The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.
|Men||Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)|
|Women||Inessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)|
|Men||Kenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)|
|Women||Françoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 5 3⁄4 in) (2008)|
|World Championship records|
|Men||Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)|
|Women||Inessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)|
According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed."
The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain & N.I., with a jump of 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in), and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in). Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.
Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games occasionally mention jumps of 15 meters or more. This led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump. However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, and it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.
The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.
The approach is one of the most important parts of an athlete's jump. The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. These boards are placed at different places on the runway depending on how far the athlete can jump. Typically the boards are set; (furthest from the pit to closest) 40 ft, 32 ft, and 24 ft. These are the most common boards seen at the high school and collegiate levels, but boards can be placed anywhere on the runway. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. They all play an important role in the jump itself. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The athlete has to maintain a good speed through each phase. They should also try to stay consistent to avoid fouls.
The hop begins with the athlete jumping from the take-off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes, will be the right leg. Precise placement of the foot on the take-off is important in order for the athlete to avoid a foul. The objective of the first phase is to hop out, with athletes focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway.
The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a hip flexion thrust. Similar to a bounding motion. This leads to the step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful backward pawing action. The takeoff leg should be fully extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground. The takeoff leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high. The drive leg extends with a flexed ankle and snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase. The athlete tries to take the farthest step they can while maintaining balance and control, using techniques such as pulling their leg up as high as possible.
The step landing forms the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilizes the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and mostly used is a hang or sail technique.
When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the three landings.
A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.
It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Also called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s. The IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Soviet field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul eight of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors (from Brazil and Australia) thus helping two Soviet jumpers win the Gold and Silver medals.
|Mark (m)||Athlete||Mark (m)||Athlete|
|World||18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)||Jonathan Edwards (GBR)||15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)||Inessa Kravets (UKR)|
|Africa||18.07 m (59 ft 3 1⁄4 in) i||Hugues Fabrice Zango (BUR)||15.39 m (50 ft 5 3⁄4 in)||Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)|
|Asia||17.59 m (57 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||Yanxi Li (CHN)||15.25 m (50 ft 1⁄4 in)||Olga Rypakova (KAZ)|
|Europe||18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)||Jonathan Edwards (GBR)||15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)||Inessa Kravets (UKR)|
|North, Central America
|18.21 m (59 ft 8 3⁄4 in)||Christian Taylor (USA)||15.29 m (50 ft 1 3⁄4 in)||Yamilé Aldama (CUB)|
|Oceania||17.46 m (57 ft 3 1⁄4 in)||Ken Lorraway (AUS)||14.04 m (46 ft 3⁄4 in)||Nicole Mladenis (AUS)|
