The 1900 Summer Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad (Jeux de la IIe olympiade) and also known as Paris 1900, were an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, from 14 May to 28 October 1900. No opening or closing ceremonies were held.
|Host city||Paris, France|
|Events||95 in 19 sports[note1]|
|Opening||14 May 1900|
|Closing||28 October 1900|
|Stadium||Vélodrome de Vincennes|
At the Sorbonne conference of 1894, Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games should take place in Paris in 1900. However, the delegates to the conference were unwilling to wait six years, and lobbied to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was made to hold the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens and have Paris host the second Games.
The Games were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair. In total, 1226 competitors took part in 19 different sports.[note1] This number relies on certain assumptions about which events were and were not "Olympic". Many athletes, some of whom had won events, were unaware that they had competed in the Olympic Games. Women took part in the games for the first time, with sailor Hélène de Pourtalès, born Helen Barbey in New York City, becoming the first female Olympic champion. The decision to hold competitions on a Sunday brought protests from many American athletes, who traveled as representatives of their colleges and were expected to withdraw rather than compete on their religious day of rest.
Most of the winners in 1900 did not receive medals, but were given cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing, as was tradition, and Albert Robert Ayat (France), who won the épée for amateurs and masters, was awarded a prize of 3000 francs. Some events were contested for the only time in the history of the Games, including automobile and motorcycle racing, ballooning, cricket, croquet, Basque pelota, and 200m swimming obstacle race and underwater swimming. This was also the only Olympic Games in history to use live animals (pigeons) as targets during the shooting event. The host nation of France fielded 72% of all athletes (720 of the 997) and won the most gold, silver and bronze medal placings. U.S. athletes won the second-most in each, while fielding the fifth most participants, 75. British athletes won the third-most in each, while fielding the second most participants, 102.
The 1900 Games were held as part of the 1900 Exposition Universelle. The Baron de Coubertin believed that this would help public awareness of the Olympics and submitted elaborate plans to rebuild the ancient site of Olympia, complete with statues, temples, stadia and gymnasia. The director of the Exposition Universelle, Alfred Picard, thought holding an ancient sport event at the Exposition Universelle was an "absurd anachronism". After thanking de Coubertin for his plans, Picard filed them away and nothing more came of it.
A committee was formed for the organization of the Games, consisting of some of the more able sports administrators of the day and a provisional program was drawn up. Sports to be included at the games were track and field athletics, swimming, wrestling, gymnastics, fencing, French and British boxing, river and ocean yacht racing, cycling, golf, lifesaving, archery, weightlifting, rowing, diving, and water polo.
British and Irish sports associations announced a desire to compete, as did a number of powerful American universities and sports clubs. Competitors from Russia and Australia also confirmed their intentions to travel to Paris.
On 9 November 1898, the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques ("Union of the French Societies for Athletic Sports" or USFSA) put out an announcement that it would have sole right to any organised sport held during the World's Fair. It was an empty threat but Viscount Charles de La Rochefoucauld, the nominated head of the organizing committee, stepped down rather than be embroiled in the political battle. The Baron de Coubertin, who was also secretary-general of the USFSA, was urged to withdraw from active involvement in the running of the Games and did so, only to comment later, "I surrendered – and was incorrect in doing so."
The IOC ceded control of the Games to a new committee which was to oversee every sporting activity connected to the 1900 Exposition Universelle. Alfred Picard appointed Daniel Mérillon, the head of the French Shooting Association, as president of this organization in February 1899. Mérillon proceeded to publish an entirely different schedule of events, with the result that many of those that had made plans to compete in concordance with the original program withdrew, and refused to deal with the new committee.
Between May and October 1900, the new organizing committee held an enormous number of sporting activities alongside the Paris Exposition. The sporting events rarely used the term of "Olympic". Indeed, the term "Olympic Games" was replaced by "Concours internationaux d'exercices physiques et de sport" ("International physical exercises and sports" in English) in the official report of the sporting events of the 1900 Exposition Universelle. The press reported competitions variously as "International Championships", "International Games", "Paris Championships", "World Championships" and "Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition".
