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Their Eyes Were Watching God is a 1937 novel and the best known work by African-American writer Zora Neale Hurston. The novel explores main character Janie Crawford's "ripening from a vibrant, but voiceless, teenage girl into a woman with her finger on the trigger of her own destiny."[1]

Their Eyes Were Watching God
TheirEyesWereWatchingGod.JPG
First edition
AuthorZora Neale Hurston
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
PublisherJ. B. Lippincott
Publication date
September 18, 1937
OCLC46429736

Set in central and southern Florida in the early 20th century, the novel was initially poorly received. Since the late 20th century, it has been regarded as a seminal work in both African-American literature and women's literature.[2] TIME included the novel in its 2005 list of the 100 best English-language novels published since 1923.[3]

Contents

Historical contextEdit

Racial climate in the early 1900sEdit

Southern states enacted new constitutions and legislation from 1890 to 1910 that effectively disenfranchised most African Americans. Jim Crow laws were passed, and most African Americans lost their political representation. Tenant farming and sharecropping systems constituted the de facto re-enslavement of African Americans in the South, where Hurston's novel is based.[4]

Baptist preacher Thomas Dixon, Jr. wrote The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden (1902) asserting white supremacy amidst supposed African-American evil and corruption. The book was so popular that Dixon wrote a trilogy. His second novel, The Clansman, was adapted for the silent film The Birth of a Nation, portraying African-American men in an unintelligent, sexually aggressive light (1915) that seemed to encourage the revival of the Ku Klux Klan in the United States.[4] During the Harlem Renaissance, leaders of the African-American community encouraged writers to work toward an Uplift program, to improve the image of African Americans in society.[5]

Hurston, racial uplift, and the Harlem RenaissanceEdit

When many of her fellow writers were participating first in W. E. B. Du Bois' Uplift agenda and, later, in the Harlem Renaissance, Hurston refused to comply. The renaissance marked the rise of black artists and writers, who explored a range of topics outside the restrictions of the Racial Uplift program, including exposure of racist oppression in American society.

In an essay by Nick Aaron Ford, Hurston is quoted to have said, "Many Negroes criticize my book, because I did not make it a lecture on the race problem."[6] When asked why she chose not to comment on the race problem in her novel, Hurston said, "Because I was writing a novel and not a treatise on sociology. [...] I have ceased to think in terms of race; I think only in terms of individuals. I am interested in you now, not as a Negro man but as a man. I am not interested in the race problem, but I am interested in the problems of individuals, white ones and black ones."[6]

Wallace Thurman was another who rejected both the traditional Uplift politics and the agenda of the "New Negro".[7] He organized a group of authors including Hurston to create their own magazine, FIRE!!, that would publish works of the African-American experience without any filters or censors. Hurston's books, such as Their Eyes Were Watching God, used vernacular southern African-American English. Hurston viewed her work as distinct from the work of fellow Harlem Renaissance writers whom she described as the "sobbing school of Negrohood," and who portrayed the lives of black people as constantly miserable, downtrodden, and deprived.[8] Instead, Hurston celebrated the rural, southern African-American communities as she found them. In addition, Hurston refused to censor women's sexuality, writing in beautiful innuendo to embrace the physical dimension of her main character's romances. FIRE! also included homoerotic work as well as portrayals of prostitution.[9] FIRE!! sold very poorly and only a few issues were published. A Baltimore Afro-American reviewer wrote that he "just tossed the first issue of FIRE!! into the fire".[10]

Plot synopsisEdit

The main character Janie Crawford, an African-American woman in her early forties, recounts the story of her life to her best friend Pheoby Watson through an extended flashback. Readers learn about her life in three major periods, corresponding to her marriages to three very different men.

The book begins with Janie's sexual awakening, which she compares to a blossoming pear tree kissed by bees in spring. Not long after, Janie allows a local boy, Johnny Taylor, to kiss her, which Janie's grandmother, Nanny, witnesses.

As a young slave woman, Nanny was raped by her white owner. She gave birth to a mixed-race daughter she named Leafy. Nanny escaped from her jealous mistress and found a good home after the end of the American Civil War. She tried to create a better life for her daughter, but Leafy was raped by her school teacher and became pregnant with Janie. Shortly after Janie's birth, Leafy began to drink and stay out at night. Eventually, she ran away, leaving her daughter Janie with Nanny.

Nanny transferred her hopes for Leafy to Janie. She arranges for the girl to marry Logan Killicks, an older farmer looking for a wife. She hopes to provide Janie with the stability she never had; legal marriage to Killicks, Nanny believes, will give Janie opportunities.[11] Janie marries Logan Killicks.

Janie had imagined that marriage must involve love. But Killicks wants a domestic helper rather than a lover or partner; he thinks Janie does not do enough around the farm and that she is ungrateful. Janie speaks to Nanny about how she feels; but Nanny, too, accuses her of being spoiled. Soon afterward, Nanny dies.

Unhappy, disillusioned, and lonely, Janie leaves Killicks and runs off with Jody (Joe) Starks, a glib man who takes her to the all-black community of Eatonville, Florida. Finding the small town residents unambitious, Starks arranges to buy more land, establishes a general store, and is soon elected as mayor of the town. Janie soon realises that Starks wants her as a trophy wife to reinforce his powerful position in town. He asks her to run the store but forbids her from taking part in the social life that takes place on the store's front porch. During their twenty-year marriage, he treats her as his property, criticizing her and controlling what she wears and says. He begins to physically abuse her.

Eventually, Janie snaps back at Joe, and he hits her hard. Later, he gets sick and refuses to let Janie see him. He does not realize that he has a failing kidney, a likely fatal illness. When Janie learns that he might die, she goes to talk to him. She says that he never knew her because he would not let her be free.

