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Rowing at the Summer Olympics

Rowing at the Summer Olympics has been part of the competition since its debut in the 1900 Summer Olympics. Rowing was on the program at the 1896 Summer Olympics but was cancelled due to bad weather.[1] Only men were allowed to compete until the women's events were introduced at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal which gave national federations the incentive to support women's events and catalysed growth in women's rowing.[2] Lightweight rowing events (which have weight-limited crews) were introduced to the games in 1996. Qualifying for the rowing events is under the jurisdiction of the International Rowing Federation (or FISA, its French acronym). FISA predates the modern Olympics and was the first international sport federation to join the modern Olympic movement.

Rowing at the Summer Olympics
Rowing pictogram.svg
Governing bodyFISA
Events14 (men: 7; women: 7)
Games

Contents

EventsEdit

At the 2016 and other recent Olympics the following 14 events were offered:

The lightweight events were threatened in 2002 when the Programme Commission of the IOC recommended that, outside combat sports (boxing & wrestling, but not fencing, shooting, and archery) and weightlifting, there should not be weight-category events. The Executive Board overturned this recommendation and the lightweight rowing has been continued.

To satisfy the IOC's aim for gender equality it has been proposed that from the 2020 Olympics onwards the men's lightweight fours will be removed and the women's coxless fours reintroduced. The IOC accepted that proposal in June 2017.[3]

In the early games (1900 and 1904) there were several other categories of events (Junior, Novice, Association, and Intermediate). A number of other boat classes have made an appearance at several games (sometimes for a long time) but have been subsequently dropped – as recently as the 1990s. The primary loss has been in boats with coxswains, except for the eights, which have always been coxed. These were:

  • Men's Coxed Pair (1900–1992)
  • Men's Coxed Four (1900–1992)
  • Women's Coxed Four (1976–1988)
  • Women's Coxed Quad Sculls (1976–1984)
  • Women's Coxless Four (1992 only)
  • Men's Coxed Four with Inriggers[4] (1912 only)
  • Six-Man Naval Rowing Boats (1906 only)
  • 17-Man Naval Rowing Boats (1906 only)

The non-Olympic boatclasses (which still compete in World Championships) are today LM1X, LM4X, LM2-, LM4-, LM8+, LW1X, LW4X, and M2+.

Race distancesEdit

Today all races are raced over a 2000 m course, but this did not become standard before the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. Before this it was raced over various distances. In Paris in 1900 (1750 m), in St. Louis in 1904 (3218 m), in London in 1908 (2412 m), and again in London in 1948 (1850 m). The 1908 and 1948 were held over the Henley Royal Regatta course.

Women's races were raced over 1,000 meters until 1988 when they were changed to 2,000 meters.[5]

Early games featured match races between two or three boats (in 1952, between four or five boats).

The modern six boat side-by-side format was first adopted at the 1936 Olympic Games, and has been the standard since the 1956 Olympic Games.

QualificationEdit

There is a limited number of crews permitted to race, so the International Rowing Federation holds qualification events in order to determine who competes at the Olympic Games. At the Olympic Games, each National Olympic Committee can only have one boat per event.

The main qualification comes from the previous year's World Rowing Championships. Other qualifying events are called "Continental Qualification Regattas", of which four are held during the year preceding the games - Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Final (open to everyone else). Each year FISA issues details of how many crews qualify at each regatta.

At the World Championships, the top finishing boats guarantee a place for that country - the rowers in the crew can be changed before the games. At the qualification regattas, it is the crew that wins that qualifies for the Olympics, and if members of that crew race in the Olympics they must race in that event.

