Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] (listen)) is situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. With 5 million inhabitants in 2012, it is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city).
|Established||27 May 1703|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Alexander Beglov (UR)|
|• Total||1,439 km2 (556 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-SPE|
|License plates||78, 98, 178, 198|
It was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703 and served as a capital of Russian Tsardom and subsequent Russian Empire in 1713-1918 (being replaced by Moscow for a short period of time in 1728-1730). After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks moved their government to Moscow.
In modern times, Saint Petersburg is considered the Northern Capital and serves as a home to some federal government bodies such as the Constitutional Court of Russia and Heraldic Council of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also a seat for National Library of Russia and a planned location for the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, so it's also referred to as Russia's Culture Capital. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Economy
- 7 Cityscape
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Dramatic Theatre
- 10 Media and communications
- 11 Culture
- 12 Education
- 13 Sports
- 14 Infrastructure
- 15 Famous people
- 16 Crime
- 17 Twin towns and sister cities
- 18 See also
- 19 Notes
- 20 References
- 21 External links
A proponent of westernising Russia, Peter the Great, who established the city, originally named it Sankt-Pieter-Burch (Сан(к)т-Питер-Бурхъ) in Dutch manner and later its spelling was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербу́ргъ;[a] the Russian name lacks the letter s between Peter and burg) under German influence. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д[a], IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German words Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned by citywide referendum. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents often refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter (Russian: Пи́тер, IPA: [ˈpʲitʲɪr]).
The city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to the West and the Window to Europe. The northernmost metropolis in the world, St. Petersburg is often called the Venice of the North or Russian Venice due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. Furthermore, St. Petersburg has strongly European-inspired architecture and culture, which is combined with the city's Russian heritage. Another nickname of St. Petersburg is The City of White Nights because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the closeness to the polar region and ensures that in summer the nights of the city do not get completely dark for a month. Just as Venice is associated with romance, in St. Petersburg the White Nights have a high value for couples in love.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Imperial era (1703–1917)Edit
Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was then called Ingermanland, which was inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians. The small town of Nyen grew up around it.
At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport to trade with the rest of Europe. He needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May [O.S. 1 May] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf),[clarification needed] on Zayachy (Hare) Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city.
The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; a number of Swedish prisoners of war were also involved in some years under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704.
During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.
The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great.
In 1725, Peter died at age fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka.
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt (which is considered the main street of the city), Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture.
Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the reign of Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Blagoveshchensky Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that, only pontoon bridges were allowed. Obvodny Canal (dug in 1769–1833) became the southern limit of the city.
The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included:
- Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (Imperial Academy of Arts, Small Hermitage, Gostiny Dvor, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St. Catherine)
- Antonio Rinaldi (Marble Palace)
- Yury Felten (Old Hermitage, Chesme Church)
- Giacomo Quarenghi (Academy of Sciences, Hermitage Theatre, Yusupov Palace)
- Andrey Voronikhin (Mining Institute, Kazan Cathedral)
- Andreyan Zakharov (Admiralty building)
- Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (Spit of Vasilievsky Island)
- Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrine Theatre, Senate and Synod Buildings, General staff Building, design of many streets and squares)
- Vasily Stasov (Moscow Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral)
- Auguste de Montferrand (Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column)
In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher learning institution, the Saint Petersburg Main military engineering School in Saint Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Gate.
By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station).
With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt), river and sea port.
The names of Saints Peter and Paul, bestowed upon original city's citadel and its cathedral (from 1725—a burial vault of Russian emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated Russian Emperors, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a conspiracy led by his wife, Catherine the Great) and Paul I (1801, Nicholas Zubov and other conspirators who brought to power Alexander I, the son of their victim). The third emperor's assassination took place in Saint Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II fell victim to terrorists (see the Church of the Savior on Blood).
The Revolution of 1905 began in Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces.
Revolution and Soviet era (1917–1941)Edit
On 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917, the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace in an event known thereafter as the October Revolution, which led to the end of the post-Tsarist provisional government, the transfer of all political power to the Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party. After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions", referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early 20th century.
In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion. On 12 March 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing Civil War, in 1919 general Yudenich advancing from Estonia repeated the attempt to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced him to retreat.
On 26 January 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, including the cruiser Aurora—a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. Constructivist architecture flourished around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (kommunalkas). By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favour of a more pompous Stalinist architecture. Moving the city centre further from the border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter (Soviet-Finnish) war in 1939–1940, the Soviet–Finnish border moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city centre.
In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944).
On 1 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge. In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin's purges.
World War II (1941–1945)Edit
During World War II, German forces besieged Leningrad following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The siege lasted 872 days, or almost two and a half years, from 8 September 1941 to 27 January 1944.
The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history. It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the lake literally froze. More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated.
On 1 May 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander Order No. 20, named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, hero cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on 8 May 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War), during the Brezhnev era. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded Leningrad as a Hero City the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985.
Post-war Soviet era (1945–1991)Edit
In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, which had passed to the USSR from Finland in 1940 under the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. These included the town of Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948). Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the north as well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad.
Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (exonerated in 1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions. They were accused of Russian nationalism.
The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze. However, after Stalin's death in 1953, the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture were abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre to live in separate apartments.
Contemporary era (1991–present)Edit
On 12 June 1991, simultaneously with the first Russian presidential elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the name of the city, when the name reverted to Saint Petersburg. The turnout was 65%; 66.13% of the total count of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the first directly elected mayor of the city.
Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food aid from abroad. This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. Economic conditions began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st century. In 1995 a northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground flooding, creating a major obstacle to the city development for almost ten years. On 13 June 1996 Saint Petersburg, alongside Leningrad Oblast and Tver Oblast, signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement was abolished on 4 April 2002.
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000 Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited restoration of the broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko.
The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage. In 2006 the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city.
Although the central part of the city has a UNESCO designation (there are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial. After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the historical centre was permitted. In 2006 Gazprom announced an ambitious project to erect a 403 m (1,322 ft) skyscraper (the Okhta Center) opposite to Smolny, which[according to whom?] could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg landscape. Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of Russia against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for this project. In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta, a historical area northwest of the city centre, and the new project would be named Lakhta Center. Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012. The 462 m (1,516 ft) high Lakhta Center has become the first tallest skyscraper in Russia and Europe outside of Moscow.
The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 km2 (233.9 square miles). The area of the federal subject is 1,439 km2 (556 sq mi), which contains Saint Petersburg proper (consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs), nine municipal towns – (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk) – and twenty-one municipal settlements.
Petersburg is on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky Island (besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular resort area. In the south Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau.
The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of 175.9 m (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 m (13 ft) above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay. The five most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (4.21 m or 13 ft 10 in above sea level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed[b]), 1924 (3.8 m, 12 ft 6 in), 1777 (3.21 m, 10 ft 6 in), 1955 (2.93 m, 9 ft 7 in), and 1975 (2.81 m, 9 ft 3 in). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed.
Since the 18th century the city's terrain has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 m (13 ft), making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes.
Due to its northerly location at ca. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50 minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all night is called the white nights.
Saint Petersburg is about 165 km (103 miles) from the border with Finland, connected to it via the M10 highway.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. Distinct moderating influence of the Baltic Sea cyclones result in warm, humid and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki, although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location.
The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F), and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C (16.7 °F); an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. A winter minimum of −35.9 °C (−32.6 °F) was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is 5.8 °C (42.4 °F). The Neva River within the city limits usually freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 118 days average with snow cover, which reaches an average snow depth of 19 cm (7.5 in) by February. The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow's due to the Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local toponymy is the story of the city's name. The name day of Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of Saint Apostles Peter and Paul. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names (its construction began at the same time as the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress, while St. Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. In June 1703 Peter the Great gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh (an emulation of Dutch topografical suffix -burg, which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile) which was subsequently russified.
A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too cumbersome, and many shortened versions were used. The first General Governor of the city Menshikov is maybe also the author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called Петри (Petri). It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. In 1740s Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of Greek: Πετρόπολις (Petropolis; Петрополис, Petropolis) in a Russified form Petropol' (Петрополь). A combo Piterpol (Питерпол) also appears at this time. In any case, eventually the usage of prefix "Sankt-" ceased except for the formal official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (SPb) was very widely used as well.
In the 1830s Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of "Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd in one of his poems. However, it was only on 31 August [O.S. 18 August] 1914, after the war with Germany had begun, that Tsar Nicholas II renamed the capital to Petrograd. Since the prefix "Saint" was omitted, this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from Apostle Peter to Peter the Great, its founder.
After the October Revolution the name Red Petrograd (Красный Петроград, Krasny Petrograd) was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924.
A referendum on reversing the renaming of Leningrad was held on 12 June 1991, with 54.86% of voters (with a turnout of 65%) supporting "Saint Petersburg". Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option. This change officially took effect on 6 September 1991. Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint Petersburg is still named Leningrad.
Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya ("first-throned") for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in Soviet-era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here. For their part, poetic names of the city, like the "Venice of the North" and the "Northern Palmyra" emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northern location of this megalopolis. Petropolis is a translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive name: Πέτρ- is a Greek root for "stone", so the "city from stone" emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for construction from the very first years of the city. (Its official Greek name is Αγία Πετρούπολη.)
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017 Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the total population of Russia; up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the 2010 Census, and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census.
- Vital statistics for 2016
The 2010 Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: Russian 80.1%, Ukrainian 1.3%, Belarusians 0.8%, Tatar 0.6%, Armenian 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%, Uzbek 0.4%, Tajik 0.3%, Azeri 0.3%, Georgian 0.2%, Moldovan 0.2%, Finns 0.1%, other – 1.3%. The ethnicity of the remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified.
During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916, its population dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s. From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death or were evacuated during the Siege of Leningrad. Some evacuees returned after the siege, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million. For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000 and remained lower than the death rate(until the 2012); people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years. Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the death rate.