After Starks dies, Janie becomes financially independent through his estate. She is beset with suitors, some of whom are men of some means; she turns them all down. She meets a young drifter and gambler named Vergible Woods, and known as "Tea Cake". He plays the guitar for her and initially treats her with kindness and respect. At first, Janie is doubtful, as she is older and has wealth, but she eventually falls in love with him.

Deciding to run away with him, Janie has a friend look after the store. She and Tea Cake head to Jacksonville to marry. They move to Belle Glade, in the northern part of the Everglades region ("the muck"), where they find work planting and harvesting beans. While their relationship is volatile and sometimes violent, Janie realizes she has the marriage with love that she wanted. Her image of the pear tree blossom is revived.

The area is hit by the great 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Tea Cake is bitten by a rabid dog while saving Janie from drowning. He becomes increasingly jealous and unpredictable, despite Janie's best efforts. He tries to shoot Janie with his pistol, and she fatally shoots him with a rifle in self-defense. She is charged with murder.

At the trial, Tea Cake's black male friends show up to oppose her, but a group of local white women arrive to support Janie. After the all-white jury acquits Janie, she gives Tea Cake a lavish funeral. Tea Cake's friends forgive her, asking her to remain in the Everglades. However, she decides to return to Eatonville.

As she expected, the residents gossip about her when she returns to town. The story ends where it started, as Janie finishes recounting her life to Pheoby.

ThemesEdit

Gender rolesEdit

The novel explores traditional gender roles and the relationship between men and women. Nanny believes that Janie should marry a man not for love but for 'protection'.[12] Janie's first two husbands, Logan Killicks and Jody Starks, both believe Janie should be defined by her marriage to them. Both men want her to be domesticated and silent. Her speech, or silence, is defined by her physical locations, most often. For example, Starks forces her silence at the store, a public—and therefore, male space at the time. He says, "...Muh wife don't know nothin' bout no speech-makin'. Ah never married her for nothin' lak dat. She's uh woman[,] and her place is in de home."[13] Janie is also forbidden from socialising with the men on the porch. Tea Cake is Janie's last husband, who treats her as more of an equal than Killicks and Starks did, by talking to her and playing checkers with her. Despite this, Tea Cake does hit Janie in order to show his possession over her. Thus, Janie's life seems defined by her relation to domineering males.[citation needed]

Masculinity and femininityEdit

Scholars argue that in “Their Eyes Were Watching God” the role of masculinity is portrayed through the subordination and objectification of women. In a reflection of post-slavery Florida, black men are subordinate only to their white employers and adhere to white patriarchal institutions of masculinity[14] in which women are held in a positive social regard only if they are attractive, are married, or have attained financial security via previous marriages. Black women, specifically, face greater oppression, as their own struggle for independence was considered counter-productive to the greater fight for equality for black Americans as a whole.[15] Nanny explains this hierarchical structure early on to Janie when she says, "Honey, de white man is de ruler of everything...white man throw down the load and tell de nigger man to pick it up. He picks it up because he has to, but he doesn't tote it. He hands it to his womenfolks."[16] In other words, it would say that blacks were dealing with the oppression from the white people since white was viewed as "superior".[citation needed]

In the book, men view women as an object to pursue, acquire, and control through courting, manipulation, and even physical force. Janie's journey for the discovery of her self-identity and independence is depicted through her pursuit of true love—her dream—through marriages to three different men. Each of the men she marries conforms in some way to gender norms of the day. The role of femininity is portrayed through the symbolism of property, mules, and elements in nature. Women in the book are considered a trophy prize for males, to simply look pretty and obey their husbands. The analogy of the Mule and Women is stated repetitively in the book and is used to represent the gender role of women. Janie's Nanny explained to Janie at a young age how African-American women were objectified as mules. “De nigger woman is de mule uh de world so far as Ah can see.”[17] Mules are typically bought and sold by farmers, usually to be used to work until exhaustion. Later in the book, Janie realizes that Nanny's warnings were true when she identifies with an abused mule in Eatonville. She sees herself as a working animal with no voice, there for the amusement of others and at the expense of her own free will. This identification is shown in the book when the townspeople are laughing at the mule that Jody had eventually bought and rescued (in an attempt to manipulate Janie). However, Janie doesn't laugh alongside the townspeople as she is shown to empathize with the mule. “Everybody was having fun at the mule-baiting. All but Janie” and she feels disgusted by the situation. The mule represents the feminine gender role in the story by which men suppress and degrade women who are stereotyped as unable to think for themselves and needing constant guidance from men. These stereotypes "become a chain on the American women, preventing them from developing individuality, and from pursuing their personal happiness"[18] and ultimately what forces them to mold into their gender role.[citation needed]

Janie CrawfordEdit

Janie Crawford is the main character of Their Eyes Were Watching God. At the beginning of the story, she is described as naive, beautiful, and energetic. However, as the story progresses, Janie is constantly under the influence and pressure of gender norms within her romantic relationships. As she navigates each of her relationships with men, Janie ultimately loses her image and conforms to roles that the husbands want her to fill.[citation needed]

In Janie's first relationship, she was given as a wife by Nanny at an early age and was told that love may come with marriage but that it was not important. However, as time passed, Janie was unable to love Logan. "She began to cry. 'Ah wants things sweet wid mah marriage lak when you sit under a pear tree and think.'"[19] As time passed on, Logan began forcing gender roles onto Janie, telling her that he would buy a mule for her so that she could work. However, Janie was strong-minded and Logan made little progress on changing Janie. Janie raised her voice, but still, she remained susceptible to suppression and abuse. "You ain't got no particular place. It's wherever Ah need yuh. Git a move on yuh, and dat quck."[citation needed]