These poorly organized games along with those of 1904 were termed decades later by several historians, "The Farcical Games". Years later many competitors were unaware that they had competed in the Olympics.: ix While there is an Official Report of these Games, complete records of results do not exist.: ix De Coubertin commented later to friends, "It's a miracle that the Olympic Movement survived that celebration".
- These Olympic Games were the first organised under the IOC Presidency of Pierre de Coubertin
- Alvin Kraenzlein (United States) won the 60 metres (he was one of two people to ever win this event at the Olympic Games as it was withdrawn from Olympic competition after the 1904 Olympics), the 110 metre hurdles, the 200 metre hurdles and the long jump events; as of 2005[update], these four individual gold medals are still a record for a track and field athlete. For his victory in the long jump, he was allegedly punched in the face by his rival Meyer Prinstein, who was prevented from competing in the final by officials of Syracuse University because it was scheduled for a Sunday.
- American-born Hélène de Pourtalès became the first female Olympic champion as part of the Swiss winning team in the 1-2 ton sailing event. Two months later, Charlotte Cooper (UK) became the first woman to win an individual Olympic event after winning the women's singles tennis competition. She later went on to win the mixed doubles tournament.
- Three marathon runners from the United States contested the result saying the French runners who got first and second places took a short cut, and in fact they were the only contestants not spattered with mud.
- In the coxed pairs and eights events in rowing, crews replaced adult coxswain with children. The identities and ages of these boys were not recorded but they are believed to have been among the youngest of all Olympic competitors.
Before July 2021 the IOC has never decided which events were "Olympic" and which were not. In fact, Pierre de Coubertin had ceded that entire determination to the organizers. The IOC webpage for the 1900 Summer Olympics affirms a total of 95 medal events.[note1] Weightlifting and wrestling were dropped since the 1896 Summer Olympics, while 13 new sports were added.[a] Among the sports below, only croquet was not an international competition, being contested by French players only. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.
- Swimming and water polo are considered to be two disciplines within a single sport of aquatics in the Olympic context.
14 venues were used at the 1900 Summer Olympics to host 20 sports.
|7th arrondissement (Place de Breteuil)||Equestrian||Not listed.|||
|Bois de Boulogne||Croquet, Polo, Tug of war||Not listed.|||
|Bois de Vincennes||Archery||Not listed.|||
|Croix-Catelan Stadium||Athletics||Not listed.|||
|Le Havre||Sailing||Not listed.|||
|Neuilly-sur-Seine||Basque pelota||Not listed.|||
|Seine||Rowing, Swimming, and Water polo||Not listed.|||
|Tuileries Garden||Fencing||Not listed.|||
|Vélodrome de Vincennes||Cricket, Cycling, Football, Gymnastics, and Rugby union||Not listed.|||
The standard of competition at the Games was variable. Despite a poor quality track, a strong contingent of top-class American collegiate athletes ensured the track and field competitions were of the highest quality. The tennis gold medalists were all former Wimbledon champions, swimming and fencing events were of a good standard and even polo, a minority sport for the social elite, was well represented by some of the best players in the game. Other sports were noticeably weak in both quality and depth. Only athletics, swimming and fencing had competitors from more than ten nations.
The history of the archery competition at the 1900 Olympics is one of confusion. The IOC currently lists six events with Olympic status, but a case has been made that as many as eight other events equally deserve to be considered part of official Olympic history. About 150 archers competed in the six events that later had official status conferred. However, as many as 5,000 were involved in archery competition in conjunction with the 1900 World's Fair. Belgian Hubert Van Innis took two gold medals and one silver and would add to his tally twenty years later in Antwerp.
The track and field events were held at the home of the Racing Club de France at the Croix-Catelan stadium in Bois de Boulogne. No track was laid and races took place on an uneven field of grass littered with trees. Additional events were held for professionals and a series of handicap races also took place. These are not considered official Olympic events.