People in urban Saint Petersburg lived mostly in apartments. Between 1918 and the 1990s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced residents to share communal apartments (kommunalkas). With 68% living in shared flats in the 1930s, Leningrad was the city in the USSR with the largest number of kommunalkas. Resettling residents of kommunalkas is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are still not uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the 1950s–1980s, over half a million low-income families eventually received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand condos were purchased. While economic and social activity is concentrated in the historic city centre, the richest part of Saint Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas.
The previous table showing religious membership within Saint Petersburg shows that roughly half of the population are Russian Orthodox.
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia (a federal city). The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The superior executive body is the Saint Petersburg City Administration, led by the city governor (mayor before 1996). Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly, which is the city's regional parliament.
According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures. Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August 2011. Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law, restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor. On 3 October 2018, Poltavchenko resigned, and Alexander Beglov was appointed acting governor.
Saint Petersburg city is divided into eighteen districts. Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. The Constitutional Court of Russia moved to Saint Petersburg from Moscow in May 2008.
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services.
Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic); it was founded by machine tool and boiler maker G.A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910.
Ten per cent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorskiye Zavody; also registered in Saint Petersburg are Sovkomflot, Petersburg Fuel Company and SIBUR among other major Russian and international companies.
Saint Petersburg has three large cargo seaports: Bolshoi Port Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov. International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island. In 2008 the first two berths opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new port is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and is due to have seven berths in operation by 2010.
A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway.
The Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and badges. Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace public parks of Saint Petersburg, as well as many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world-famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were made there.
In 2007, Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern suburbs of Saint Petersburg. Opel, Hyundai and Nissan have also signed deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint Petersburg. Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade.
Saint Petersburg has a large brewery and distillery industry. Known as Russia's "beer capital" due to the supply and quality of local water, its five large breweries account for over 30% of the country's domestic beer production. They include Europe's second largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev).
The city's many local distilleries produce a broad range of vodka brands. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the youngest is Russian Standard Vodka introduced in Moscow in 1998, which opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an area of 30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft), production rate of 22,500 bottles per hour). In 2007 this brand was exported to over 70 countries.
Saint Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction.
In 2006 Saint Petersburg's city budget was 180 billion rubles (about 7 billion US$ at 2006 exchange rates), and is planned to double by 2012. The federal subject's Gross Regional Product as of 2016[update] was 3.7 trillion Russian rubles (or around US$70 billion), ranked 2nd in Russia, after Moscow and per capita of US$13,000, ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects, contributed mostly by wholesale and retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications (15.1%).
Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles (about 10.044 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates), expenses – 336.3 billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates). The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. (about 1.433 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates)
By 2015, St. Petersburg takes the 4th place on economy scales among all subjects of the Russian Federation, conceding only to Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region.
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m), Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all far from the historical centre. Regulations forbid construction of tall buildings in the city centre. The 310-meter (1,020 ft) tall Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. In 2008, the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically. The Okhta Center project was cancelled at the end of 2010 and the Lakhta Center project began in the city's outskirts. The complex will include 463-metre-tall (1,519-foot) office skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy and, unlike the previous unbuilt project, is not seen by UNESCO as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is far from the historical centre. The building was completed in 2019, and at 462.5 metres is currently the tallest in Russia and Europe.
Unlike in Moscow, the historic architecture of Saint Petersburg's city centre, mostly Baroque and neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad and in recent years. The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built for Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the Neva near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast have been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes a dominant position on Zayachy Island along the right bank of the Neva River. Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University.
On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the baroque Winter Palace, former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace. The Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city's main square with the Alexander Column. Nevsky Prospekt, also on the left bank of the Neva, is the city's main avenue. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge), Garden Street, the Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House (former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, Russian National Library, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin's statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all along that avenue.
The Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Christian education in Russia. It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Petersburgers. On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located.
Many notable landmarks are to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square, also known as Decembrist's Square with the Bronze Horseman, 18th century equestrian monument to Peter the Great, which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols.
Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city.
Every night during the navigation period from April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule. It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva, which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. The most remarkable bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, Western High-Speed Diameter. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets.
Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which has a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of Europe's largest English-style parks. Some other residences nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to Leningrad Oblast rather than Saint Petersburg. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses.
The 18th and 19th century architectural ensemble of the city and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons (including large-scale destruction during World War II and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centres of Europe), Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries. Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped it retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city centre.
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000 outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture. New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage.
The city has 221 museums, 2000 libraries, more than 80 theatres, 100 concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas and around 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones.
Despite the economic instability of the 1990s, not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in 1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and Pushkin's Petersburg. The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its rich collection of Russian art, but also the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation.
The musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals.
Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of famous and prominent Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman, who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word.
St Petersburg has a number of dramatic theatres and drama schools. These include the Student Theatre on Mokhovaya street. Учебный театр «На Моховой», Leteiny Theatre and Youth Theatre on the Fontanka.
Media and communicationsEdit
All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014 Rostelecom, the national operator announced it began a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.