Then, in Janie's second relationship, she left Logan Killicks in an attempt to pursue a better future with her new husband, Joe Starks. Joe, was the Mayor of Eatonville and achieved incredible wealth, placing Janie in a higher status than her peers, since she was "sleeping with authority, seating in a higher chair". Janie believed that her life would change for the better. However, she was confined in the roles of a housewife and was made to be Joe's prized possession. "The king's mule, and the king's pleasure is everything she is there for, nothing else".[20]

In Janie's third and last relationship, she was able to experience true love, on her own terms, with her third husband Verigible "Tea Cake" Woods. Janie was older than Tea Cake by twelve years. He loved and treated her better than her previous husbands. While she was no longer strictly confined by the gender roles placed upon her by her previous husbands, she was still easily influenced and manipulated by Tea Cake. In a moment of desperation and self-defense, Janie was forced to shoot and kill Tea Cake.[citation needed]

Logan KillicksEdit

Logan Killicks is Janie's first husband. Shortly after Nanny observes Janie sharing her first kiss with boy named Johnny Taylor—and therefore showing signs of puberty—she informs Janie that she was promised to Logan Killicks, a widower, from a young age for her own well-being and protection. Logan owns a farm with acres of land. He grows and sells potatoes as well as chops and delivers wood. He has one mule to plow the fields and decides that he needs to add another to the stable. Though Janie hopes that it will grow, there is no love between her and Logan. She is roughly 16 years old when she is married off to Logan and later, she grows to resent her grandmother for selling her like a slave.[21] Their marriage is purely logic and convenience—he is a man with property and he needs a wife while Nanny is an aging woman raising her grandchild alone, and she needs to secure Janie's future. There is little regard for Janie's happiness as Nanny believes Logan to be a good husband based on his financial prospects alone.[22]

Logan has traditional views on marriage. He believes that a man should be married to a woman, property, and work hard. Everyone contributes to tending the family affairs. He believes Janie should work as well and do as she is told. She is analogous to a mule or other working animal.[23] He is not an attractive man by Janie's description of him and seems to be aware of this. As such, his prospects at finding a mate based on attraction and his age are slim, thus the reason for approaching Nanny about an arrangement of marriage to Janie when she comes of age.[citation needed]

During the course of their brief marriage, Logan attempts to subjugate Janie with his words and attempts to make her work beyond the gender roles in a typical marriage. He does not appreciate her streaks of independence when she refuses his commands and uses her family history to try to manipulate her into being submissive to him,[24] and at one point, he threatens to kill her for her insubordination in a desperate and final attempt to control her.[citation needed]

Joe "Jody" StarksEdit

Joe “Jody” Starks is Janie's second husband. He is charismatic, charming and has big plans for his future. Janie, being young and naive, is easily seduced by his efforts to convince her to leave Logan. Ultimately, Joe is successful in gaining Janie's trust and so she joins him on his journey. Joe views Janie as a princess or royalty to be displayed on a pedestal. Because of her youth, inexperience, and desire to find true love, Jody easily controls and manipulates her into submitting to his male authority.[citation needed]

Joe Starks is a man who is strong, organized and a natural leader. He has money from his time working for white men and he now aims to settle in a new community made up of African Americans, a place in its infancy where he can make a name for himself. Joe quickly establishes himself as an authoritative figure around the town which has no determined name or governance of any kind when he and Janie arrive. With the money he has, he buys land, organizes the townsfolk, becomes the owner-operator of the general store and post office, and is eventually named Mayor of Eatonville. Joe strives for equality with white men[25], particularly the mayor of the white town across the river from Eatonville. To attain this status he requires nice things: the largest white house, a nice desk and chair, a gilded spitoon, and a beautiful wife. He is a larger-than-life character and during their time in Eatonville, he has grown an equally large belly and taken up the habit of chewing nice cigars, both of which cement his status with the locals as an important man around town. Joe, like most of the men in the book, believes that women are incapable of thinking and caring for themselves. He likens them to children and livestock that need constant tending and direction. “Somebody’s got to think for women and chilling and chickens and cows. I God, they sho don't think none themselves.”[26]

Jody is a jealous man, and because of this he grows more and more possessive and controlling of Janie. He expects her to dress a certain way (buying her the finest of clothes) and requires that she wear her long, beautiful hair—symbolic of her free spirit and femininity—in a bun, so as not to attract too much unwanted attention from the other men in Eatonville.[27][28] He excludes her from various events and social gatherings in Eatonville to further his dominance and control over her.[29]

Vergible "Tea Cake" WoodsEdit

Tea Cake is Janie's third and final husband. He is her ideal partner in her search for true love. He is charismatic, charming, funny, and creative with a tendency to embellish stories. To Janie, he is larger than life, wise, and genuinely cares for her. Tea Cake is loving towards Janie and respectful of her as her own individual person. Unlike her previous two marriages, Tea Cake never stops trying to make her happy. He is more than willing to share with her what he has learned from his own experiences and show her the greater world outside of her own existence. He enjoys being with Janie and playing the role of a teacher. Through Tea Cake, Janie learns to shoot a rifle, play checkers, and fish among other activities.[30]

However, Tea Cake shows tendencies of patriarchal dominance and psychological abuse towards Janie.[31] He isn't always truthful with her and shows some of the same characteristic traits exhibited by Joe Starks and Logan Killicks. For instance, he keeps her from working with the rest of the people down on the muck because he believes she is above common folk. Consequently, until Janie asserts herself with Tea Cake and joins the others in working,[32] she gains a bit of a reputation for thinking herself better than everyone else.[citation needed]

