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Comparison of orbital launch systems

This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families. For the list of predominantly solid-fuelled orbital launch systems, see: Comparison of solid-fuelled orbital launch systems.

Spacecraft propulsion[note 1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[note 2] Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[note 3] have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[note 4]

Contents

Current and upcoming rocketsEdit

Orbits legend:

Launch system status legend
  Under development
  Operational
Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Payload mass to ... (kg) Launches[a] Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First[b] Latest
Alpha   United States Firefly Aerospace 1,000[1] 600 to SSO 0 2020[2]
Angara 1.2   Russia Khrunichev 3,500[3] 2,400 to SSO 0 2020[4][c]
Angara A5   Russia Khrunichev 24,000[3] 7,500 with KVTK
5,400 with Briz-M [3]
1 2014 2014
Antares 230   United States NG Innovation 7,800[6] 3,000 to SSO[d] 5[7] 2016 2019
Ariane 5 ECA   Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[8] 10,865[9][e] 70[11] 2002 2019
Ariane 6 A62   Europe ArianeGroup 10,350[12]:45 5,000[12]:33 6,450 to SSO
3,000 to HEO
3,000 to TLI [12]:40–49
0 2020[13][14]
Ariane 6 A64   Europe ArianeGroup 21,650[12]:46 11,500+ [12]:33 14,900 to SSO
5,000 to GEO
8,400 to HEO
8,500 to TLI [12]:40–49
0 2021–2022[13] (TBA)
Atlas V 401   United States ULA 9,050[15] 4,950 6,670 to SSO 38[15] 2002 2018
Atlas V 411   United States ULA 9,050[15] 6,075 8,495 to SSO 5[15] 2006 2018
Atlas V 421   United States ULA 9,050[15] 7,000 9,050 to SSO 7[15] 2007 2017
Atlas V 431   United States ULA 9,050[15] 7,800 9,050 to SSO 3[15] 2005 2016
Atlas V 501   United States ULA 8,250[15] 3,970 5,945 to SSO
1,500 to GEO
6[15] 2010 2015
Atlas V 511   United States ULA 10,950[15] 5,370 7,820 to SSO
1,750 to GEO
0
Atlas V 521   United States ULA 13,300[15] 6,485 9,585 to SSO
2,760 to GEO
2[15] 2003 2004
Atlas V 531   United States ULA 15,300[15] 7,425 11,160 to SSO
3,250 to GEO
3[15] 2010 2013
Atlas V 541   United States ULA 17,100[15] 8,240 12,435 to SSO
3,730 to GEO
6[15] 2011 2018
Atlas V 551   United States ULA 18,500[15] 8,700 13,550 to SSO
3,960 to GEO
9[15] 2006 2018
Atlas V 552   United States ULA 20,520[16] 0 2020[17]
Atlas V N22[18]
(for Starliner)
  United States ULA 13,000[19] 0 2019[20]
Beta   United States Firefly Aerospace 4,000[21] TBA 3,000 to SSO 0 TBA[22]
Starship and Super Heavy (formerly BFR)[23]
(reusable)
  United States SpaceX 150,000[24] 40,000[25] 100,000+ to TMI[26][f] 0 2020[27][g]
Bloostar   Spain Zero 2 Infinity 140[29] 75 to SSO[29] 0 2019[30]
Chetak   India Bellatrix Aerospace[31][32] 150 to SSO[h][33] 0 2022[34][35]
Cyclone-4M   Ukraine Yuzhnoye
Yuzhmash
5,000[36] 1,000[37] 3,350 to SSO[36] 0 2020[36]
Delta IV M+(4,2)   United States ULA 13,140[38] 6,390 10,250 to polar 14[39] 2002 2016[i]