Medal tableEdit

The numbers below are after the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  United States (USA)33322489
2  East Germany (GDR)337848
3  Great Britain (GBR)31241368
4  Germany (GER)23141451
5  Romania (ROM)1910938
6  Soviet Union (URS)12201042
7  Australia (AUS)11151440
8  New Zealand (NZL)1131024
9  Italy (ITA)10141438
10  Canada (CAN)9171541
11  France (FRA)8151437
12  Netherlands (NED)7121231
13  Switzerland (SUI)78924
14  Denmark (DEN)751224
15  West Germany (FRG)44614
16  United Team of Germany (EUA)4419
17  Poland (POL)431118
18  Norway (NOR)36817
19  Bulgaria (BUL)34714
20  Finland (FIN)3137
21  Czechoslovakia (TCH)22711
22  Belarus (BLR)2147
23  China (CHN)1449
24  Croatia (CRO)1315
  Czech Republic (CZE)1315
26  Slovenia (SLO)1135
  Yugoslavia (YUG)1135
28  Argentina (ARG)1124
29  South Africa (RSA)1113
  Ukraine (UKR)1113
31  Russia (RUS)1023
32  Belgium (BEL)0628
33  Austria (AUT)0325
34  Estonia (EST)0213
35  Sweden (SWE)0202
36  Uruguay (URU)0134
37  Greece (GRE)0123
  Hungary (HUN)0123
  Lithuania (LTU)0123
40  Ireland (IRL)0101
  Spain (ESP)0101
42  Unified Team (EUN)0011
Totals (42 nations)255255258768

Multiple medalistsEdit

The table shows those who have won at least 3 gold medals.

Athlete (nation) Olympics  Gold  Silver Bronze Total Notes
Elisabeta Lipă
  Romania
1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 5 2 1 8 20 years between first and last gold medal
Steve Redgrave
  Great Britain
1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 5 0 1 6 Gold medals in 1984 (M4+), 1988 (M2- with Andy Holmes), 1992 and 1996 (M2- with Matthew Pinsent) and 2000 (M4-). Only endurance athlete to win Olympic gold at five consecutive games.
Georgeta Damian
  Romania
2000, 2004, 2008 5 0 1 6 Won the pair and the eights in both 2000 and 2004, and the pair again in 2008
Doina Ignat
  Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 1 1 6 Part of Romania's three-straight gold medalist eight
Kathrin Boron
  Germany
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 0 1 5 Four straight Olympic golds. Bronze in her final Olympics in the Quadruple Sculls
Viorica Susanu
  Romania
1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 0 1 5 Won three medals in the women's eight, and two in the pair
Matthew Pinsent
  Great Britain
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 4 0 0 4 Four straight Olympic golds. Won with Steve Redgrave in the pair in 1992 and 1996. In the coxless four in 2000 and in 2004
Jack Beresford
  Great Britain
1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936 3 2 0 5 First rower to win a medal at 5 straight Olympics. WWII prevented the opportunity for a sixth medal
Constanța Burcică
  Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 3 1 1 5 Won three gold medals in the women's lightweight double sculls
Elena Georgescu
  Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 3 1 1 5 Coxswain of Romania's women's eight
Drew Ginn
  Australia
1996, 2004, 2008, 2012 3 1 0 4 Member of the Oarsome Foursome
Eskild Ebbesen
  Denmark
1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 3 0 2 5 Won all his medals in the lightweight coxless four
Marnie McBean
  Canada
1992, 1996 3 0 1 4 Along with rowing partner Kathleen Heddle, Canadian with the most gold medals
Kathleen Heddle
  Canada
1992, 1996 3 0 1 4 Won all her medals with rowing partner Marnie McBean
James Tomkins
  Australia
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 3 0 1 4 Most medaled Australian rower
John B. Kelly Sr.
  United States
1920, 1924 3 0 0 3 First rower to win 3 gold medals. Father of movie star turned princess Grace Kelly
Paul Costello
  United States
1920, 1924, 1928 3 0 0 3 First man to win 3 gold medals in the same event, the double sculls. Cousin of John B. Kelly Sr.
Vyacheslav Ivanov
  Soviet Union
1956, 1960, 1964 3 0 0 3 Won all his medals in the single sculls
Siegfried Brietzke
  East Germany
1972, 1976, 1980 3 0 0 3 First German triple gold medalist. Won in the pair and the coxless four
Pertti Karppinen
  Finland
1976, 1980, 1984 3 0 0 3 Won all his medals in the single sculls
Agostino Abbagnale
  Italy
1988, 1996, 2000 3 0 0 3 His brothers Carmine and Giuseppe each won 2 gold medals.
Liliana Gafencu
  Romania
1996, 2000, 2004 3 0 0 3 Won all three medals in Romania's women's eight
Elle Logan
  United States
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Won all three medals in USA women's eight
Pete Reed
  Great Britain
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Two wins in coxless four, then in eight
Andrew Triggs Hodge
  Great Britain
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Two wins in coxless four, then in eight

Men's eventsEdit

Women's eventsEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Current program
Single sculls 12
Double sculls 12
Quadruple sculls 12
Coxless pairs 12
Coxless fours 2
Eights 12
Lightweight Double sculls 7
Past events
Coxed fours 4
Events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7

NationsEdit

Number of rowers from each nation by year of Olympics, starting with 1896 (when none competed due to bad weather) then 1900 through 2016.