In the seven events contested over 400 metres or less, the United States took 13 out of a possible 21 medals. Athletes from Columbia University, Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania all won gold medals. Indeed, two would-be dentists from the University of Pennsylvania were among the stars of the Games. Alvin Kraenzlein won 4 individual gold medals, a feat that has never repeated, while Walter Tewksbury took five medals including two golds. The hurdles in the 400 m hurdle race were 30-foot (9.1 m)-long telegraph poles arranged on the track and the race, uniquely in Olympic competition, had a water jump on the final straight. Adolphe Klingelhoeffer, who had Brazilian citizenship in 1900, competed for France in three events.
Middle and long distance racesEdit
United States dominance in sprinting was matched in the longer track races by United Kingdom. Only George Orton, who won Canada's first Olympic title in the shorter of the two steeplechases, ruined a perfect record for the British. Orton won his title less than an hour after placing third in the 400 metre hurdles.
The most contentious of all the events in these Games began and ended in the Bois de Boulogne. Intended to follow the track of the old city wall, the course was poorly marked out and runners often got lost and had to double back on themselves before continuing. On some parts of the course, runners had to contend with distractions from cars, bicycles, pedestrians and animals. Arthur Newton of the United States finished fifth but stated he had not been passed by any other runner during the race. Another American, Richard Grant, claimed he was run down by a cyclist as he made ground on the leaders. French honour seemed to have been satisfied when Michel Théato crossed the finish line and a military band struck up La Marseillaise. However, modern research has revealed that Théato was born in Luxembourg and maintained Luxembourgian citizenship throughout his life.
The Hungarian discus thrower Rudolf Bauer was the only non-American crowned as Olympic Champion. American domination was even greater in the field events than the track events, with outstanding performances coming from Ray Ewry and Irving Baxter. Ewry started his Olympic career with a sweep of the three standing jumps, while Baxter finished second to Ewry three times and won both the regular high jump and pole vault. Meyer Prinstein became the first Jewish Olympic gold medalist in the triple jump.
The chistera form of the game was played at this, the sport's only appearance at full Olympic level. Two pairs entered and the Spanish partnerships of Amezola and Villota became their nations' first Olympic champions. The mano form of the game and a chistera tournament for professional players were contested unofficially.
After the withdrawal of teams from the Netherlands and Belgium, only two teams played in the cricket tournament. A team made up of players from the Albion Cricket Club and the Standard Athletic Club, two Paris clubs consisting almost exclusively of British expatriates, played a touring team from the southwest of England. The Devon and Somerset Wanderers were no more than a team of competent club cricketers (made up from Blundells School old boys and members of Castle Cary Cricket Club), and only Montagu Toller and Alfred Bowerman were deemed good enough to play at county level for Somerset. The game was played before a small crowd at the Vélodrome de Vincennes. An emphatic second innings bowling performance from Toller captured victory for the visitors as time appeared to be running out for them. If the French had held out for five more minutes the game would have been a draw. Knowledge of the game would have been lost but for the forethought of John Symes, a member of the victorious team, who kept a scorecard in his own writing.
The croquet tournament was notable as it marked the first appearance of women at Olympic level. Madame Desprès, Madame Filleul-Brohy and Mademoiselle Ohier were eliminated in the first round of competition. All players were French. A single paying spectator attended the tournament, an elderly English gentleman who travelled from Nice for the early stages. An unofficial two-ball handicap competition was also held.
The home nation won six of the nine medals available. A number of unofficial events were held for both amateurs and professionals.
Equestrian sport made its debut at the Olympic Games with three jumping events being held, plus two other events. The Italian rider Gian Giorgio Trissino won a gold and a silver. He narrowly missed making Olympic history by winning two medals in the same event. Competing with two different horses in the high jump, he jointly won the gold medal and finished in 4th place on his second horse.