In a show of male dominance in their relationship, Tea Cake takes $200 from Janie without her knowledge or permission and spends it on a nice guitar and a lavish party with others around town without including her in the festivities. While accounting for his spending of her money, he tells Janie that he had to pay women that he deemed unattractive $2 each to keep them from the party.[33] He then gambles the remaining amount in order to make the money back and excludes her from the gambling scene. What differentiates him from Joe in this regard is that Janie regularly confronts him and he acquiesces to her demand that she not be excluded from aspects of his life.[citation needed]

Another tendency that Tea Cake shares with Joe is his jealousy and need to maintain some amount of control over Janie. When he overhears another woman speaking poorly to Janie about Tea Cake and attempting to set her up with her brother, Tea Cake decides to take matters into his own hands. First, he discusses with Janie, a conversation he overheard between her and Mrs. Turner, a local cafe owner. He criticizes Mrs. Turner's appearance (like Janie, she is mixed-race) and then successfully executes an elaborate plan to ruin her establishment. Finally, he slaps Janie around in front of Mrs. Turner and others to show them that he is in charge and to assert his ownership over her.[34]

In the end, Tea Cake plays the role of hero to Janie when he saves her from drowning and being attacked by a rabid dog. Tea Cake himself is bitten and eventually succumbs to the disease. Not able to think rationally and enraged with jealousy, he physically attacks Janie and she is forced to shoot and kill Tea Cake. Therefore, she effectively ends her emotional attachment to the men in her life and the desire to seek out and realize her dream of true love.[citation needed]

Liberated womanEdit

Janie is searching for her own voice and identity throughout the novel. She is often without a voice in relation to her husbands as she will not fight back. Janie is also faced with situations that make her feel that her value as an African American woman is little to none. She is seen as distinct from other women in the novel, who follow traditions and do not find a life independent of men. Janie's physical appeal becomes a basis of Starks and Tea Cake to have jealousy and belittle her looks. Starks orders Janie to cover her long hair as other men are attracted to it. Similarly, Tea Cake remarks on Janie's lighter skin and her appeal to Mrs. Turner's brother. But Janie begins to feel liberated in her marriage with Tea Cake because he treats her as an equal and mostly does not look down on her. As a result, she loves him more than she did the other two.[35]

Janie does not find complete independence as a woman until after the death of Tea Cake. She returns to Eatonville with her hair down and she sits on her own porch chatting with her friend Pheoby. By the end of the novel, she has overcome traditional roles and cultivates an image of the "liberated black woman."[35]

Liberation from racial historyEdit

Janie grew up under the care of her grandmother, Nanny. Her experiences as a slave and freedwoman shaped the way Nanny saw the world. She hoped to protect Janie, by forcing her to marry Logan Killicks, although he was older and not attractive. Janie followed her grandmother's advice but found that it wouldn't be as easy to love him as Nanny had suggested. African Americans believed in marriage during the early 20th century because they had been prevented from such legal protection under slavery.[36] Unhappy in her marriage to Logan, Janie runs off with Starks and marries him. she willingly runs off with Jody and marries him. After the death of Starks, Janie meets Tea Cake and they fall in love. Her community Janie thought he was a broke nobody and were suspicious of him. Tea Cake wasn't the perfect man, but better than expected by the community of Eatonville.[citation needed]

Liberation from domestic violenceEdit

During the early 20th century, the African-American community asked African-American women to set aside self-realization and self-affirmation values. They imposed male-dominated values and often controlled who women married.[37] Janie suffered domestic violence in her marriages with Joe Starks and Tea Cake. Starks initially seemed to be good for Janie, but later beat her several times, in an effort to exert his authority over her.[38] Despite her husband's physical and emotional abuse, Janie did not complain, behavior that was approved by the townsmen. Domestic abuse was not entirely disapproved by the African-American community, and men thought it was acceptable to control their women this way.[39] After Starks' death, Janie was freed from his abuse. Tea Cake showed his respect of her.[40] Although Tea Cake was not a perfect husband, he was the only husband of hers that gave her the chance to love.[citation needed]

Liberation from sexual normsEdit

The early 1900s was a time in which patriarchal ideals were accepted and seen as the norm.[41] Throughout the novel, Janie on multiple occasions suffers from these ideals. In her relationships, she is being ordered around by the man, but she did not question it, whether in the kitchen or bedroom.[42] Janie in many ways expresses her growing distance from the sexual and social norms. After the death of Starks, Janie goes to his funeral wearing black and formal clothes. But for Tea Cake's funeral, she wears workers' blue overalls, showing that she cared less for what society thought of her as she got older. In addition, critics say that Tea Cake was the vehicle for Janie's liberation.[43] She went from working in the kitchen and indoors to working more “manly” jobs, such as helping in the fields, fishing, and hunting. Tea Cake offered her a partnership; he didn't see her as an object through marriage.[citation needed]

Value of women in a relationshipEdit

Throughout the novel, Hurston vividly displays how African American women are valued, or devalued, in their marital relationships. By doing so, she takes the reader on a journey through Janie's life and her marriages. Janie formed her initial idea of marriage off the image of unity she witnessed between a pear tree and a bee. This image and expectation sets Janie up for disappointment when it finally came time to marry. From her marriage to Logan Killicks to Tea Cake, Janie was forced to acknowledge where she stood as a female in her relationship[44].