- Television networks that can be received in the city
- Radio stations
- "Russian (Russkoye) Radio"
- "Europa Plus"
- "NRJ (Russia)"
- "Radio Maximum"
- "Voice of Russia (in English)"
- "Radio Freedom (Svoboda)"
- "Megapolis FM"
- "Radio Kultura (Culture)"
- "Pioneer FM"
- "Komsomolskaya Pravda"
- "Monte Carlo"
- "Love Radio"
- "Govorit Moskva"
- "Radio Dacha"
- "Nashe Radio"
- "Radio 7"
- "Humor FM"
- "Retro FM"
- "Keks FM"
- "Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)"
- "Voyage FM"
- "Kino FM"
- "Finam FM"
- "First Popular"
- "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"
- "Radio Sport"
- "Radio Rossii"
- "Radio Podmoskovye"
- "Radiocompany Moscow"
- "Business FM"
- "Moya Semia (My Family)"
- "Fresh Radio"
- "Silver Rain"
- "Echo of Moscow"
- "Radio Jazz"
- "Classic Radio"
- "Vesti FM"
- "City FM"
- "Relax FM"
- "Kommersant FM"
- "Rock FM"
- "Children's Radio"
- "Radio Alla"
- "Best FM"
- "Next FM"
- "Hit FM"
- "Radio Record"
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. The largest is the Hermitage Museum that features the interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art. The Russian Museum is a large museum devoted to Russian fine art. The apartments of some famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums.
The Kunstkamera, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The Russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former Soviet Union and Russian Empire.
A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the USSR.
Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental Museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms and decorations.
Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the world-famous Mariinsky Theatre (also known as the Kirov Theatre in the USSR), home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet.
The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, was founded in 1862 by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp, Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it additional fame. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony". He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few months later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before. The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras, especially for the performance of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modelled after the royal courts of other European capitals.
Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the 1920s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky. The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the 1950s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha to become the first popular band in the USSR during the 1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium, which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed.
In the 1970s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to bands such as DDT, Kino, headed by Viktor Tsoi, Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, Secret, and many other popular bands. The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The annual International Music Festival SKIF (Sergey Kuriokhin International Festival) is named after him. In 2004 the Kuryokhin Center was founded, were the SKIF as well as the Electro-Mechanica and Ethnomechanica festivals take place. SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music, Electro-Mechanica on electronic music, and Ethnomechanica on world music.
Today's Saint Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean, and Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov, and Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, and emocore, and there are bands such as Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata, Grenouer and Animal Jazz.
Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. Well over a thousand feature films about tsars, revolution, people and stories set in Saint Petersburg have been produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the 1920s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The cult comedy Irony of Fate (also Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!) is set in Saint Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film White Nights received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union by Western production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies include GoldenEye (1995), Midnight in Saint Petersburg (1996), Brother (1997) and Tamil romantic thriller film-Dhaam Dhoom (2008). Onegin (1999) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM, intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg, as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in 1988 during the White Nights.
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It often appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind, these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoyevsky. Another important feature of early Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint Petersburg.
20th-century writers from Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers created entire new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of society through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable 20th-century writer from Saint Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
As of 2006[update]/2007 there were 1024 kindergartens, 716 public schools and 80 vocational schools in Saint Petersburg. The largest of the public higher education institutions is Saint Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. Other famous universities are Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Herzen University, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance and Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university. However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city.
In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet. Yachting events were held by the Russian Navy since the foundation of the city. Yacht clubs: St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats.
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh, among others.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall.
Kirov Stadium with a capacity of 70 thousand seats (now a modern Gazprom Arena since 2017) which will host 2018 FIFA World Cup matches was one of the largest stadiums in the world and home to FC Zenit Saint Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. In 1984, 2007, 2010 and 2011/2012, Zenit were the champions of the Soviet and Russian leagues, respectively, and won the Russian Cup in 1999 and 2010, the UEFA Cup 2007–08 season and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup. The team leader was local player Andrei Arshavin.
Hockey teams in the city include SKA Saint Petersburg in the KHL, HC VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs SKA-1946 and Silver Lions in the Russian Major League. SKA Saint Petersburg is one of the most popular in the KHL, consistently being at or near the top of the league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice. Well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev, Sergei Shirokov and Viktor Tikhonov. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg.
The city's long-time basketball team is BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. BC Spartak Saint Petersburg won two championships in the USSR Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Cup title (2011). They also won the Saporta Cup twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin. The city also has a new basketball team, BC Zenit Saint Petersburg.
2018 FIFA World CupEdit
In 2018, Saint Petersburg hosted several matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. It hosted group stage games, a round of 16 game, a semi-final and a third place match. All games were played at Krestovsky Stadium. The Konyushennaya Square served as a venue for the FIFA Fan Fest.
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport infrastructure has kept pace with the city's growth. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro, and is home to several riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wider world by several federal highways and national and international rail routes. Pulkovo Airport serves most of the air passengers departing from or arriving to the city.
Roads and public transportEdit
Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main mean of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5 lines with 69 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.3 million passengers daily. Metro stations are often elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze.