Nineteen nations were represented in the fencing competition, which was held in a field near the cutlery exhibit at the 1900 World's Fair. French fencers dominated the proceedings but both Cuba and Italy also took titles. The early rounds of the foil competitions were judged on style rather than the actual result of the contest. This meant that some fencers were eliminated without losing a contest while others were defeated and still progressed to the next rounds.
The first football champions at the Olympics were the London amateurs of Upton Park F.C. A crowd of around 500 spectators saw them defeat their French rivals.
Margaret Ives Abbott, a student of art from Chicago, played in and won a nine-hole golf tournament on an October Tuesday in Paris. She died in 1955 without being aware that the tournament was part of the Olympic Games and she had become America's first ever female Olympic champion.
Eight separate tournaments were held in 1900 as part of the 1900 World's Fair. Only the Grand Prix Internationale de l'Exposition is counted as an official medal event. Entries were from clubs rather than countries, and the winning Foxhunters club comprised English, Irish and American players.
Mexico won its first medal in this sport, a bronze won by Guillermo Hayden Wright, Marquez de Villavieja and three brothers: Eustaquio de Escandón y Barron, Pablo de Escandón y Barron and Manuel de Escandón y Barron.
Competitions were held on the River Seine. The coxed fours descended into farce when officials changed the qualifying criteria for the final several times. The first final was held without any of the original qualifiers, who had withdrawn as a protest against the decision to run six boats on a course laid out for only four. The officials then decided to run another "final" for the boycotting crews. Both events are considered official Olympic competitions. In a number of events crews saw the advantage of having ultra-lightweight coxswain and recruited local boys for the period of the Games. Most of these remain a mystery; some could have been under ten years old.
Three teams competed in the Rugby tournament. A French representative team defeated a team from the German city of Frankfurt and Moseley Wanderers from England. The Moseley team had played a full game of rugby in England the day before they made the journey to Paris. They arrived in the morning, played the match in the afternoon and were back in their home country by the next morning. The proposed game between the British and German sides was cancelled, and both are credited as silver medalists. The Franco-Haitian centre Constantin Henriquez become the first black gold medalist.
The 1900 sailing regatta differs from every other Olympic regatta in a number of ways. In most classes, there were two distinct "finals", boats were assigned time handicaps according to their weight within each class and cash prizes were handed out to the winner of each race. The IOC initially recognized the winner of the first race in each class as Olympic champion except in the case of the 10-20 ton class, which was decided on aggregate time over three races. However currently the participants of both first and second races in 3 classes (0-0.5t, 1-2t and 2-3t) are present in the  as medalists, so the second races in these 3 classes were recognized by the IOC, as recommended by Olympic historian Bill Mallon. To support the IOC recognized total of 95 medal events, it appears that one more race in each of 2 other classes (0.5-1t and 3-10t) has been recognized by the IOC, per Mallon's suggestion. Thus, for five of the eight events, two gold, two silver and two bronze medals were retrospectively awarded. Races were held at both Meulan and Le Havre and medals shared among five nations. France and Great Britain were the most successful of the countries involved. A number of people named as members of medal-winning crews by the IOC have been proved not to have competed; others have their participation seriously questioned by historical research.
Switzerland's Konrad Stäheli was the outstanding marksman of the Games, taking a trio of titles and leading his country to the top of the shooting medal table. The medals were shared between six different nations. There is a debate as to whether the live pigeon shooting event was a full Olympic event, Belgian Leon Lunden shot twenty-one birds on his way to the championship. Up to thirty unofficial shooting events were also held, most involving professional marksmen. Research has shown that one of the medal events in the IOC database (25m rapid fire pistol, also called military pistol cat. 6) was contested by professionals.
The muddied waters of the Seine hosted the swimming events in 1900. Run with the current, the races produced very fast times by the standards of the day. John Arthur Jarvis of Great Britain, Frederick Lane of Australia and the German Ernst Hoppenberg each won two titles. Lane received a 50-pound bronze statue of a horse as a prize. A couple of unusual events were held. The obstacle race required both swimming underneath and climbing over rows of boats while Charles de Venville stayed submerged for over a minute to win the underwater swimming event.
