict "hard to understand" and "very sad" in an interview.
Rep. Peter King (R-NY) stated that, if Garner had been healthier, he would not have died after a police officer placed him in a chokehold. "If he had not had asthma, and a heart condition, and was so obese, almost definitely he would not have died from this." King added that there "was not a hint" that anyone used any racial epithets, and that if Garner were a "350-pound white guy, he would have been treated the same."
Shady Records recording artist Kxng Crooked aka Crooked I of Slaughterhouse recorded a tribute song for Garner. Titled "I Can't Breathe", the song was first released exclusively through MTV News. Crooked used the same instrumental that was used for 2Pac's "Pain", with additional production added by Jonathan Hay. The cover art for the single was created by Shalé and it features an image of Garner being held in a chokehold by law enforcement officials.
After the grand jury declined to indict Pantaleo, professional athletes such as NFL players Reggie Bush, Ryan Davis, Cecil Shorts III, Marqise Lee, Ace Sanders, and Allen Hurns; and NBA players LeBron James, Kobe Bryant and the Los Angeles Lakers, Kyrie Irving, Kevin Garnett, Derrick Rose, Jarrett Jack, and Deron Williams, wore T-shirts bearing the phrase "I can't breathe" during pregame warmups. The Phoenix Suns also wore the shirts. President Obama and attorney general Holder applauded James for wearing the shirt.
Realizing that Garner died the same way as Radio Raheem, a character from the film Do the Right Thing, film director Spike Lee also paid tribute to Garner by splicing live footage of Garner's death with a clip from the film showing several police officers putting the said character in a chokehold.
After the grand juryEdit
In October 2014, Garner's family announced their intention to file a wrongful death lawsuit against the City of New York, the police department, and several police officers, seeking $75 million in damages. The parties announced a $5.9-million out-of-court settlement on July 13, 2015. Garner's widow earlier rejected a $5-million settlement offer.
On December 3, 2014, after the grand jury decided not to indict Pantaleo, the United States Department of Justice announced it would conduct an independent investigation. In January 2015 it was reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation's New York Field Office was reviewing the incident and events thereafter. The investigation was overseen by local United States Attorney Loretta Lynch until she became the United States Attorney General The local FBI investigators and federal prosecutors determined that charges should not be brought in the case, prompting strong disagreement from attorneys in the Washington, D.C. office of the United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. In October 2016, Attorney General Lynch removed the local FBI agents and federal prosecutors from the case, replacing them with agents from outside New York. Lynch's intervention has been called "highly unusual".
- Black Lives Matter
- Death of Hadiya Pendleton
- Death of Jonny Gammage
- Death of Jonathan Sanders
- Death of Sandra Bland
- Emmett Till
- Hands up, don't shoot
- List of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States, July 2014
- Mothers of the Movement
- New York City Police Department corruption and misconduct
- Shooting of Andy Lopez
- Shooting of Alton Sterling
- Shooting of Jeremy McDole
- Shooting of Tamir Rice
- Sullivan, C. (July 18, 2014). "Man dies after suffering heart attack during arrest". New York Post. New York City: Jesse Angelo. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Goodman, J. David (August 4, 2014). "Difficult Decisions Ahead in Responding to Police Chokehold Homicide". The New York Times. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Goldstein, Joseph; Schweber, Nate (July 18, 2014). "Man's Death After Chokehold Raises Old Issue for the Police". The New York Times.
- "Eric Garner, who died after NYPD chokehold, laid to rest". Daily News. New York. July 23, 2014.
- Blidner, Rachelle (July 21, 2014). "Friends: Man in NYC chokehold case 'gentle giant'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- ""He was a great dad," says family of man who died while being arrested in Tompkinsville". SILive.com.
- O'Brien, Rebecca Davis; Saul, Michael Howard; Shallwani, Pervaiz (December 4, 2014). "New York City Police Officer Won't Face Criminal Charges in Eric Garner Death". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Goldstein, Joseph; Schweber, Nate (July 18, 2014). "Man’s Death After Chokehold Raises Old Issue for the Police". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- "Garner v. Owens, City of New York, NYPD - USDC SDNY (07 CV 11513)".