As of 2018, the Saint Petersburg Metro will include new stations: Prospekt Slavy, Dunayskaya, Shushary, Begovaya, and Novokrestovskaya, the latter built specifically to offer convenient access to the stadium during the 2018 FIFA World Cup games and games played by FC Zenit.
Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped reduce the traffic in the city. The controversial M11, also known as the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Motorway, would connect Saint Petersburg and Moscow by a freeway and is expected to be complete before the Russia FIFA World Cup 2018. Construction began in 2010 and the first sections of the freeway were finished in 2014 and 2015.
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kiev and Odessa and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes (north) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv (south).
Saint Petersburg public transportation statisticsEdit
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 min. 19.6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 16.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 15.% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways.
The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, a 2,824-meter (9,265 ft) long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, opened in 2004. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Petergof, Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk from May through October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis maneuver the canals throughout the city.
The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky),[c] as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany and many former republics of the USSR. The Helsinki railway, built in 1870 and 443 kilometers (275 mi) long, has trains running five times a day, in a journey lasting about three and a half hours with the Allegro train.
In 2009 Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow–Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries. It set records for the fastest train in Russia on 2 May 2009, travelling at 281 km/h (174.6 mph) and on 7 May 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour (180 mph).
Since 12 December 2010 Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg's Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in significant delays and even cancel of tourists' trips.
Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport, and also by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs. Lappeenranta Airport, which is near Saint Petersburg but on the Finnish side of the border is also popular among Russian travellers.
Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in 1931. As of 2013[update], the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December 2013 and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of the Terminal 1 in 2015.
There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi service.
Saint Petersburg is home to many parks and gardens. Some of the most well-known are in the southern suburbs, including Pavlovsk, one of Europe's largest English gardens. Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying 240 ha. The Summer Garden is the oldest, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style. It is on the Neva's southern bank at the head of the Fontanka and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures.
Among other notable parks are the Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany in the Second World War, as well as the Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak, Norway maple, green ash, silver birch, Siberian Larch, blue spruce, crack willow, limes, and poplars. Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy.
In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is in the northwestern part of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts, 300 decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were planted. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.
The crime dynamic in Saint Petersburg is tightly associated with the general social situation in the country. A sharp spike in the crime level occurred in the late 1980s/early 1990s as a result of the Perestroika-time turmoils (redistribution of property, privatization, decline of living standards, decrease of the effectiveness of militsiya etc.) By then the city had fallen under the control of a number of organized criminal groups such as Tambov Gang, Malyshev Gang, Kazan Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket, extortion, paying off local government and violent clashes with each other.
After the assassinations of City Property Committee chairman and vice-Governor Mikhail Manevich (1997), State Duma deputy Galina Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov (1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople, Saint Petersburg was dubbed Capital of Crime in the Russian press. There were a number of movies filmed in Saint Petersburg about the life of crime, Bandit Petersburg and Brother, reinforcing its image as the Crime Capital of Russia.
According to official sources the number of crimes committed by foreigners in Saint Petersburg in 2010 increased by 11.1%. Law enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased number of people from some CIS republics who live in Saint Petersburg illegally. On the other hand, some media reported that in recent years there had been a notable increase in racially motivated violence, in particular towards foreign students. One of the notable white supremacist groups, Belaya Energia (White Energy, inspired by US "White Power" groups) has reportedly been one of the gangs involved in murdering foreign university students.
The official portal of the Government of Saint Petersburg provided data on significant improvements in the crime situation. In particular, it was reported the number of crimes against tourists had fallen by more than half during 2009–2011.
In 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT travellers about a vaguely worded law in Saint Petersburg that came into effect on 17 March 2012, making it a criminal offence to publicize acts of male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. The intention of the law is to protect minors. A Russian travel advisory on the Foreign Affairs website notes that while homosexuality is legal in Russia (it was decriminalized in 1993), LGBT Canadian travellers should avoid "displaying affection in public, as homosexuals can be targets of violence.... Public actions (including dissemination of information, statements, displays or conspicuous behaviour) contradicting or appearing to contradict this law may lead to arrest, prosecution and the imposition of a fine."
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
Milan and Venice were formerly twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda". Milan suspended the relationship with Saint Petersburg on 23 November 2012 and Venice did so on 28 January 2013.
- Fences in Saint Petersburg
- Flag of Saint Petersburg
- Hotels in Saint Petersburg
- List of buildings and structures in Saint Petersburg
- List of bridges in Saint Petersburg
- List of theatres in Saint Petersburg
- List of museums in Saint Petersburg
- List of Saint Petersburg Metro stations
- List of notable people from Saint Petersburg
- List of consulates in Saint Petersburg
- List of Saint Petersburg sister cities
- Outline of Saint Petersburg
- In the pre-1918 Russian orthography, these names were spelled Санктпетербургъ and Петроградъ with a trailing hard sign.