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
  Algeria (ALG)   1 2 1 3 1 2 6
  Angola (ANG)   2 1
  Argentina (ARG)   9 9 3 26 9 9 12 9 18 10 7 6 6 22 8 6 2 10 2 19
  Australasia (ANZ)   10 1
  Australia (AUS)   10 1 1 12 8 14 26 25 26 11 16 13 16 25 16 28 45 45 45 48 47 29 22
  Austria (AUT)   6 2 9 7 4 4 10 7 3 16 3 7 6 5 12 13 8 5 3 19
  Azerbaijan (AZE)   2 2 2
  Bahamas (BAH)   1 1
  Belarus (BLR)   17 10 11 13 5 10 6
  Belgium (BEL)   11 10 6 20 15 21 7 4 12 7 5 2 1 5 7 6 8 9 5 4 3 3 1 1 24
  Bermuda (BER)   1 1 2
  Bohemia (BOH)   2 1
  Brazil (BRA)   5 2 18 21 2 3 5 5 2 2 7 10 10 10 8 6 1 4 6 4 4 21
  Bulgaria (BUL)   5 8 33 52 34 15 5 4 6 3 2 11
  Cameroon (CMR)   1 1 2
  Canada (CAN)   9 13 10 5 14 11 16 10 11 15 13 15 16 14 16 46 54 40 27 32 30 32 35 30 26 25
  Chile (CHI)   1 3 1 9 2 6 2 2 1 4 10
  China (CHN)   9 11 22 13 10 17 31 18 17 9
  Chinese Taipei (TPE)   2 1 1 1 4
  Colombia (COL)   1 1
  Croatia (CRO)   7 8 13 6 4 5 3 7
  Cuba (CUB)   5 9 9 11 7 14 17 3 2 9 7 9 6 7 14
  Czech Republic (CZE)   5 1 16 14 12 10 6
  Czechoslovakia (TCH)   15 1 17 4 8 11 22 20 15 21 34 26 17 31 14
  Denmark (DEN)   15 1 10 16 25 25 7 16 14 10 12 7 7 10 3 13 13 10 12 10 10 13 22
  East Germany (GDR)   26 26 54 55 44 5
  Ecuador (ECU)   1 1
  Egypt (EGY)   1 8 16 1 7 2 6 5 2 9
  El Salvador (ESA)   1 2 2
  Estonia (EST)   1 7 1 3 7 7 6 4 8
  Finland (FIN)   6 5 26 5 12 7 2 3 7 1 3 5 3 2 2 15
  France (FRA)   47 17 14 23 26 5 19 22 17 13 16 22 17 18 17 16 23 12 25 21 23 21 21 14 18 25
  Germany (GER)   21 3 26 23 16 26 21 53 48 31 48 48 48 35 14
  Great Britain (GBR)   1 30 24 10 21 23 15 18 26 23 12 26 8 11 17 31 43 42 30 46 37 36 37 44 47 43 26
  Greece (GRE)   8 3 1 6 3 1 7 2 5 4 4 5 10 10 14
  Guatemala (GUA)   2 1 2
  Hong Kong (HKG)   3 1 3 3 4 3 4 7
  Honduras (HON)   1 1
  Hungary (HUN)   11 11 7 6 23 9 15 4 9 6 15 8 20 8 8 3 4 6 2 4 3 21
  India (IND)   2 1 3 3 1 5
  Independent Olympic Athletes (IOA)   2 1
  Indonesia (INA)   1 2 2
  Iran (IRI)   2 2 1 3
  Iraq (IRQ)   2 1 2
  Ireland (IRL)   9 1 10 11 3 1 6 4 6 9 1 5 12
  Italy (ITA)   1 1 6 17 26 20 22 26 26 21 26 18 14 21 15 5 22 27 21 32 28 31 20 20 27 25
  Japan (JPN)   6 14 16 5 9 14 26 10 3 9 6 12 13 11 8 4 4 5 4 19
  Kazakhstan (KAZ)   1 3 2 2 4
  Kenya (KEN)   1 1 2
  Kuwait (KUW)   1 1
  Latvia (LAT)   3 4 1 3
  Lebanon (LIB)   1 1
  Libya (LBA)   1 1
  Lithuania (LTU)   8 3 2 2 1 4 10 7
  Mexico (MEX)   1 2 3 25 9 1 1 3 2 5 2 5 3 3 2 2 16
  Monaco (MON)   5 1 1 3
  Myanmar (MYA)   1 1 2
  Netherlands (NED)   13 4 12 17 21 2 11 6 12 13 17 22 21 24 10 17 16 20 34 33 26 30 32 36 24
  Niger (NIG)   1 1
  New Zealand (NZL)   1 11 5 8 1 15 14 19 18 22 12 12 11 6 11 16 26 36 18