- "Misdemeanor cases over alleged untaxed cigarettes preceded fatal police incident with Eric Garner". SILive.com.
- Sanchez, Ray; Prokupecz, Shimon (December 3, 2014). "N.Y. cop not indicted in chokehold death". CNN.
- Schram, Jamie; Prendergast, Daniel (July 22, 2014). "Officer in chokehold arrest receives death threats online". New York Post. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Eric Garner case: Cop 'model officer,' supporters say, CNN, December 5, 2014.
- "CNN: Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees transcript Dec. 1, 2014". CNN. December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Jonsson, Patrik. NYPD Officer Daniel Pantaleo Stripped Of Gun, Badge After Chokehold Death, The Huffington Post, July 19, 2014.
- Jonsson, Patrik. Eric Garner ruled victim of chokehold 'homicide': Should a grand jury indict?, The Christian Science Monitor, August 2, 2014.
- McCoy, Kevin (December 4, 2014). "Choke-hold cop sued in prior misconduct cases". USA Today.
- Murray, Ken (July 11, 2015). "How the Daily News acquired the Eric Garner video". Daily News. New York. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Goodman, J. David (August 3, 2014). "Man Who Filmed Fatal Police Chokehold Is Arrested on Weapons Charges". The New York Times.
- A Grand Jury Did Indict One Person Involved In Eric Garner's Killing -- The Man Who Filmed It, Nick Wing, The Huffington Post, December 3, 2014
- "Eric Garner was killed by more than just a chokehold". MSNBC.
- "Two cops pulled off streets, Staten Island DA looking into death of dad of six after NYPD cop put him in chokehold during sidewalk takedown". Daily News. New York. July 18, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Capelouto, Susanna (December 4, 2014). "Eric Garner's haunting last words". CNN.
- NYPD Strips Badge, Gun From Cop Involved In Fatal Chokehold, Gothamist, July 20, 2014.
- Scheller, Alissa; Diehm, Jan (December 5, 2014). "The Chokehold Is Banned By NYPD, But Complaints About Its Use Persist". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- Steier, Richard (December 8, 2014). "Ex-NYPD Trials Chief: Need Special Prosecutor for Cases Like 'Garner'". The Chief. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "Did the NYPD Let Eric Garner Die? Video Shows Police Ignored Pleas to Help Him After Chokehold". Democracy Now. December 5, 2014. at 19 minutes, 3 seconds into video. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
Officer Daniel Pantaleo chokes Garner for 15 seconds ...
- Behind the Eric Garner Video of a Deadly Confrontation With Police. YouTube. July 31, 2014.
- Eversley, Melanie (December 3, 2014). "Lawyer: Cop in chokehold case won't be charged". USA Today. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Dorsey, Cheryl. "Watching Eric Garner Die". LA Progressive. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Police report in Eric Garner's death conflicts with videos - New York's PIX11 / WPIX-TV". New York's PIX11 / WPIX-TV.
- Chokshi, Niraj (July 19, 2014). "New video purports to show aftermath of the chokehold that led to Eric Garner's death". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Koeske, Zack (July 19, 2014). "New video shows Eric Garner motionless on ground as police wait for EMS". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Duncan, Jericka (December 6, 2014). "Eric Garner case: Video of chokehold's aftermath raises new questions". CBS News. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Cop Who Choked Garner Stripped of Badge and Gun -- NYMag". Daily Intelligencer.
- Staten Islander Eric Garner's Death - Panel Discussion on NY1. YouTube. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- PBA Blasts "Anti-Police Rhetoric" After Eric Garner Death. YouTube. August 5, 2014.
- Capelouto, Susanna (December 4, 2014). "Videos document Garner's last moments". CNN.
- Roberts, Georgett; Sullivan, C.J.; Italiano, Laura (July 20, 2014). "4 EMS workers barred from duty after chokehold death". New York Post.
