Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist in Mississippi, the state's field secretary of the NAACP, and World War II veteran, having served in the United States Army. He worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, to end segregation of public facilities, and to expand opportunities for African Americans, including enforcement of voting rights. He was assassinated by a white supremacist and Klansman.
|Born||Medgar Wiley Evers|
July 2, 1925
Decatur, Mississippi, U.S.
|Died||June 12, 1963 (aged 37)|
Jackson, Mississippi, U.S.
|Cause of death||Racially–motivated assassination|
|Education||Alcorn State University|
|Occupation||Civil rights activist|
Myrlie (m. 1951–1963)
|Parent(s)||James Evers (father) |
Jesse Wright (mother)
|Buried||Arlington National Cemetery (with full military honors)|
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1943–1945|
A college graduate, Evers became active in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s. Following the 1954 ruling of the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, Evers challenged the segregation of the state-supported public University of Mississippi, applying to law school there. He also worked for voting rights, economic opportunity, access to public facilities, and other changes in the segregated society. Evers was awarded the 1963 NAACP Spingarn Medal.
Evers was assassinated in 1963 by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council. This group was formed in 1954 in Mississippi to resist the integration of schools and civil rights activism. As a veteran, Evers was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. His murder and the resulting trials inspired civil rights protests; his life and these events inspired numerous works of art, music, and film. All-white juries failed to reach verdicts in the first two trials of Beckwith in the 1960s. He was convicted in 1994 in a new state trial based on new evidence.
Medgar's widow Myrlie Evers became a noted activist in her own right, serving as national chair of the NAACP. His brother Charles Evers was the first African American to be elected as mayor of a city in Mississippi in the post-Reconstruction era; he won the office in 1969 in Fayette.
Evers was born on July 2, 1925, in Decatur, Mississippi, the third of five children (including elder brother Charles Evers) of Jesse (Wright) and James Evers. The family included Jesse's two children from a previous marriage. The Evers family owned a small farm and James also worked at a sawmill. Evers and his siblings walked twelve miles to attend segregated schools; eventually Medgar earned his high school diploma.
Evers served in the United States Army during World War II from 1943 to 1945. He was sent to the European Theater where he fought in the Battle of Normandy in June 1944. After the end of the war, Evers was honorably discharged as a sergeant.
In 1948, Evers enrolled at Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (a historically black college, now Alcorn State University), majoring in business administration. He also competed on the debate, football, and track teams, sang in the choir, and was junior class president. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in 1952.
The couple moved to Mound Bayou, Mississippi, a town developed by African Americans, where Evers became a salesman for T. R. M. Howard's Magnolia Mutual Life Insurance Company. Evers was also president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), which began to organize actions for civil rights; Evers helped organize the RCNL's boycott of gasoline stations that denied blacks the use of the stations' restrooms. Evers and his brother Charles attended the RCNL's annual conferences in Mound Bayou between 1952 and 1954, which drew crowds of ten thousand or more.
In 1954, following the U.S. Supreme Court decision that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, Evers applied to the state-supported University of Mississippi Law School, but his application was rejected because of his race. He submitted his application as part of a test case by the NAACP.
On November 24, 1954, Evers was named as the NAACP's first field secretary for Mississippi. In this position, he helped organize boycotts and set up new local chapters of the NAACP. He was involved with James Meredith's efforts to enroll in the University of Mississippi in the early 1960s.
Evers also encouraged Dr. Gilbert Mason Sr. in his organizing of the Biloxi wade-ins from 1959 to 1963, protests against segregation of the city's public beaches on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Evers conducted actions to help integrate Jackson's privately owned buses and tried to integrate the public parks. He led voter registration drives, and used boycotts to integrate Leake County schools and the Mississippi State Fair.