Starting with her marriage to Logan, Janie was put in a place where she was expected to work. On top of all the physical labor expected from her, Janie endured physical beatings from her male counterpart. Hoping for more value, Janie decides to leave Logan and run off with Joe Starks. However, in reaction to this decision, she's only faced with more beating and devaluement. Joe expected her stay in the home, work in the kitchen, and when she was in public, Janie was expected to cover her hair and avoid conversation with the locals. With one last hope, Janie engaged in a marriage with Tea Cake, a much younger soul, and things finally seemed to look up for her, even though she was still expected to help in the fields and tend to her womanly duties. Overall, throughout her marriages, Janie experienced the hardships that most African American women went through at that time. From the physical labor to the physical beatings, Janie was presented with the life that a woman was expected to live. [See detailed argument and synopsis in Addison Gayle, Jr.'s article, "The Outsider"[45]]

Janie was able to feel like a woman with her third marriage with Tea Cake. Her first marriage with Logan she was being controlled by Logan Killicks. She didn't feel like a woman in her first marriage. As well she didn't feel no love and affection. In her second marriage with Jody she was able to experience woman independence. With Jody's death she was in charge of the store and his property. She was able to experience freedom and living an economic stable life. She learned about ownership, self determination, self ruling, and home ruling. In her last marriage with Tea Cake Janie experienced true love. But she also learned who she was an African American women. Through out her marriages she learned how to value herself as a woman, an African American woman, and a hard working woman.

The novel is written in dialect and colloquial language that expresses it as a story of a black woman from the American South. Throughout the novel Janie Crawford serves both as protagonist as well as occasional narrator, detailing the events of her life, her three marriages, and the aftermath of each that eventually lead to her return to Eatonville. This is done with two contrasting writing styles, one in standard English prose when the narration is done in third person, and the other being the usage of black Southern vernacular in dialogue. The theme of having a voice and being able to speak out is a prevalent theme throughout the novel. During her first two marriages to Logan Killicks and Joe Starks, she is subjugated and held under their rule, the former comparing her to another mule to work his field and the latter keeping her in a powerless position of domesticity. Throughout both marriages she finds herself without the ability to speak out or to express herself, and when she tries she is usually shut down. This leaves her feeling like a “rut in the road,” the isolation taking its toll until she finally confronts Joe and attacks his ego with a verbal assault against his manhood. The effect this takes is that it leaves Joe resenting Janie and in effect destroys what is left of their marriage. When Janie marries Tea Cake we see how language affects the way Janie begins to feel about herself. The way Tea Cake speaks to her allows her to find the freedom in her own voice and begins to learn how to use it. We are able to see how language helps Janie grow as a person once she learns that her voice is her power.[citation needed]

RaceEdit

[citation needed]

While the novel is written about black people in the South, it is not primarily a book about a racist society. Nanny is the first character to discuss the effects of slavery. "Ah was born back due in slavery so it wasn't for me to fulfil my dreams of whut a woman oughta be and to do. Dat's one of de hold-backs of slavery."[46] The novel is mostly concerned with differences within the black community. Starks is compared to the master of a plantation, as he has a huge house in the centre of the town. "The rest of town looked like servants' quarters surrounding the 'big house'.[47] Starks becomes a figure of authority because he has money and is determined to create the first black town. But his plans seem to result in a town where people impose their own hierarchy. "Us talks about de white man keepin' us down! Shucks! He don't have tuh. Us keeps our own selves down."[48] When Janie marries Tea Cake and moves to the Everglades, she becomes friendly with Mrs. Turner. This woman compliments Janie on her light skin and European features, from her mixed-race ancestry. Turner disapproves of her marriage to Tea Cake, as he is darker skinned and more "African" looking.

Inspirations and influencesEdit

Perhaps the strongest inspiration for Hurston's writing of Their Eyes Were Watching God was her former lover Percival Punter.[49] Hurston writes in her autobiography that the romance between Janie and Tea Cake was inspired by a tumultuous love affair. She described falling in love with the man as "a parachute jump".[50] Like Janie in the novel, Hurston was significantly older than her lover. Like Tea Cake, Punter was sexually dominant and sometimes violent.[51] Hurston wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God three weeks after the tumultuous conclusion of her relationship with Punter. She wrote in her autobiography that she had "tried to embalm all the tenderness of [her] passion for him."[52] With this emotional inspiration, Hurston went on to paint the picture of Their Eyes Were Watching God using her personal experience and research as a template.[citation needed]

In 1927, a decade before writing Their Eyes Were Watching God, Hurston traveled south to collect folk songs and folk tales through an anthropological research fellowship arranged by her Barnard College mentor Franz Boas.[53] The all-black Eatonville of Their Eyes Were Watching God is based on the all-black town of the same name in which Hurston grew up. The town's weekly announced in 1889, "Colored People of the United States: Solve the great race problem by securing a home in Eatonville, Florida, a Negro city governed by negroes."[54] The hurricane that symbolizes the climax of Hurston's story also has an historical inspiration; in 1928, "a hurricane ravaged both coastal and inland areas of Florida, bringing torrential rains that broke the dikes of Lake Okeechobee near Belle Glade".[55] Scholars of the African diaspora note the cultural practices common to the Caribbean, Africa, and the United States in Their Eyes Were Watching God.[56]

Hurston wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God while living in Belle Glade, at the home of Harvey Poole, who as manager of one of the local labor camps, informed her tremendously about bean picking, and the labors of African-Americans on the muckland. The book was also written while on a Guggenheim Fellowship in Haiti to research Obeah practices in the West Indies.[57]

ReceptionEdit

Initial receptionEdit

Hurston's political views in Their Eyes Were Watching God were met with resistance from several leading Harlem Renaissance authors.