- Bloom, Deborah E.; Imam, Jareen (December 8, 2014). "New York man dies after chokehold by police". CNN. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Queally, James (July 18, 2014). "Man's death after apparent chokehold by NYPD officer to be probed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Sharpton To Officers In Eric Garner Case: 'When Does Your Morality Kick In?'". CBS New York. July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Margolin, Josh; Cliborne, Ron; Crudele, Mark (July 20, 2014). "NYPD Cop's Chokehold May Not Have Caused Serious Injury to Man's Throat". ABC News. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Marzulli, John; Parascandola, Rocco; Tracy, Thomas (August 7, 2014). "NYPD No. 3's order to crack down on selling loose cigarettes led to chokehold death of Eric Garner". Daily News.
- "NYC police probe moving swiftly in chokehold case". The Big Story.
- Annese, John M. (July 21, 2014). "EMTs and paramedics who responded to Eric Garner have been suspended without pay by hospital". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- Lewis, Taylor (April 13, 2015). "Man who filmed Eric Garner's death released from jail". Essence. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Ramsey Orta, Man Who Filmed NYPD Chokehold of Eric Garner, Is Released from Jail". DemocracyNow. April 13, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Goldstein, Joseph; Santora, Marc (August 1, 2014). "Staten Island Man Dies From Chokehold During Arrest, Autopsy Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Autopsy: Police chokehold caused NYC man's death". The Big Story.
- Nathan, Giri (August 1, 2014). "Eric Garner Died from Chokehold While in Police Custody". Time. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- "Medical examiner says chokehold by police officer caused death of NYC man; ruled homicide". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. August 1, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Celona, Larry; Boniello, Kathianne (July 20, 2014). "Man in chokehold had no throat damage". The New York Post. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- Calabresi, Massimo (December 4, 2014). "Why a Medical Examiner Called Eric Garner's Death a 'Homicide'". Time. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
- Queally, James (July 19, 2014). "Rev. Al Sharpton leads calls for justice in NYPD chokehold death". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Gioia, Michael (July 31, 2014). "Watch Flashmob Created by Broadway Stars in Response to Death of Eric Garner". Playbill. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Allen, Jonathan. Bridge protest over NYC man's arrest death to proceed, Reuters, August 9, 2014.
- "Rev. Al Sharpton Leads March, Rally Over Eric Garner's Death On Staten Island". CBSNewYork/AP. August 23, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- BBC News Eric Garner death: Thousands rally in Staten Island BBC August 24, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2014
- "We're Assata's Daughters". Zed Books. October 19, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- "Timeline: Eric Garner Death". NBC New York.
- Eversley, Melanie (December 3, 2014). "Lawyer: No charges in NYC chokehold death; federal inquiry launched". USA Today. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Queally, James (March 19, 2015). "In Eric Garner case, judge denies request to release grand jury transcripts". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Oakland, S.F. protesters denounce police killing of Eric Garner, Vivian Ho, Peter Fimrite and Kale Williams, "San Francisco Chronicle", Wednesday, December 3, 2014
- Joseph, Peniel E. (December 5, 2014). "'I can't breathe': Why Eric Garner protests are gaining momentum". Reuters.
- "'When does your morality kick in': Al Sharpton demands justice in defiant speech against NYPD at funeral of father who died after officer put him choke hold". Daily Mail. London. Associated Press. July 23, 2014.
- Anderson, Travis. "Thousands protest Eric Garner case in downtown Boston". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- "Protesters Halt Traffic On Bridges". Daily News. New York. December 5, 2014.
- Brandt Williams (December 4, 2014). "Protests shut down part of I-35W for over an hour". Mprnews.org. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- 223 Arrested as Protesters, Police Clash in New York City Over Eric Garner Decision, ABC News, December 5, 2014.
- Adam Janos; Thomas MacMillan; Joe Jackson; Pervaiz Shallwani (December 5, 2014). "300 Arrests After 2 Days of Eric Garner Protests, More Demonstrations Planned". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- Violence Mars new protests in Berkeley, San Francisco Chronicle
- Berkeley protesters smash windows, two officers hurt, Associated Press, December 6, 2014.