Evers's civil rights leadership, along with his investigative work, made him a target of white supremacists. Following the Brown v. Board of Education decision, local whites founded the White Citizens' Council in Mississippi, and numerous local chapters were started, to resist the integration of schools and facilities. In the weeks before Evers was killed, he encountered new levels of hostility. His public investigations into the 1955 lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and his vocal support of Clyde Kennard, had made him a prominent black leader. On May 28, 1963, a Molotov cocktail was thrown into the carport of his home. On June 7, 1963, Evers was nearly run down by a car after he came out of the NAACP office in Jackson, Mississippi.
Medgar Evers lived with the constant threat of death. A large Ku Klux Klan and white supremacist population were present in Jackson and its suburbs. The risk was so high that before his death, Evers and his wife Myrlie had trained their children on what to do in case of a shooting, bombing or other kind of attack on their lives. Evers, who was regularly followed home by at least two FBI cars and one police car, arrived at his home on the morning of his death without an escort. None of his usual protection was present, for reasons unspecified by the FBI or local police. There has been speculation that many members of the police force at the time were members of the Klan.
In the early morning of June 12, 1963, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's nationally televised Civil Rights Address, Evers pulled into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers. Evers's family had worried for his safety that day, and Evers himself had warned his wife that he felt in greater danger than usual. When he arrived home, Evers's family was waiting for him and his children exclaimed to his wife, Myrlie, that he had arrived. Emerging from his car and carrying NAACP T-shirts that read "Jim Crow Must Go", Evers was struck in the back with a bullet fired from an Enfield 1917 rifle; the bullet ripped through his heart. Initially thrown to the ground by the impact of the shot, Evers rose and staggered 30 feet (10 meters) before collapsing outside his front door. His wife Myrlie was the first to find him. He was taken to the local hospital in Jackson, where he was initially refused entry because of his race. His family explained who he was and he was admitted; he died in the hospital 50 minutes later.[full citation needed] Evers was the first African American to be admitted to an all-white hospital in Mississippi, a questionable achievement for the dying activist. Mourned nationally, Evers was buried on June 19 in Arlington National Cemetery, where he received full military honors before a crowd of more than 3,000.
After Evers was assassinated, an estimated 5,000 people marched from the Masonic Temple on Lynch Street to the Collins Funeral Home on North Farish Street in Jackson. Allen Johnson, Reverend Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders led the procession. The Mississippi police came prepared with riot gear and rifles in case the protests turned violent. While tensions were initially high in the stand-off between police and marchers, both in Jackson and in many similar marches around the state, leaders of the movement maintained nonviolence among their followers.
On June 21, 1963, Byron De La Beckwith, a fertilizer salesman and member of the White Citizens' Council (and later of the Ku Klux Klan), was arrested for Evers's murder. District Attorney and future governor Bill Waller prosecuted De La Beckwith. All-white juries in February and April 1964 deadlocked on De La Beckwith's guilt and failed to reach a verdict. At the time, most blacks were still disenfranchised by Mississippi's constitution and voter registration practices; this meant they were also excluded from juries, which were drawn from the pool of registered voters.
Myrlie Evers never gave up the fight for a conviction of her husband's murderer. She waited until a new judge had been assigned in the county to take her case against De La Beckwith back into the courtroom. In 1994, De La Beckwith was prosecuted by the state based on new evidence. Bobby DeLaughter was the prosecutor. During the trial, the body of Evers was exhumed for an autopsy. De La Beckwith was convicted of murder on February 5, 1994, after having lived as a free man for much of the three decades following the killing. (He had been imprisoned from 1977 to 1980 on separate charges: conspiring to murder A.I. Botnick.) In 1997, De La Beckwith appealed his conviction in the Evers case, but the Mississippi Supreme Court upheld it. He died at age 80 in prison on January 21, 2001.
Evers was memorialized by leading Mississippi and national authors both black and white: James Baldwin, Margaret Walker, Eudora Welty, and Anne Moody. In 1963, Evers was posthumously awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP. In 1969, Medgar Evers College was established in Brooklyn, New York as part of the City University of New York.
Evers's widow Myrlie Evers co-wrote the book For Us, the Living with William Peters in 1967. In 1983, a television movie was made based on the book. Celebrating Evers's life and career, it starred Howard Rollins Jr. and Irene Cara as Medgar and Myrlie Evers, airing on PBS. The film won the Writers Guild of America award for Best Adapted Drama.