Novelist and essayist Richard Wright condemned Their Eyes Were Watching God, writing in a review for New Masses (1935):

Miss Hurston seems to have no desire whatsoever to move in the direction of serious fiction… [She] can write; but her prose is cloaked in that facile sensuality that has dogged Negro expression since the days of Phyllis Wheatley... Her characters eat and laugh and cry and work and kill; they swing like a pendulum eternally in that safe and narrow orbit in which America likes to see the Negro live: between laughter and tears.[58]

Ralph Ellison said the book contained a "blight of calculated burlesque."[59]

Alain Locke writes in a review: "when will the Negro novelist of maturity, who knows how to tell a story convincingly—which is Miss Hurston's cradle gift, come to grips with motive fiction and social document fiction?"[60]

The New Republic's Otis Ferguson wrote: "it isn't that this novel is bad, but that it deserves to be better". But he went on to praise the work for depicting "Negro life in its naturally creative and unselfconscious grace".[61]

Not all African-American critics had negative things to say about Hurston's work. Carter G. Woodson, founder of The Journal of Negro History wrote, "Their Eyes Were Watching God is a gripping story... the author deserves great praise for the skill and effectiveness shown in the writing of this book." The critic noted Hurston's anthropological approach to writing, "She studied them until she thoroughly understood the working of their minds, learned to speak their language".[62]

Meanwhile, reviews of Hurston's book in the mainstream white press were largely positive, although they did not translate into significant retail sales. Writing for The New York Times, Ralph Thompson states: "the normal life of Negroes in the South today—the life with its holdovers from slave times, its social difficulties, childish excitements, and endless exuberances... compared to this sort of story, the ordinary narratives of Negroes in Harlem or Birmingham seem ordinary indeed."[63]

For the New York Herald Tribune, Sheila Hibben described Hurston as writing "with her head as with her heart" creating a "warm, vibrant touch". She praised Their Eyes Were Watching God as filled with "a flashing, gleaming riot of black people, with a limitless sense of humor, and a wild, strange sadness".[64]

New York Times critic Lucille Tompkins described Their Eyes Were Watching God: "It is about Negroes... but really it is about every one, or at least every one who isn't so civilized that he has lost the capacity for glory."[65]

RediscoveryEdit

As universities across the country developed Black Studies programs in the 1970s and 1980s, they created greater space for Black literature and academia. Several prominent academics, including Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Addison Gayle, Jr., established a new "Black Aesthetic" that "placed the sources of contemporary black literature and culture in the communal music and oral folk tradition".[66] This new respect coupled with a growing Black feminism led by Mary Helen Washington, Audre Lorde, Alice Walker, and others would create the space for the rediscovery of Hurston.[66]

Hurston first achieved a level of mainstream institutional support in the 1970s. Walker published an essay, "Looking for Zora," in Ms. magazine in 1975. In that work, she described how the Black community's general rejection of Hurston was like "throwing away a genius". The National Endowment for the Humanities went on to award Robert Hemenway two grants for his work to write Hurston's biography.[67] The 1977 biography was followed in 1978 by the re-issue of Their Eyes Were Watching God.

In 1975, the Modern Language Association held a special seminar focusing on Hurston.[67] In 1981 professor Ruth Sheffey of Baltimore's Morgan State University founded the Zora Neale Hurston Society. Hurston had attended the school, then known as Morgan Academy, in 1917.[68]

In 1978, Harper and Row leased its rights to Their Eyes Were Watching God to the University of Illinois Press. However, the printing was so profitable that Harper and Row refused to renew the leasing contract and instead reprinted its own new edition.[67] This new edition sold its total print of 75,000 in less than a month.[69]

The New York Times's Virginia Heffernan explains that the book's "narrative technique, which is heavy on free-indirect discourse, lent itself to poststructuralist analysis".[70] With so many new disciplines especially open to the themes and content of Hurston's work, Their Eyes Were Watching God achieved growing prominence in the last several decades. It is now firmly established in the literary canon.[66]


Critical analysisEdit

  • In Maria J. Johnson's article "'The World in a Jug and the Stopper in [Her] Hand': Their Eyes Were Watching God as Blues Performance," she states that Hurston's novel takes a similar structure and aesthetic to blues culture. Johnson also shows how the contrast of Hurston's images, such as the pleasure and pain dynamic of the bee, can be seen in songs by singers like Bessie Smith.[71]
  • The article "The Cognitive Construction of the Self in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God", by Patrick S. Bernard,[72] highlights the connection between the construction of self and cognition in Hurston's novel. According to Bernard, cognition is the inner essence of an individual that embodies the idea of "thinking, seeing, speaking, and knowing", but is often determined by one's exterior environment. Janie, the protagonist, uses her cognitive skills in order to find her identity and throughout the novel develops her cognition further. While Janie is living in a sexist society, she continues to rise above her opposition, specifically that of her three husbands. Bernard demonstrates this,

In a conversation with Jody, Janie defends 'womenfolk,' disagreeing with the sexist claim that God made men "different" because they turn "out so smart" (70). When she states that men "don't know half as much as you think you do," Jody interrupts her saying, 'you getting too moufy Janie... Go fetch me de checker-board and de checkers' (70-71) so that he and the other men could play (Bernard 9).