- "Eric Garner death: 76 arrested at London Westfield demo". BBC News. December 11, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "'We can't breathe': Eric Garner's last words become protesters' rallying cry". The Guardian. December 4, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Zimmer, Ben (December 5, 2014). "The Linguistic Power of the Protest Phrase 'I Can't Breathe'". Wired. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "2014 Black Lives Matter Demonstrations". Elephrame. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Howell, Kellan (December 20, 2014). "'I can breathe — thanks to the NYPD' shirts flood pro-police NYC rally". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- De Graaf, Mia (December 20, 2014). "More than 100 police supporters in 'I can breathe' t-shirts mocking Eric Garner's last words clash with anti-cop protesters in New York City". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Peter Holley (December 20, 2014). "Two New York City police officers are shot and killed in a brazen ambush in Brooklyn". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Celona, Larry; Cohen, Shawn; Schram, Jamie; Jamieson, Amber; Italiano, Laura (December 20, 2014). "Gunman executes 2 NYPD cops as 'revenge' for Garner". New York Post.
- "Two NYPD Cops 'Assassinated' in Brooklyn Ambush". ABC News.
- Mueller, Benjamin; Baker, Al (December 20, 2014). "Two N.Y.P.D. Officers Are Killed in Brooklyn Ambush; Suspect Commits Suicide". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Williams, Yohuru (April 29, 2015). "You're Nobody 'Till Somebody Kills You: Baltimore, Freddie Gray and the Problem of History". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Fields, Liz. "After Walter Scott Killing, Black Lives Matter Movement Calls For Citizen Oversight of Police". Vice News. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Anderson, Michelle. "Muskegon-area churches to participate in 'Black Lives Matter' movement on Sunday". mLive Media Group. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Activists blast NYPD attempts to silence movement for change". Black Lives Matter. Archived from the original on December 26, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
- Sanchez, Ray. Choke hold by cop killed NY man, medical examiner says, CNN, August 2, 2014.
- Briquelet, Kate (February 22, 2014). "Cops say training after Eric Garner's death is a 'waste of time'". New York Post. New York City: Jesse Angelo. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Goodman, J. David (August 5, 2014). "Handling of New York Chokehold Cases 'Disappointing,' Review Board Chief Says". The New York Times. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Speri, Alex (August 6, 2014). "A Chokehold Didn't Kill Eric Garner, Your Disrespect for the NYPD Did". Vice. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- NYC PBA-Recorded Video, August 5, 2014
- Eversley, Melanie; James, Mike (December 4, 2014). "No charges in NYC chokehold death; federal inquiry launched". USA Today. Gannett Company, Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- "Indiana Cop Sells 'Breathe Easy Don't Break The Law' T-Shirts". Chicagoist.
- "'Duty To Kill You;' San Jose Police Officer Placed On Leave After Provocative Tweets On #ICantBreathe Protesters". CBS San Francisco. December 15, 2014.
- De Graaf, Mia (December 5, 2014). "Eric Garner's daughter said it was PRIDE which drove cop to choke father to death - Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- "Eric Garner's Daughter Stages "Die-in" on Staten Island". NBC New York.
- Friedman, Dan (December 11, 2014). "Eric Garner's daughter holds 'die-in' at Staten Island location where her father was put in fatal police chokehold". Daily News. New York. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Holpuch, Amanda (December 12, 2015). "Erica Garner leads protests in Staten Island in memory of her father". The Guardian. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Eric Garner Donations 2014: Family Support Fund Raises Money For Garner's Widow, 6 Children Ahead Of Holidays". International Business Times. December 8, 2014.
- "'It couldn't have been more perfect,' Eric Garner's mother says of Justice For All March". SILive.com.
- "'Hell No!': Eric Garner's Widow Rejects Officer's Condolences". The Huffington Post. December 3, 2014.