On June 28, 1992, the city of Jackson, Mississippi erected a statue in honor of Evers. All of Delta Drive (part of U.S. Highway 49) in Jackson was renamed in Evers's honor. In December 2004, the Jackson City Council changed the name of the city's airport to "Jackson-Medgar Wiley Evers International Airport" (Jackson-Evers International Airport) in his honor.
His widow Myrlie Evers became a noted activist in her own right, eventually serving as national chairperson of the NAACP. Medgar's brother Charles Evers returned to Jackson in July 1963, and served briefly with the NAACP in his slain brother's place. He remained involved in Mississippi civil rights activities for many years, and in 1969, was the first African-American mayor elected in the state. He now resides in Jackson.
On the 40-year anniversary of Evers's assassination, hundreds of civil rights veterans, government officials, and students from across the country gathered around his grave site at Arlington National Cemetery to celebrate his life and legacy. Barry Bradford and three students—Sharmistha Dev, Jajah Wu, and Debra Siegel, formerly of Adlai E. Stevenson High School in Lincolnshire, Illinois—planned and hosted the commemoration in his honor. Evers was the subject of the students' research project.
In October 2009, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, a former Mississippi governor, announced that USNS Medgar Evers (T-AKE-13), a Lewis and Clark-class dry cargo ship, would be named in the activist's honor. The ship was christened by Myrlie Evers-Williams on November 12, 2011.
In June 2013, a statue of Evers was erected at his alma mater, Alcorn State University, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of his death. Alumni and guests from around the world gathered to recognize his contributions to American society.
Evers was honored in a tribute at Arlington National Cemetery on the 50th anniversary of his death. Former President Bill Clinton, Attorney General Eric Holder, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Senator Roger Wicker, and NAACP President Benjamin Jealous all spoke commemorating Evers. Evers's widow, Myrlie Evers-Williams, spoke of his contributions to the advancement of civil rights:
Medgar was a man who never wanted adoration, who never wanted to be in the limelight. He was a man who saw a job that needed to be done and he answered the call and the fight for freedom, dignity and justice not just for his people but all people.
In popular cultureEdit
Musician Bob Dylan wrote his 1963 song "Only a Pawn in Their Game" about the assassination. Nina Simone wrote and sang "Mississippi Goddam" about the Evers case. Phil Ochs referred to Evers in the song "Love Me, I'm a Liberal" and wrote the songs "Another Country" and "Too Many Martyrs" (also titled "The Ballad of Medgar Evers") in response to the killing. Matthew Jones and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Freedom Singers recorded a version of the latter song. Wadada Leo Smith's album Ten Freedom Summers contains a track called "Medgar Evers: A Love-Voice of a Thousand Years' Journey for Liberty and Justice".
Essays and booksEdit
Attorney Robert DeLaughter wrote a first-person narrative article entitled "Mississippi Justice" published in Reader's Digest about his experiences as state prosecutor in the murder trial. He added to this account in a book, Never Too Late: A Prosecutor's Story of Justice in the Medgar Evers Case (2001).
The film Ghosts of Mississippi (1996), directed by Rob Reiner, explores the 1994 trial of Beckwith in which prosecutor DeLaughter of the Hinds County District Attorney's office secured a conviction in state court. Beckwith and DeLaughter were played by James Woods and Alec Baldwin, respectively; Whoopi Goldberg played Myrlie Evers. Evers was portrayed by James Pickens Jr. The film was based on a book of the same name.
The documentary I Am Not Your Negro (2016) about author James Baldwin, recounts his reaction in 1963 to Evers's assassination. He returned to the United States from Paris to work on the struggle for rights.
- Evers, Charles; Szanton, Andrew (1997). Have no fear: the Charles Evers story. p. 5. OCLC 60191485.