The comment from Jody, Janie's second husband, attempts to suppress her voice and manipulate her thoughts. Rather than acting submissive to Jody, Janie for a brief moment contends with Jody by telling him how men misunderstand women. Jody fears that Janie's thinking will lead to her gaining more knowledge and naturally to speaking her mind, eventually leading to Janie achieving the power of knowledge to recognize and change the mistreatment and unfairness she has been receiving. Bernard proposes the idea that Jody's relationship with Janie represents society's assumption that women are of limited cognition. This assumption positions women in subservient roles that limit their ways of thinking, speaking, and seeing.[citation needed]
In addition to bringing up Janie's relationship with Jody, Bernard emphasizes how her relationships with her other husbands influenced her cognition. He points out the fact that Logan Killicks, Janie's first husband, mistreated her by severing any beginning form of self-construction by treating her as an infant. Bernard also brings forth the idea that Janie's construction of selfhood blossoms when Tea Cake, her third husband, allows her to participate in experiences unimaginable to her. While Logan Killicks gives her no opportunity of expressing herself, Jody overpowers her expressive voice; Tea Cake allows her construction of self to mature link between self construction and cognition. Bernard's main point therefore is that self-construction is influenced by cognition, that is, knowing, thinking, seeing and speaking are important to the construction of self in Zora Neale Hurston's novel.[citation needed]
  • In "The Hierarchy Itself: Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God and the Sacrifice of Narrative Authority," Ryan Simmons argues that Hurston made a statement against models of authority that supplant an oppressive system with other oppressive systems and offered an alternative. By models of authority, Simmons means the narrative voice of the author and Janie's narrative voice. Hurston represented the different ideologies of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois through the characters of Logan Killicks and Joe ("Jody") Starks. Like Washington, Logan models the path of "gradual progress" that would not threaten the white-dominated sphere of power and Hurston presents his practices as a tradeoff between liberty and modest prosperity. Joe models the path advocated by Du Bois, which is one of assertion of dignity and less compromise. However, the issue shown by Joe's eventual isolation from the community dialogue he helped establish and Janie's overpowering of him through a usurpation of authority, Hurston shows that the weakness with Joe's approach is that it mirrors that of white suppression.
Instead, Hurston introduces a third way of achieving self-autonomy through Tea Cake. He represents an independence from reliance on communal validation, and instead serves as a mirror for Janie to discover her narrative power. In relation to the author's narrative power, Tea Cake is the epitome of a good reader, one that is receptive to the transformative message of the text. Language is the understanding and sharpening of one's identity while communication comes second. In Hurston's innovative narrative, she is attempting to fulfill the "ideal narrative", which is one that nurtures and changes both the reader and the author.[73]
  • In the article “‘The Kiss of Memory': The Problem of Love in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God,” author Tracy L. Bealer argues that Janie's quest for her ideal form of love, as symbolized by the pear tree in bloom, is impossible within her existing sociohistorical environment. The forces of racial and patriarchal hierarchies lead Tea Cake, who generally treats Janie as his intellectual and communal equal, to beat her in order to display his dominance to their peers. Bealer asserts that the novel's depiction of Tea Cake, abuse and all, is intentionally ambivalent in order to simultaneously promote intersubjective love and to indict racism and sexism.[74]
  • Critic William M. Ramsey, in his article “The compelling ambivalence of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God,” posits that the novel stands as an unfinished and unrealized work. He backs this claim by noting the short amount of time Hurston spent writing as well as statements made by Hurston in her autobiography. Ramsey also note how the numerous contradictions inherent in the novel (Tea Cake's treatment of Janie, Janie's idealization of Tea Cake, Janie's expectations of a utopian “pear tree” marriage, etc.) have led to wildly different interpretations and ultimately, a richly ambivalent text.
He also suggests that Tea Cake’s death is “Hurston’s vicarious revenge on Arthur Price,” a former lover that Hurston left to pursue a research fellowship in the Caribbean.[75]
  • In her article entitled "Feminist Criticism," Jen Rhodes commented that "most literary works are not intended to oppress women," but often "literature inadvertently forwards patriarchal views." Their eyes look at God as the perfect example of this sentence. Although this novel is not intentionally used to emphasize patriarchal society, from a feminist point of view, in a world around Janie's relationship with other characters in the story, male dominance is easily found, and women's obedience is even more protruding.[76]
  • In the article "Naming and Power in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes were Watching God," Sigrid King comments that "Naming has always been an important issue in the Afro-American tradition because of its link to the exercise of power." Their names are a form of power and it has been ever since slavery times where slave masters would name their slaves. King also says " Nanny teaches Janie the same lessons she learned about naming: Names are bound within the white male power structure,and the most s black woman can hope for is to endure within them" Nanny tells Janie that names are powerful are used to take power away from people and in the book we see thar Nanny's name is her role in society and not an actual name. Hurston is aware of the power that names have and she chooses to have Janie start off the book without having a name. [77]
  • In the article "Racial and sexual politics of Their Eyes are Watching God from a spatial perspective", Lihua Zhao argues that Janie is a victim of racism and gender sexism which leads to her poor character attributes in a lead black female novel. Zhao comments on the novel saying "Janie's determined and consistent ignorance of racial spatial division implies her weak black identification, the horrible damage done by racism. Her vague and brief feminist consciousness suggests the brainwash of patriarchy is so successful that it is very hard to eliminate." Zhao states that in order to bring attention to a social political issue, we must first expose the problem in a meaningful manner like how Hurston has in her novel. [78]
  • In the article "Mules and women: identify and rebel--Janie's identity quest in "Their Eyes Were Watching God'", Hongzhi Wu explores the symbolism of the mule in Hurston's novel claiming that it provides a deeper meaning of the external issues of racism. Wu states, "In all these animal talks they expressed their hatred of the abuses and exploitation from the white world; their despise of their white master's ignorance and viciousness; their acclamation of the black people's industriousness and intelligence; and they also expressed their hope of salvation." The mule acts as a metaphor for the exploitation and mistreatment of the black community by the white superiority race. [79]