|South America||17.90 m (58 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||Jadel Gregório (BRA)||15.43 m (50 ft 7 1⁄4 in) i||Yulimar Rojas (VEN)|
All-time top 25Edit
set prior to IAAF acceptance of indoor events as equivalent with outdoor events (in 2000)
|1||18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)||1.3||Jonathan Edwards (GBR)||7 August 1995||Gothenburg|
|2||18.21 m (59 ft 8 3⁄4 in)||0.2||Christian Taylor (USA)||27 August 2015||Beijing|||
|3||18.14 m (59 ft 6 in)||0.4||Will Claye (USA)||29 June 2019||Long Beach|||
|4||18.09 m (59 ft 4 in)||−0.4||Kenny Harrison (USA)||27 July 1996||Atlanta|
|5||18.08 m (59 ft 3 3⁄4 in)||0.0||Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)||28 May 2015||Havana|||
|6||18.07 m (59 ft 3 1⁄4 in)||indoor||Hugues Fabrice Zango (BUR)||16 January 2021||Aubière|
|7||18.04 m (59 ft 2 in)||0.3||Teddy Tamgho (FRA)||18 August 2013||Moscow|
|8||17.97 m (58 ft 11 1⁄4 in)||1.5||Willie Banks (USA)||16 June 1985||Indianapolis|
|9||17.92 m (58 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.6||Khristo Markov (BUL)||31 August 1987||Rome|
|1.9||James Beckford (JAM)||20 May 1995||Odessa|
|11||17.90 m (58 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||0.4||Jadel Gregório (BRA)||20 May 2007||Belém|
|1.0||Vladimir Inozemtsev (URS)||20 June 1990||Bratislava|
|13||17.89 m (58 ft 8 1⁄4 in) A||0.0||João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)||15 October 1975||Mexico City|
|14||17.87 m (58 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.7||Mike Conley (USA)||27 June 1987||San Jose|
|15||17.86 m (58 ft 7 in)||1.3||Charles Simpkins (USA)||2 September 1985||Kobe|
|16||17.85 m (58 ft 6 3⁄4 in)||0.0||Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)||8 August 1997||Athens|
|17||17.83 m (58 ft 5 3⁄4 in)|
|indoor||Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)||1 March 1997||Sindelfingen|
|indoor||Christian Olsson (SWE)||7 March 2004||Budapest|
|19||17.81 m (58 ft 5 in)||1.0||Marian Oprea (ROU)||5 July 2005||Lausanne|
|0.1||Phillips Idowu (GBR)||29 July 2009||Barcelona|
|21||17.78 m (58 ft 4 in)||1.0||Nikolay Musiyenko (URS)||7 June 1986||Leningrad|
|0.6||Lazaro Betancourt (CUB)||15 June 1986||Havana|
|0.8||Melvin Lister (USA)||17 July 2004||Havana|
|24||17.77 m (58 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.0||Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS)||18 July 1987||Bryansk|
|indoor||Leonid Voloshin (RUS)||6 February 1994||Grenoble|
Below is a list of all other legal jumps equal or superior to 17.90 m:
- Jonathan Edwards also jumped 18.16 (1995), 18.01 (1998), 18.00 (1995), 17.99 (1998), 17.98 (1995) and 17.92 (2001).
- Pedro Pablo Pichardo also jumped 18.06 (2015), 17.99 (2015), 17.96 (2015), 17.95 (2018) and 17.94 (2015).
- Christian Taylor also jumped 18.11 (2017), 18.06 (2015), 18.04 (2015), 17.96 (2011) and 17.92 (2019).
- Teddy Tamgho also jumped 17.98 (2010), 17.92 (2 × 2011i), 17.91 (2011i, 2011) and 17.90 (2010i).
- Will Claye also jumped 18.06 (2019) and 17.91 (2011).
Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the best wind-assisted jumps (equal or superior to 17.77 m). Only marks that are superior to legal bests are shown:
- Jonathan Edwards jumped 18.43 (+2.4) in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France on 25 June 1995.
- Willie Banks jumped 18.20 (+5.2) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
- Mike Conley jumped 18.17 (+2.1) in Barcelona, Spain on 3 August 1992.
- Yoelbi Quesada jumped 17.97 (+7.5) in Madrid, Spain on 20 June 1995.
- Charles Simpkins jumped 17.93 (+5.2) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
- Christian Olsson jumped 17.92 (+3.4) in Gateshead, United Kingdom on 13 June 2003.
- Denis Kapustin jumped 17.86 (+5.7) in Seville, Spain on 5 June 1994.
- Nelson Évora jumped 17.82 (+2.5) in Seixal, Portugal on 26 June 2009.
- Keith Connor jumped 17.81 (+4.6) in Brisbane, Australia on 9 October 1982.
|1||15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)||0.9||Inessa Kravets (UKR)||10 August 1995||Gothenburg|
|2||15.43 m (50 ft 7 1⁄4 in)||indoor||Yulimar Rojas (VEN)||21 February 2020||Madrid|||
|3||15.39 m (50 ft 5 3⁄4 in)||0.5||Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)||17 August 2008||Beijing|
|4||15.36 m (50 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||indoor||Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)||6 March 2004||Budapest|
|5||15.32 m (50 ft 3 in)||0.9||Hrysopiyi Devetzi (GRE)||21 August 2004||Athens|
|6||15.31 m (50 ft 2 3⁄4 in)||0.0||Catherine Ibargüen (COL)||18 July 2014||Monaco|
|7||15.29 m (50 ft 1 3⁄4 in)||0.3||Yamilé Aldama (CUB)||11 July 2003||Rome|