- The level of flooding is measured near Saint Petersburg Mining Institute, which is normally 11 cm (4.3 in) above sea level
- Until 2001, the Varshavsky Rail Terminal served as a major station; it now is a railway museum.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in Figures Archived 19 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Александр Беглов назначен врио Губернатора Санкт-Петербурга (in Russian). Rambler news. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (21 May 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- McColl, R.W., ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of world geography. 1. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 633–634. ISBN 978-0-8160-5786-3. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- V. Morozov. The Discourses of Saint Petersburg and the Shaping of a Wider Europe, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, 2002. ISSN 1397-0895
- "Exploring St. Petersburg / The Hermitage". Geographia.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- Schmemann, Serge. "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate".
- "Петроград – Энциклопедия "Вокруг света"". www.vokrugsveta.ru.
- "St. Petersburg | European Council". Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Entdecken Sie die Schönheit des Russischen Venedig - St. Petersburg (CB-02)".
- "Winter in St. Petersburg". www.autentic-distribution.com. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Doka, Konstantin Afanasʹevich. (1997). Saint Petersburg : the city of the white nights. Doka, Natalʹi︠a︡ Aleksandrovna., Vesnin, Sergeĭ., Williams, Paul. St. Petersburg: P-2 Art Publishers. ISBN 5890910310. OCLC 644640534.
- "The City of White Nights - Saint Petersburg". Designcollector. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "St.Petersburg White Nights Tour - Individual Tours to St Petersburg Russia". www.prioratours.com. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Wilson, Derek (2010). Peter the Great. Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 978-1429964678. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Williams, Harold (1914). Russia of the Russians. Pitman & Sons. p. 33. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-300-10300-7.
- "Peter and Paul Fortress". Saint-Petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Consulate General of Sweden – Sweden and Saint Petersburg". Swedenabroad.com. 17 October 2005. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "St Petersburg: Paris of the North or City of Bones?", The Independent. 8 July 2006 Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, architect in St. Petersburg, Russia". saint-petersburg.com.
- Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978)
- Rex A. Wade The Russian Revolution, 1917 2005 Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-84155-0[page needed]
- "The common characteristic of Saint-Petersburg". russia-travel.ws. 2005–2008. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Kann, Pavel Yakovlevich (1963). Leningrad: A Short Guide. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp. 132–133. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Ленинградская область в целом: Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области". Lenobltrans.narod.ru. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union, Barry McLoughlin and Kevin McDermott (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, p. 6
- "The Russian historian giving Stalin's victims back their identity". France 24. 29 January 2018.
- Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopædia Britannica[dead link]
- Baldack, Richard H. "Leningrad, Siege of", World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago, 2002, vol. 12, p. 195.[ISBN missing]
- Zubkova, Elena Yurievna (1998). "Chronology of Major Events". In Hugh Ragsdale (ed.). Russia after the war: hopes, illusions, and disappointments, 1945–1957. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-7656-0227-5.
- Orttung, Robert W. (1995). "Chronology of Major Events". From Leningrad to Saint Petersburg. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 273–277. ISBN 978-0-312-12080-1.
- Ollman, Leah (3 August 2001). "Russian Photos Trace Images of Mortality and Memory". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- Dunne, Aiden (17 May 2007). "Camera in a City of Shadows". The Irish Times. Dublin. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- "CАНКТ ПЕТЕРБУРГ ВАЛОВОЙ РЕГИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ПРОДУКТ в 1998–2003 гг" (PDF) (in Russian). gks.ru. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Newsline - June 14, 1996 Yeltsin Signs More Power-Sharing Agreements". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 June 1996. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146.
- Zagraevsky, Sergey (2008). "Will Saint Petersburg share the same fate as Moscow?". Zagraevsky.com. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Photos of the violations of the historical environment of Saint Petersburg". Rusarch.ru. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Nezhikhovsky, R.A. Река Нева и Невская губа [The Neva River and Neva Bay], Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "Climate St. Peterburg – Historical weather records". Tutiempo.net. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Архив погоды в Санкт-Петербурге, Санкт-Петербург". Rp5.ru. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Leningrad/Pulkovo Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate". The New York Times. 13 June 1991.
- Masters, Tom; Richmond, Simon (2015). Lonely Planet St Petersburg. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1743605035 – via Google Books.
- Nesterov, V. "Знаешь ли ты свой город" ("Do you know your city?"). Leningrad, 1958, p. 58.
- "31 August 1914 St.Petersburg renamed to Petrograd" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "St Petersburg, the 'Venice of the North', gets its own fleet of gondolas". The Independent. London. 29 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". gks.ru.
- "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". gks.ru.
- Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing" (PDF). The Journal of Modern History. 70 (4): 813–861. doi:10.1086/235168. ISSN 1537-5358. JSTOR 10.1086/235168.
- Chistyakova, N. Третье сокращение численности населения... и последнее? Demoscope Weekly 163 – 164, 1–15 August 2004.
- "Encyclopedia of Saint Petersburg" Chistyakov, A. Yu. Население (обзорная статья). Энциклопедия Санкт-Петербурга
- "В первом полугодии продолжалось умеренное повышение числа рождений". Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru.