- Ellis, Kate; Smith, Stephen (2011). "State of Siege: Mississippi Whites and the Civil Rights Movement". American Public Media. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- "James Charles Evers", Black Past
- "Medgar W. Evers – Civil Rights Activist". mememorial.org. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11.
- Williams, Reggie. (2005, July 2). "Remembering Medgar," Afro King - American Red Star, p. A.1. Retrieved October 26, 2009, from Black Newspapers.
- Sina, “Freedom Hero: Medgar Wiley Evers.” The My Hero Project, 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
- Evers-Williams, Myrlie; Marable, Manning (2005). The Autobiography of Medgar Evers: A Hero's Life and Legacy Revealed Through His Writings, Letters and Speeches. Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-02177-8.
- Arroyo, Elizabeth (2006). Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History (2nd ed.). p. 738.
- Harvard University W.E.B. Du Bois Institute. "EVERS, MEDGAR (2 JULY 1925 - 12 JUNE 1963), CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST, WAS..." dubois.fas.harvard.edu.
- Padgett, John B., “Medgar Evers”. The Mississippi Writers Page, University of Mississippi. 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- THOMAS, United States Library of Congress (June 9, 2003). "Commending Medgar Wiley Evers and his widow, Myrlie Evers-Williams for their lives and accomplishments, designating a Medgar Evers National Week of Remembrance, and for other purposes (Introduced in Senate - IS)". thomas.loc.gov.
- Dustin Cardon; Jackson Free Press (January 21, 2013). "Myrlie Evers-Williams". jacksonfreepress.com.
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (June 24, 2013). "NAACP HISTORY: MEDGAR EVERS". naacp.org. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013.
- Wesleyan University (June 24, 2013). "Medgar Evers: July 2, 1925-June 12, 1963" (PDF). wesleyan.edu.
- Hayden Lee Hinton; AuthorHouse (2010). America Taken Hostage. books.google.com. p. 121. ISBN 978-1438985800.
- David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, T.R.M. Howard: Doctor, Entrepreneur, Civil Rights Pioneer (Oakland: Independent Institute, 2018), pp. 88-93.
- Myra Ribeiro (1 October 2001). The Assassination of Medgar Evers. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8239-3544-4. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Nikki L. M. Brown; Barry M. Stentiford (September 30, 2008). The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African American History. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 277–78. ISBN 978-0-313-34181-6. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Wynne, Ben (2011). Black America: A State-By-State Historical Encyclopedia. p. 436.
- Dorian Randall (June 17, 2013). Medgar Evers: Direct Action. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Hank Johnson (January 21, 2013). "H.Res.1022 - Honoring the life and sacrifice of Medgar Evers and congratulating the United States Navy for naming a supply ship after Medgar Evers". beta.congress.gov.
- Bates, Karen Grigsby. "Trials & Transformation: Myrlie Evers' 30-Year Fight to Convict Medgar's Accused Killer", Emerge 02 1994: 35. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2017
- Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell Pub., 1976. Print
- Birnbaum, p. 490.
- Orejel, Keith. "The Federal Government's Response to Medgar Evers's Funeral," Southern Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 2/3, Winter/Spring2012, pp. 37-54. EBSCOhost, www.pierce.ctc.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=85882790&scope=site.
- O'Brien, M. J. (March 1, 2013). We Shall Not Be Moved: The Jackson Woolworth's Sit-In and the Movement It Inspired. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 118. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Medgar Evers home tour Archived 2013-12-19 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 25, 2013
- Dufresne, Marcel (October 1991). "Exposing the Secrets of Mississippi Racism". American Journalism Review.
- Jerry Mitchell (The Clarion-Ledger) (June 2, 2013). "Medgar Evers: Assassin's gun forever changed a family". USA Today.
- "White Supremacist Indicted for Third Time in Shooting Death of Medgar Evers". Jet (vol. 79 no. 12). January 7, 1991.
- Baden, M. M. (2006): Chapter III: Time of Death and Changes after Death. Part 4: Exhumation. In: Spitz, W. U. & Spitz, D. J. (eds): Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death. Guideline for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations (Fourth edition), Charles C. Thomas, pp. 174-83; Springfield, Illinois.