A high-quality men's tournament saw three past or future Wimbledon champions reach the semi-finals. Laurence Doherty reached the final when older brother Reggie stepped aside and let his sibling advance to the final. The two refused to play each other in what they considered a minor tournament. On the 11th of July a landmark was reached in the history of the Olympic Games. Charlotte Cooper, already three times Wimbledon champion, took the singles championship to become the first individual female Olympic champion, also winning the mixed doubles event.
Tug of warEdit
A combined Sweden/Denmark team, made up of three competitors from each country, defeated the French team to win the title. One of the members of the French team was a Colombian citizen. They were left as the only participating teams; the United States had entered but were forced to scratch as three of their team were involved in the final of the hammer. Edgar Aaybe was a journalist covering the Games for the Danish newspaper Politiken and was asked to join the team when another puller was taken ill.
Osborne Swimming Club, representing Great Britain were unchallenged in the tournament, scoring 29 goals and conceding only 3 in their 3 matches. In the final, they limited the number of shots on goal to avoid humiliating their opponents. One of its team members was from New Zealand. Thomas William Burgess of the bronze medal-winning Libellule de Paris team, represented Great Britain in the swimming events.
Olympic status of sports and eventsEdit
The 1900 Games were not governed by a specific Olympic organizing committee, but were instead held as an appendage to the 1900 World's Fair. An enormous number of events was held, though many fall short of the standards later required for Olympic championship status.
After the several initial editions of the Olympic Games, decisions as to which Olympic events were termed "official" and which had "unofficial" or "demonstration" status were usually left to the Olympic organizing committees and/or the IOC. In the early Olympic Games, however, no decision as to the official status of any event was made at the time of the Games.
While a document from 1912 exists, listing results from the 1900 Games, and formed the original basis of the results of the Paris games in the IOC database, the reliability and authenticity of this paper has been questioned by Olympic historians. Further complicating matters, the IOC has never determined which events were Olympic and which were not.
All events satisfying all four of the retrospective selection criteria (restricted to amateurs, international participation, open to all competitors and without handicapping) are now regarded by historians as Olympic events, except for ballooning, while croquet, motorboating and boules satisfied three of these criteria (as only French athletes competed).
Of the three events that satisfied three criteria, only croquet has been accorded Olympic status. In this regard, one of the ten croquet players, Marcel Haëntjens, had been believed to be Belgian, and the croquet events were thus considered as international. Despite the Flemish name, it was discovered in recent times that Haëntjens was French.
- Ballooning (hydrogen-filled, non-fueled)
- Cannon shooting
- Fire fighting
- Kite flying
- Life saving
- Longue paume
- Motor racing
- Motorcycle racing
- Pigeon racing
- Water motorsports
In addition to these, 71 scholastic and 92 military events were also held across a range of sports.
According to the International Olympic Committee, 26 nations sent competitors to this edition.[note1] The concept of "national teams" chosen by National Olympic Committees did not exist at this point in time.
When counting the number of participating countries in the early Olympic Games, the IOC does not take into account otherwise unrepresented countries whose citizens competed for other countries. Modern research shows that at the 1900 Olympics, the athletes of at least four otherwise unrepresented countries competed for other countries in both individual and team sports. George Orton, gold medalist in 2500 metres steeplechase event and bronze medalist in 400 metres hurdles event, and Ronald J. MacDonald, both of Canada, competed for the U.S. athletics team. Orton ran for the University of Pennsylvania and was therefore assumed to be American, but he always considered himself a Canadian. Michel Théato, the winner of the marathon, competed for the French athletics team. He was a Luxembourger; however, this was only discovered decades later. Francisco Henríquez de Zubiría of Colombia was a silver medal-winner on the French tug of war team. Victor Lindberg of New Zealand was a gold medal-winner on the British water polo team. The IOC website lists all of them in the results section under their nationalities, but does not include their countries among the 26 participating countries.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
Otherwise unrepresented countries whose athletes competed for other countries:
Some sources also list athletes from the following nation as having competed at these Games.