- Russian statistics Основные показатели социально-демографической ситуации в Санкт-Петербурге
- "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
- 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
- "The Constitution of the Russian federation". Constitution.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Russian source: Charter of Saint Petersburg City". Gov.spb.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Федеральный закон от 02.05.2012 N 40-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации" и Федеральный закон "Об основных гарантиях избирательных прав и права на участие в референдуме граждан Российской Федерации"". garant.ru.
- "Закон Санкт-Петербурга от 26.06.2012 N 339-59". ppt.ru. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- "Official website of the Northwestern Federal District (Russian)". Szfo.ru. 25 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
- Discoverthebaltic.com Discover the Baltic online guide to Baltic cruise ports Archived 30 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "ЗАО "Терра-Нова" | Крупнейший в Европе проект по образованию и комплексному развитию территории в западной части Васильевского острова Санкт-Петербурга". Mfspb.ru. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Russian Standard Vodka Ranked 4th Fastest Growing Premium Spirits Brand Worldwide Impact, 2007. Archived 15 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Budget of Saint Petersburg (Russian document)". City of Saint Petersburg.
- "Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 1998–2016гг. (в текущих основных ценах; млн.рублей)". Gks.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения (в текущих основных ценах; рублей)". Gks.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Отраслевая структура ВРП по видам экономической деятельности (по ОКВЭД) за 2005 год". Gks.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Data of the Government of Saint-Petersburg
- "Passport of St. Petersburg Industrial Zones" (PDF). regionen-russland.de. 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2017.
- "St. Petersburg Historic Skyline, Russian Federation". Wmf.org. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "График разводки мостов на Неве в Санкт-Петербурге". Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- Hudyakov, Artyom (12 March 2008). Виртуальная защита Петербурга [Virtual protection of Petersburg] (in Russian). bn.ru/. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "Visit Saint Petersburg". Visit-Petersburg.ru. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Saint Petersburg Tourist Information Bureau". Petersburg.ru. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Welcome to Saint Petersburg!". Saint-Petersburg.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "National Geographic – Saint Petersburg, Russia". NationalGeographic.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Saint Petersburg is a Stroll Along A Lovely Canal". LonelyPlanet.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Fodor's Travel – Saint Petersburg, Russia". Fodors.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Rick Steve's Europe – Saint Petersburg, Russia". RickSteves.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Rostelecom to invest RUB 15 bln in St Petersburg". Telecom Paper. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Close (16 October 2005). "Where a symphony silenced guns". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Vulliamy, Ed (25 November 2001). "Orchestral manoeuvres (part one)". The Observer. London. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Рэпер Моргенштерн снялся в клипе группы Little Big" [Rapper Morgenstern starred in a music video of the group Little Big]. mgazeta.com (in Russian). Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "St. Petersburg, Russia"". IMDb. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "the irony of fate sat in st.petersburg". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- "The XIX International "Message To Man" Film Festival". IFC Centaur. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Joseph Brodsky. Less Than One: Selected Essays, 1986
- "ОТЧЕТ за 2006/2007 учебный год". Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "History of Yacht Clubs in Russia". Encspb.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Datsyuk adds KHL title to Stanley Cup victories".
- "Первый матч "Зенита" на Крестовском острове посетили 11 тыс. человек". www.dp.ru. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- "St. Petersburg Metro". Accessed 5 September 2015.
- "Moscow–St. Petersburg motorway believed to be opened by 2018". eurasiatx. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2017.Template:Update?
- "Saint Petersburg Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- "Бюпьюбяйхи Бнйгюк – Хярнпхъ". Russkialbum.ru. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Results of train ticket inquiry, Russian train schedules and Russian train tickets". RZD.com. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Sapsan claims Russian rail speed record". Railway Gazette International. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- "Allegro trains suffered from the biggest problems in its history". St. Petersburg Travel Guide. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- "Россия – российские авиалинии". Rossiya-airlines.com. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- (in Russian) Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Russian Mafia Shakes Down the Country by Steven R. Van Hook, Santa Barbara News-Press, 20 November 1994
- Trumbull, Nathaniel S. (2003) The impacts of globalization on Saint Petersburg: A secondary world city in from the cold? The Annals of Regional Science 37:533–546
- Powell, Bill & Brian Whitmore. The Capital Of Crime.(Saint Petersburg, Russia). Newsweek International, 15 May 2000.