- Helsel, Phil (December 3, 2014). "'Hell No': Garner Family Rejects Cop's Condolences After Grand Jury Decision". NBC. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Jonsson, Patrik (July 19, 2014). "How minor crime questioning led to chokehold death of Eric Garner". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Transcript: Mayor de Blasio Hosts Roundtable on Police-Community Relations". Government of New York City. Mayor of New York City. July 31, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- "Statement of Mayor Bill de Blasio on the Medical Examiner's Report on the Death of Eric Garner". Government of New York City. Mayor of New York City. August 1, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Larry Celona, Kirstan Conley, Bruce Golding - New York Post - Officers seethe as Hizzoner warns of cop 'dangers' - December 5, 2014 - page 6. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Barrett, Devlin (July 25, 2014). "Eric Holder: Justice Department 'Closely Monitoring' Chokehold Probe". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- Obama Reacts to Eric Garner Decision: 'This is an American Problem', The Huffington Post, December 4, 2014.
- O'Brien, Rebecca Davis (December 4, 2014). "New York City Police Officer Won't Face Criminal Charges in Eric Garner Death". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- George W. Bush weighs in on Eric Garner death, Politico, December 5, 2014.
- "Peter King Says Eric Garner Would Not Have Died From Chokehold Were He Not Obese". The Huffington Post. December 3, 2014. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- "Exclusive: Kxng Crooked Channels Tupac On His Eric Garner Dedication 'I Can't Breathe'". MTV. December 5, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "KXNG CROOKED of Slaughterhouse - I Can't Breathe - Download". Audiomack. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Kxng Crooked Meditates On Eric Garner Protests With 'I Can't Breathe' Video". MTV. January 13, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Jaguars players wear "I can't breathe" shirts in pregame warm ups - ProFootballTalk".
- NBA and NFL players join demonstrations against police violence, CNN, December 9, 2014.
- Rhoden, William C. When the Protest Moves to the N.B.A. Arena, The New York Times, December 9, 2014.
- "Kobe Bryant, Lakers Teammates Wear 'I Can't Breathe' T-Shirts". The Huffington Post. December 10, 2014.
- Arizona Sports (December 31, 1969). "Phoenix Suns". arizonasports.com.
- Charlotte Alter (December 18, 2014). "Barack Obama Praises Lebron James, Says More Athletes Should Speak Out". Time.
- Justin Sink. "Holder praises NBA stars for 'I can't breathe' shirts". TheHill.
- "Georgetown Players Are Latest Athletes To Wear 'I Can't Breathe' T-Shirts". The Huffington Post. December 10, 2014.
- "Notre Dame women's players wear 'I Can't Breathe' T-shirts". Elkhart Truth.
- McDonald, Soroya Nadia. "Spike Lee splices footage of Eric Garner’s death with Radio Raheem’s in ‘Do the Right Thing’". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Lee, Spike. "Radio Raheem and the Gentle Giant". YouTube. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Fordham, John (May 21, 2015). "Terence Blanchard: Breathless review – rapturous flares but an uneven set". The Guardian. theguardian.com. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Santora, Marc (October 7, 2014). "Eric Garner's Family to Sue New York City Over Chokehold Case". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Goodman, J. David (July 13, 2015). "Eric Garner Case Is Settled by New York City for $5.9 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Pengelly, Martin. "New York City agrees to pay $5.9m in settlement with family of Eric Garner". The Guardian. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Marzulli, John; Otis, Ginger Adams; Brown, Stephen Rex (July 13, 2015). "Eric Garner's widow rejects NYC's $5M offer to settle wrongful death suit: source". Daily News. New York. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Statement by Attorney General Holder on Federal Investigation Into Death of Eric Garner" (Press release). US Department of Justice. December 3, 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- "Department of Justice to investigate NY chokehold death: U.S. official". redeyechicago.com. Tribune wire report. December 3, 2014.
- Prokupecz, Shimon; Sanchez, Ray (January 21, 2015). "FBI agents take 'fresh look' at Eric Garner case". CNN. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Matt Apuzzo; Adam Goldman; William K. Rashbaum (October 25, 2016). "Justice Dept. Shakes Up Inquiry Into Eric Garner Chokehold Case". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
Media related to Death of Eric Garner at Wikimedia Commons