- Brazil – Adolphe Klingelhoeffer was the son of a Brazilian diplomat, and although he was born and raised in Paris, he had Brazilian citizenship in 1900, and maintained this citizenship until at least the 1940s per French athletics historian Alain Bouille. As this was discovered in late 2008, his participation is usually attributed to France.
Other modern nations could be considered to have competed in some form in 1900, as Algeria, Croatia, Ireland, Poland and Slovakia had athletes compete, though these nations would not gain independence until many years later (Poland in 1918, the Republic of Ireland in 1922, Algeria in 1962, and Croatia and Slovakia in 1992).
Algeria sent four gymnasts who competed for France, while all of Ireland was part of Great Britain: Irish athletes competed in athletics, polo, sailing and tennis. Further, a Polish fencer represented Russia, a Croatian fencer represented Austria, and two Slovakian athletes competed for Hungary.
Number of athletes by National Olympic CommitteesEdit
The concept of "national teams" chosen by National Olympic Committees did not exist at this point in time.
The 1900 Olympics is unique in being the only Olympic Games to feature rectangular medals, which were designed by Frédérique Vernon. Gilt silver medals were awarded for 1st place in shooting, lifesaving, automobile racing and gymnastics. Whilst 2nd place silver medals were awarded in shooting, rowing, yachting, tennis, gymnastics, sabre, fencing, equestrian and athletics. With 3rd place bronze medals being awarded in gymnastics, firefighting and shooting. In many sports, however, medals were not awarded. With most of the listed prizes were cups and other similar trophies.: 9 The International Olympic Committee has retrospectively assigned gold, silver and bronze medals to all competitors who earned 1st, 2nd and 3rd-place finishes, respectively, in order to bring early Olympics in line with current awards.
For the first Olympic Games (until Antwerp in 1920), it is difficult to give the exact number of medals awarded to some countries, due to the fact that teams were composed of athletes from different countries. For Olympic Games before 1908 there is no universally accepted definition of nationality, and medal tables may vary depending on the chosen definition. For example, Australian Stanley Rowley competed as part of a team selected by the Amateur Athletic Association of England. The concept of "national teams" chosen by National Olympic Committees did not exist at this point in time.
Key Host nation (France)
|2||United States (USA)||19||14||15||48|
|3||Great Britain (GBR)||15||8||9||32|
|4||Mixed team (ZZX)||8||5||6||19|
|Totals (10 entries)||91||82||79||252|
- Olympic Games celebrated in France
- a b c d e f At an earlier time the IOC database for the 1900 Summer Olympics listed 85 medal events, 24 participating countries and 997 athletes (22 women, 975 men). The Olympic historian and author, Bill Mallon,: 25–28 whose studies have shed light on the topic, suggested the number 95 events satisfying all four retrospective selection criteria (restricted to amateurs, international participation, open to all competitors and without handicapping) and now should be considered as Olympic events. In July 2021, the IOC upgraded its complete online database of all Olympic results explicitly to incorporate the data of the Olympic historians website, Olympedia.org, thus accepting Mallon's recommendation (based on four applied criteria) for events of the 1900 Olympic Games. The eleven events, the results of which had nevertheless been shown within the earlier IOC database, have been added over the former total of 85. Оne shooting event (20 metre military pistol, which was an event for professionals) have been removed. Acceptance of Mallon's recommendation increased the number of events to 95, and also entailed increasing the number of participation countries up to 26 and athletes up to 1226. After upgrading of the IOC online database the IOC web site results section contains 95 events. However the IOC webpage for the 1900 Summer Olympics shows a total of 96 (not 95) medal events, 26 participating countries and 1226 athletes. The reason for the discrepancy in the number of events on the IOC webpage is unknown. Furthermore, the IOC factsheet "The Games of the Olympiad" of November 2021 refers to 95 events, but still refers to old numbers of participating countries (24) and athletes (997).