- ""Banditskiy Peterburg: Advokat" (2000)". IMDb. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Brat (1997)". IMDb. 16 April 1998. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Crime preventing measures have made good results: An official portal of the administration of St. Petersburg". Gov.spb.ru. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Russia: Racist Attacks Plague St. Petersburg Radio Free Europe 30 September 2005
- Postmedia News (16 March 2012). "Canada warns gay travellers to Russia on heels of law banning homosexual "propaganda"". National Post. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Barcelona's Sister cities". 2008 Ajuntament de Barcelona (City council's webpage). Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Bethlehem Municipality". bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- "Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial" (in French). Mairie de Bordeaux. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures" (in French). Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "St. Petersburg to promote Cebu as tourism spot". Cebu Tourism News. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Colorful Daegu". Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Dresden Twin cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden (City of Dresden: Dresden.de). Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). 2009 Gdańsk. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
- "Stadt Graz: Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Twin Towns – Graz Online". graz.at. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- Erdem, Selim Efe (3 November 2003). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Archived from the original on 26 November 2004. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
49 sister cities in 2003
- "Le Havre Website – Twin Towns". (in English) 2006–2008 Ovidio Limited. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "Los Angeles City Council: Sister cities of Los Angeles". Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- "Friendship Agreements". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "International relations: Saint Petersburg". Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "City of Melbourne – International relations – Sister cities". City of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Osaka and the World, the official website of the Osaka city". Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Plovdiv Sister cities Archived 2 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP] (in Czech). Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"]. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Tenerife". Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Twinning Cities". City of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy" (in Polish). um.warszawa.pl. 4 May 2005. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "Zagreb Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "О городе Даугавпилс". Gorod.lv. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Tallinn Facts & Figures 2015" (PDF). Tallinn City Enterprise Department. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "Guide to Vilnuis". Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Yerevan – Partner Cities". 2005–2013 Yerevan. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities". 2005–2009 Yerevan. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- "Chairman of the Committee for External Relations of St. Petersburg". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Twinning with Palestine". Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Hungary-Russia sister cities". Vengria.ru. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Sister cities international". Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "US Africa Sister Cities Conference" (PDF). U.S. Africa sister cities foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Haifa agreement with partner" (in Russian). Mignews.com. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Sister cities:Saint Petersburg, Russia". Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- Florence, Jeanne. "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns] (in French). lehavre.fr. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "The city of Lviv, and its sister cities". Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- [dead link]
- "Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Sister partners of Oslo". Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Porto Alegre's International Sister Cities Program". Porto Alegre, RS. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "La Stampa – Torino-San Pietroburgo, c'è l'intesa sull'asse strategico". Lastampa.it. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Town of Westport, CT : Sister Cities Committee". westportct.gov.
- "Milan severs twin city ties with St Petersburg over 'homosexual propaganda' ban". The Telegraph. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti (23 November 2012). "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Gemellaggio tra Milano e San Pietroburgo: Consiglio comunale approva mozione che ne chiede la sospensione". Certidiritti.it. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti. "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Venezia approva mozione per la sospensione degli effetti del gemellaggio con San Pietroburgo". Certidiritti.it. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7.
- Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change. Montreal: McGuill-Queen's University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-7735-0266-1.
- Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8.
- Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
- Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-691-11349-1.
- Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
- Cross, Anthony (ed.). St. Petersburg, 1703–1825. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9.
- "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D'Amato in Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. ISBN 88-7980-355-7. (Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.
- George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0.
- Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.
- Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Helsinki: SKS Finnish literature Society, 2003. ISBN 951-746-491-6.
- Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10300-7.
- Duncan Fallowell, One Hot Summer in St Petersburg (London, Jonathan Cape,1995)
- Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN 0-679-76202-7.
- Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.[ISBN missing]
- Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-08323-4.
- Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. ISBN 0-312-17561-2.
- Richardson, Daniel; Humphreys, Robert (2004) . St. Petersburg: The Rough Guide (5th ed.). New York, London & Delhi: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-298-5. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Ruble, Blair A. Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87772-347-8.
- Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4.
- Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1.
- St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4
- Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. ISBN 1-59373-000-4.
- Ivanov, S.V. (2007). Unknown Socialist Realism: The Leningrad School. Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Edition. ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7..
- Nezhikhovsky, R.A. (1981). Река Нева и Невская губа [The Neva River and Neva Bay]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat.
- Vorhees, Mara (2008). St. Petersburg (5th ed.). Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-827-9. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Petersburg.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint Petersburg (Russia).|
- City Tourist Portal
- on YouTube by FIFA
- St Petersburg on In Our Time at the BBC
- St-Petersburg, Virtual Tour • 360° Aerial Panorama
- Bob Atchinson (2010). "Saint Petersburg, 1900: a photographic travelogue of the capital of Imperial Russia". Retrieved 9 February 2011 [50 photographs of St. Petersburg from "Travelogues" of Burton Holmes (Vol. 8, 1914) and other sources
- "Archived copy" Официальный портал администрации Санкт-Петербурга [The Official Portal of the Saint Petersburg City Authority] (in Russian). The Saint Petersburg City Authority: 191060, St. Petersburg, Smolny [Администрация Санкт-Петербурга 191060, СПб., Смольный]. 2001–2011. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 9 February 2011.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg". St. Petersburg: The Likhachov Foundation. 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2011 [3500 entries, 9200 personalities, 3500 addresses, 2000 pictures and 40 geographical maps, 3800 bibliographical references from the original "Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg" (SPb., Rosspen, 2004)]
- Байков В.Д. Ленинградские хроники: от послевоенных 50-х до "лихих 90-х". М. Карамзин, 2017. – 486 с., илл. – in English: Leningrad Chronicles: from the postwar fifties to the "wild nineties" ISBN 978-5-00071-516-1