Adaptations for theater, film and radioEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ National Endowment for the Arts website.
  2. ^ Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Zora Neale Hurston: Critical Perspectives Past and Present (New York: Amistad, 1993), p. xi.
  3. ^ "All Time 100 Novels". Time. October 16, 2005.
  4. ^ a b Lovalerie King. The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 20.
  5. ^ The Crisis, Vol. 32, October 1926: pp. 290–297.
  6. ^ a b Bloom, Harold (1986). Modern Critical Views: Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-87754-627-6.
  7. ^ King. The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston. p. 28.
  8. ^ Bray, Rosemary L. "Renaissance for a Pioneer of Black Pride". The New York Times, February 4, 1990.
  9. ^ King. The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston. p. 29.
  10. ^ Baltimore Afro-American review, cited in Harris, E. "Renaissance Men". The Advocate, July 11, 2008.
  11. ^ Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston. Plot Summary, Book Notes, Summary. BookRags.com. 18 Aug 2010.
  12. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. pp. Page 20.
  13. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. pp. Page 53.
  14. ^ Schnieber, Jacqueline (2017). "Negotiating Black Masculinity: The Black Freedom Struggle During the Harlem Renaissance in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". www.researchgate.net.
  15. ^ Dr. Shanmugiah; Karmegavannan (March 2018). "Emergence of New African-American Woman: A Study of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God" (PDF). www.languageinindia.com. ISSN 1930-2940.
  16. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (2006). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-06-083867-6.
  17. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. p. 24.
  18. ^ Wu, Hongzhi (May 2014). "Mules and Women: Identify and Rebel—Janie's Identity Quest in "Their Eyes Were Watching God"" (PDF). Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 4 (5): 1053–1057 – via Academy Publication.
  19. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. p. 24.
  20. ^ Wu, Hongzhi (May 2014). "Mules and Women: Identity and Rebel -- Janie's Identity Quest in "Their Eyes Were Watching God"" (PDF). Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 4 (5): 1053–1057 – via Academy Publication.
  21. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (2006). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-06-083867-6.
  22. ^ Davidson, Camille M. (2013-09-16). "What's Love Got to Do with It? Examining Domestic Violence as a Public Health Issue Using 'Their Eyes Were Watching God'". Rochester, NY.
  23. ^ Qashgari, Sawsan (2017-06-03). "Racism, Feminism and Language in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". Arab World English Journal. Rochester, NY: 37.
  24. ^ Schnieber, Jacqueline (2017). "Negotiating Black Masculinity: The Black Freedom Struggle During the Harlem Renaissance in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". www.researchgate.net.
  25. ^ Schnieber, Jacqueline (2017). "Negotiating Black Masculinity: The Black Freedom Struggle During the Harlem Renaissance in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". www.researchgate.net. p. 1.
  26. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (2013). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-06-083867-6.
  27. ^ Schnieber, Jacqueline (2017). "Negotiating Black Masculinity: The Black Freedom Struggle During the Harlem Renaissance in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". www.researchgate.net. p. 7.
  28. ^ Qashgari; Sawsan (2017-06-03). "Racism, Feminism and Language in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". Rochester, NY.
  29. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: HarperCollins. p. 56.
  30. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (2006). Their Eyes Were Watching God. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-06-083867-6.
  31. ^ Davidson, Camille M. (2013-09-16). "What's Love Got to Do with It? Examining Domestic Violence as a Public Health Issue Using 'Their Eyes Were Watching God'". Rochester, NY.
  32. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale (2006). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-06-083867-6.
  33. ^ Schnieber, Jacqueline (2017). "Negotiating Black Masculinity: The Black Freedom Struggle During the Harlem Renaissance in Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". www.researchgate.net. p. 8.
  34. ^ Qashgari; Sawsan (2017-06-03). "Racism, Feminism and Language in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God". Rochester, NY.
  35. ^ a b Bloom, Harold (1986). Modern Critical Views: Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 29–33, 40. ISBN 978-0-87754-627-6.
  36. ^ Rooks, Noliwe M., 1963- (2004). Ladies' Pages : African American Women's Magazines and the Culture that Made Them. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813542522. OCLC 636443300.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
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  40. ^ McGowan, Todd (1999). "Liberation and Domination: Their Eyes Were Watching God and the Evolution of Capitalism". MELUS. 24: 109–128.
  41. ^ "The Struggle for Women's Equality in Black America :: African American History :: Articles :: Lest We Forget". lestweforget.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
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  43. ^ McGowan, Todd (1999). "Liberation and Domination: Their Eyes Were Watching God and the Evolution of Capitalism". MELUS. 24 (1): 109–128. doi:10.2307/467909. JSTOR 467909.
  44. ^ Ferguson, SallyAnn (1987). "Folkloric Men and Female Growth in Their Eyes Were Watching God". Black American Literature Forum. 21 (1/2): 185–197. doi:10.2307/2904428. ISSN 0148-6179. JSTOR 2904428.
  45. ^ Bloom, Harold (1986). Modern Critical Views: Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 35–46. ISBN 978-0-87754-627-6.
  46. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. pp. Page 21.
  47. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. pp. Page 58.
  48. ^ Hurston, Zora (1937). Their Eyes Were Watching God. USA: University of Illinois Press. pp. Page 48.
  49. ^ King. The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston. p. 25.
  50. ^ Hurston, Zora. Dust Tracks on a Road: An Autobiography. New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1942, p. 205. as cited in Bloom, Harrold. Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009, p. 15.
  51. ^ Bloom, Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, p. 15.
  52. ^ Hurston, Dust Tracks on a Road, p. 188. as cited in Bloom, Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, p. 15.
  53. ^ King, The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston. p. 7.
  54. ^ The Eatonville Speaker, 1889. cited in Lester, Neal. Understanding Their Eyes Were Watching God. London: The Greenwood Press, 1999, p. 148.
  55. ^ Bloom, Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. p. 14.
  56. ^ Wall, Cheryl A. Their Eyes Were Watching God - A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 6.
  57. ^ Miles, Diana. "Diana Miles on Female Identity and Rebirth". Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. Edited by Harrold Bloom. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009, p. 66.
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  59. ^ Ellison, Ralph. As cited in Burt, Daniel. The Novel 100. Checkmark Books, 2003, p. 366.
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  66. ^ a b c Spencer, Stephen. "On Hurston's Contribution to the Canon." Bloom's Guides - Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. Edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009, p. 87.
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  68. ^ Bray, Rosemary L. "Renaissance for a Pioneer of Black Pride." The New York Times, 02 09, 1990.
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External linksEdit