- "Paris 1900 Summer Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Paris facts". Paris Digest. 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-09-08. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 8, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 13, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 32, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 33, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 52, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 77, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge
- Carmichael, Emma (July 27, 2012). "Gawker's Guide to the Olympic Sports You're Pretty Sure Don't Exist: Shooting". Gawker. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013.
- "1900 Paris Medal Tally". Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- Cropper, Corry: Playing at monarchy: sport as a metaphor in nineteenth-century France Accessed through Google Books, Retrieved 1 March 2010
- Howell, Maxwell L., and Reet N. Howell. "The 1900 and 1904 Olympic Games: The Farcical Games." Paper presented to the VI International Association of the History of Sport and Physical Education Seminar, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, July 1976.
- Mallon, Bill (1998). The 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-4064-1.
- Ministere du Commerce de L'Industrie des Postes et des Telegraphes (1902). Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900 a Paris. Concours Internationaux D'Exercices Physiques et de Sports. Rapports Publies Sous La Direction de M. D. Merillon. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
- Lennartz, Karl; Teutenberg, Walter (1995). Olympische Spiele 1900 in Paris. Kassel, Germany: Agon-Sportverlag. p. 147. ISBN 3-928562-20-7.
In many works, it is read that the IOC later met to decide which events were Olympic and which were not. This is not correct and no decision has ever been made. No discussion of this item can be found in the account of any Session.
- 1900 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine p. 16. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 28 June 1900 croquet mixed singles one-ball results. Archived 28 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 28 May-2 June 1900 men's polo results. Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 20 February 2011.
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 16 July 1900 tug-of-war men's results. Archived 28 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 27 May – 14 August 1900 men's archery au chapelet 33 m results. Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- 1900 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine p. 15. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 20 May 1900 sailing mixed open results. Archived 3 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 14 June 1900 men's basque pelota two-teams results. Archived 3 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- Sports-reference.com Summer Olympics Paris 6-11 July 1900 tennis men's singles results. Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 14 November 2010.
- 1900 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine pp. 17-18. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
- 1900 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine pp. 15-16. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
- Joint, Laura (21 August 2008). "When Devon's cricketers won Olympic gold". BBC. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "Paris 1900 Sailing Results". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Olympic or not?" – article by Herman de Wael – Journal of Olympic History – January 2003
- "Demonstration and unofficial sports". GBRathletics. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Soltis, Greg (July 27, 2012). "Olympic Events Through History". LiveScience. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Ministere du Commerce de L'Industrie des Postes et des Telegraphes (1902). Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900 a Paris. Concours Internationaux D'Exercices Physiques et de Sports. Rapports Publies Sous La Direction de M. D. Merillon. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale. pp. 178, 250–275.
- "George Orton". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Ronald MacDonald". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Michel Théato". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Francis Henríquez de Zubiria". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Colombia at the 1900 Paris Summer Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- "Victor Lindberg". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "New Zealand at the 1900 Paris Summer Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- "Paris 1900 Results". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Adolphe Klingelhoeffer". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- "Paris 1900 The Medals". International Olympic Committee. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
- Greensfelder, Jim; Vorontsov, Oleg; Lally, Jim (1998). Olympic Medals: a reference guide. GVL Enterprises. pp. 9–10.
- "Olympic Summer Games Medals from Athens 1896 to Tokyo 2020" (PDF). Olympic Studies Centre. Olympic Studies Centre. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
- "Paris 1900 - Medal Table". Olympics.com. International Olympic Committee. Select "Paris 1900", select "Go to medal table" to arrive at "Paris 1900 Medal Table"
- "Event Results". Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Factsheet – The Games of the Olympiad" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 16 November 2021. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
- "Paris 1900". Olympics.com. International Olympic Committee.
- (in French) Official Report
- GB Athletics website – Olympic Games Medallists – Other Sports – Demonstration & Unofficial Sports