- Batten, Donna (2010). Gale Encyclopedia of American Law (3rd ed.). p. 266.
- "Deliverance." People Weekly Feb 21 1994: 60. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2017
- "Unfinished Business." U.S.News & World Report Jan 24 1994: 14. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2017
- Minrose Gwin"Mourning Medgar: Justice, Aesthetics, and the Local", Southern Spaces, 2008.
- "NAACP Spingarn Medal". Naacp.org. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "For Us the Living: The Medgar Evers Story". www.allrovi.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- "Seattle Parks and Recreation History of Medgar Evers pool" (PDF). Seattle Parks and Recreation History. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 16, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- "Jackson-Medgar Wiley Evers International Airport". Jackson Municipal Airport Authority. 2013. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "NAACP Chairwoman Myrlie Evers-Williams Will Not Seek Re-Election". Jet. 1998-03-02. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Charles Evers's biography, PBS". Pbs.org. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Medgar Evers", Arlingon Cemetery. Note: Bradford later was notable for his work in helping reopen the Mississippi Burning and Clyde Kennard cases.
- Lottie L. Joiner (July 2003), "The nation remembers Medgar Evers", The Crisis, 110(4), 8. Retrieved October 26, 2009 from Research Library Core.
- Mabus, Ray, "The Navy Honors a Civil Rights Pioneer." Archived 2009-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. The White House Blog. October 9, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- "A Memorial for Medgar", San Diego Union-Tribune, November 13, 2011.
- Therese Apel (June 12, 2013). "Mississippi marks 50th anniversary of Medgar Evers' death". reuters.com.
- Krissah Thompson (June 5, 2013). "Memorial service for Medgar Evers held at Arlington National Cemetery". washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013.
- Ashley Southall (June 5, 2013). "Paying Tribute to a Seeker of Justice, 50 Years After His Assassination". nytimes.com.
- Valerie Bonk; Associated Press (June 5, 2013). "HOLDER PRAISES SLAIN BLACK ACTIVIST MEDGAR EVERS". bigstory.ap.org.
- Associated Press (June 5, 2013). "Medgar Evers honored at Arlington National Cemetery". The Clarion-Ledger.
- "Interior Department Announces 24 New National Historic Landmarks | U.S. Department of the Interior". Doi.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
- "NAACP Evers biography". Naacp.org. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Ten Freedom Summers". Cuneiform Records. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Eudora Welty, "Where Is The Voice Coming From?", The New Yorker, July 6, 1963.
- Never Too Late: A Prosecutor's Story of Justice in the Medgar Evers Case. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743223393. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Vollers, Maryanne (April 1995). Ghosts of Mississippi: the murder of Medgar Evers, the trials of Byron de la Beckwith and the haunting of the new South. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-91485-7. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- "Biography of Bobby B. DeLaughter". 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- Young, Deborah (September 20, 2016). "‘I Am Not Your Negro’: Film Review | TIFF 2016". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Gwin, Minrose (2013). Remembering Medgar Evers: Writing the Long Civil Rights Movement. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820335636.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Medgar Evers.|
- SNCC Digital Gateway: Medgar Evers, Documentary website created by the SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University, telling the story of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee & grassroots organizing from the inside-out
- JFK First Draft Condolence Letter to Medgar Evers’ Widow, June 12, 1963 Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- Audio recording of T. R. M. Howard's eulogy at the memorial service for Medgar Evers, June 15, 1963, Jackson, Mississippi.
- Myrlie Evers (28 June 1963). 'He said he wouldn't mind dying - if...'. LIFE. pp. 34–47.
- Medgar Evers in the U.S. Federal Census American Civil Rights Pioneers
- Medgar Evers biography at africawithin.com
- Medgar Evers on IMDb
- FBI article: Civil Rights in the ‘60s: Justice for Medgar Evers
- Medgar Evers's FBI file hosted at the Internet Archive
- Medgar Evers at Find a Grave Retrieved February 22, 2010