|8||15.28 m (50 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||0.9||Yargelis Savigne (CUB)||31 August 2007||Osaka|
|9||15.25 m (50 ft 1⁄4 in)||1.7||Olga Rypakova (KAZ)||4 September 2010||Split|
|10||15.20 m (49 ft 10 1⁄4 in)||0.0||Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)||4 August 1997||Athens|
|−0.3||Tereza Marinova (BUL)||24 September 2000||Sydney|
|12||15.18 m (49 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||0.3||Iva Prandzheva (BUL)||10 August 1995||Gothenburg|
|13||15.16 m (49 ft 8 3⁄4 in)||0.1||Rodica Mateescu (ROU)||4 August 1997||Athens|
|0.7||Trecia Smith (JAM)||2 August 2004||Linz|
|indoor||Ashia Hansen (GBR)||28 February 1998||Valencia|
|16||15.14 m (49 ft 8 in)||1.9||Nadezhda Alekhina (RUS)||26 July 2009||Cheboksary|
|17||15.09 m (49 ft 6 in)||0.5||Anna Biryukova (RUS)||29 August 1993||Stuttgart|
|−0.5||Inna Lasovskaya (RUS)||31 May 1997||Valencia|
|19||15.08 m (49 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||indoor||Marija Šestak (SLO)||13 February 2008||Peania|
|20||15.07 m (49 ft 5 1⁄4 in)||−0.6||Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE)||22 August 1999||Seville|
|21||15.04 m (49 ft 4 in)||1.7||Ekaterina Koneva (RUS)||30 May 2015||Eugene|
|22||15.03 m (49 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.9||Magdelin Martinez (ITA)||26 June 2004||Rome|
|indoor||Iolanda Chen (RUS)||11 March 1995||Barcelona|
|24||15.02 m (49 ft 3 1⁄4 in)||0.9||Anna Pyatykh (RUS)||9 August 2006||Gothenburg|
|25||15.00 m (49 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.2||Kene Ndoye (SEN)||4 July 2004||Iraklio|
Below is a list of all other legal jumps equal or superior to 15.20 m:
- Yulimar Rojas also jumped 15.41 (2019) and 15.37 (2019).
- Tatyana Lebedeva also jumped 15.34 (2004), 15.33 (2004), 15.32 (2000), 15.25 (2001 & 2004i) and 15.23 (2004 & 2006).
- Inessa Kravets also jumped 15.33 (1996).
- Françoise Mbango Etone also jumped 15.30 (2004).
- Yamilé Aldama also jumped 15.28 (2004), 15.27 (2003) and 15.21 (2004).
- Hrysopiyí Devetzí also jumped 15.25 (2004).
Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the best wind-assisted jumps (equal or superior to 15.00 m). Only marks that are superior to legal bests are shown:
- Magdelin Martínez jumped 15.24 (+4.2) at altitude in Sestriere, Italy on 1 August 2004.
- Anna Pyatykh jumped 15.17 (+2.4) in Athens, Greece on 2 July 2006.
- Keila da Silva Costa jumped 15.10 (+2.7) in Uberlândia, Brazil on 6 May 2007.
- Olga Saladukha jumped 15.06 (+2.3) in Stockholm, Sweden on 29 July 2011.
- Liadagmis Povea jumped 15.05 (+3.1) in Havana, Cuba on 8 March 2019.
World Championships medalistsEdit
- B The original bronze medalist (Hrysopiyi Devetzi of Greece) was disqualified for doping in 2016.
World Indoor Championships medalistsEdit
- A Known as the World Indoor Games
- "The Story of Triple Jump". Retrieved 2019-05-22.
- "IAAF Competition Rules 2012-2013". Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from http://trackandfield.about.com/od/triplejump/ss/illustriplejump.htm.
- Koski, Rissanen & Tahvanainen (2004). Antiikin urheilu. Olympian kentiltä Rooman areenoille. [The Sports of Antiquity. From the Fields of Olympia to Roman Arenas.] Jyväskylä: Atena Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-796-341-6
- "Triple jump | athletics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
- "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from http://www.dunardry.net/ladies_lounge.html Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- Eissa, Abeer (2014-03-27). "Biomechanical evaluation of the phases of the triple jump take-off in a top female athlete". Journal of Human Kinetics. 40: 29–35. doi:10.2478/hukin-2014-0004. ISSN 1640-5544. PMC 4096103. PMID 25031670.
- Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- "Triple Jump Results" (PDF). IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- John Mulkeen (30 June 2019). "Claye moves to third on world all-time triple jump list with 18.14m". IAAF. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Javier Clavelo Robinson; Phil Minshull (29 May 2015). "Pichardo triple jumps 18.08m in Havana". IAAF. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Jon Mulkeen (21 February 2020). "Rojas breaks world indoor triple jump record in Madrid with 15.43m". World Athletics. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- "IOC sanctions 16 athletes for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008". IOC. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
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