  Nigeria (NGR)   1 1
  North Korea (PRK)   6 1
  Norway (NOR)   9 24 13 1 14 9 2 5 16 14 12 9 6 11 6 3 1 5 5 19
  Pakistan (PAK)   3 1
  Paraguay (PAR)   2 1 2 3
  Peru (PER)   2 3 3 1 1 1 6
  Philippines (PHI)   1 1 2
  Poland (POL)   6 14 8 11 10 8 5 11 3 16 22 38 13 15 12 17 23 20 26 26 21
  Portugal (POR)   14 9 5 3 2 4 2 2 8
  Puerto Rico (PUR)   1 1 2
  Romania (ROU)   9 8 7 14 9 21 33 28 26 32 30 28 17 11 15 18 16
  Russia (RUS)   24 23 19 10 5 4 6
  Saar (SAA)   7 1
  Serbia (SRB)   3 6 4 3
  Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)   6 6 2
  Singapore (SIN)   1 1
  Slovakia (SVK)   2 1 2 3
  Slovenia (SLO)   6 7 8 9 10 2 6
  South Africa (RSA)   1 1 5 5 5 9 8 8 2 5 6 12 12
  South Korea (KOR)   9 5 28 2 4 3 2 5 4 2 10
  Soviet Union (URS)   26 25 25 26 27 26 55 54 53 9
  Spain (ESP)   5 10 1 6 18 3 13 10 13 22 11 4 9 1 4 15
  Sweden (SWE)   28 6 5 3 16 9 12 1 3 7 8 8 7 9 3 1 2 2 1 19
  Switzerland (SUI)   13 11 13 16 19 13 18 8 17 17 4 10 9 7 9 11 11 6 1 8 11 21
  Thailand (THA)   1 1 1 2 4
  Togo (TOG)   1 1
  Trinidad and Tobago (TTO)   1 1
  Tunisia (TUN)   2 1 2 3 4
  Turkey (TUR)   1 2 2
  Ukraine (UKR)   20 12 10 10 21 8 6
  United Team of Germany (EUA)   12 26 26 3
  Unified Team (EUN)   47 1
  United Arab Republic (UAR)   9 1
  United States (USA)   9 35 15 20 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 26 54 54 53 52 46 48 45 45 44 41 24
  Uruguay (URU)   1 8 3 3 2 5 2 5 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 16
  Uzbekistan (UZB)   4 1 1 3
  Vanuatu (VAN)   1 1
  Venezuela (VEN)   1 1 2
  Vietnam (VIE)   2 2 2 3
  West Germany (FRG)   26 26 44 36 38 5
  Zimbabwe (ZIM)   2 1 2 2 4
  Yugoslavia (YUG)   14 21 13 1 12 11 15 7 14 5 10 11
Nations 8 2 8 14 14 14 19 13 24 27 33 25 33 27 29 35 31 25 30 38 45 45 51 55 60 58 69 92
Rowers 108 44 81 186 136 182 245 153 313 310 404 242 410 330 353 440 593 470 447 592 627 608 547 557 555 550 547 10,030
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20

VenuesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "History of Rowing at the Olympic Games" (PDF). IOC. March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  2. ^ "Feature: the impact of Olympic inclusion on women's rowing". World Rowing. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  3. ^ "The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games rowing programme announced". World Rowing. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  4. ^ An "inrigger" is a boat with oarlocks attached directly on the gunwale.
  5. ^ "Women in rowing". World Rowing. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.

External linksEdit