Delta IV Heavy   United States ULA 28,790[38] 14,220 23,560 to polar
10,000 to TLI
8,000 to TMI
11[39] 2004 2019
Electron   United States
  New Zealand
Rocket Lab 225[40] 150 to SSO 7[41] 2017 2019
Epsilon   Japan IHI[42] 1,500[43] 590 to SSO 4[44] 2013 2019
Eris   Australia
  Singapore
Gilmour Space Technologies 400[45] 0 2020[45]
Falcon 9 Full Thrust
(partially reusable)
  United States SpaceX 16,800+[46][j] 5,500[47][k] 9,600 to polar[49] 40[50][51][l] 2015 2019
Falcon 9 Full Thrust
(expended)
  United States SpaceX 22,800[47][j] 6,500[48]–8,300[47] 4,020 to TMI 9[54][55] 2017 2018
Falcon Heavy
(partially reusable)
  United States SpaceX 30,000[56]–57,000[57] 8,000[47]–10,000[m] 3[58] 2018 2019
Falcon Heavy
(expended)
  United States SpaceX 63,800[47] 15,000[48]–26,700[47] 16,800 to TMI 0
GSLV Mk II   India ISRO 5,000[59] 2,700[60][n] 7[61] 2010 2018
GSLV Mk III   India ISRO 8,000[62] 4,000 2[63] 2017[o] 2018
H-IIA 202   Japan Mitsubishi 8,000[65]:67 4,000[65]:48 5,100 to SSO[p]
[65]:64–65
26[66] 2001 2018
H-IIA 204   Japan Mitsubishi 5,950[65]:48 4[66] 2006 2017
H-IIB   Japan Mitsubishi 16,500 (ISS)[67] 8,000 7[68] 2009 2018
H3   Japan Mitsubishi 4,000[69] 6,500[67] 4,000 to SSO[70] 0 2020[70][71]
Hyperbola-1   China i-Space 300[72] 0 2019[72][q]
Hyperbola-3   China i-Space 2,000[72] 0 2021[72]
Kuaizhou 1/1A   China ExPace 400[73] 4[73] 2013 2018
Kuaizhou 11   China ExPace 1,500[74] 1,000 to SSO[75] 0 2019[76]
Kuaizhou 21   China ExPace 20,000[77] 0 2025[75]
KSLV-2   South Korea KARI 1,500 at 600–800 km[78] 0 2021[78][r]
LauncherOne   United States Virgin Orbit 500[79] 300 to SSO[80] 0 2019[81]
Long March 2C   China CALT 3,850
[citation needed]
1,250 with CTS2 2,000 to SSO with YZ-1S[82] 56[83] 1982 2018
Long March 2D   China SAST 4,000 1,150 to SSO 43[83] 1992 2018
Long March 2F   China CALT 8,600 13[83] 1999 2016
Long March 3A   China CALT 6,000[84] 2,600 5,000 to SSO 27[85] 1994 2018
Long March 3B/E   China CALT 11,500[84] 5,500 6,900 to SSO 44[85] 2007 2019
Long March 3C   China CALT 9,100[84] 3,800 6,500 to SSO 16[85] 2008 2018
Long March 4B   China SAST 4,200[86] 1,500 2,800 to SSO 31[86] 1999 2018
Long March 4C   China SAST 4,200[87] 1,500 2,800 to SSO 25[87] 2006 2018
Long March 5   China CALT 25,000[88] 14,000 15,000 to SSO[89]
8,200 to TLI[90]
5,000 to TMI[90]
2[91] 2016 2017
Long March 6   China SAST 1,080 to SSO[92] 2[93] 2015 2017
Long March 7   China CALT 13,500[94] 5,500 to SSO 2 2016[95] 2017
Long March 8
(partially reusable)[96]
  China CALT 7,600[97] 2,500 4,500 to SSO 0 2021[96]
Long March 9[98]   China CALT 140,000[99] 66,000[100] 50,000 to TLI[99]
44,000 to TMI[96]
0 2028[101]–2030[96]
Long March 11   China CALT 700[102] 350 to SSO 6[103] 2015 2019
Minotaur I   United States NG Innovation 580[104] 10[105] 2000 2013
Minotaur IV   United States NG Innovation 1,735[106] 4[107] 2010 2017
Minotaur V   United States NG Innovation 670[107] 465 to HCO 1[107] 2013 2013
Minotaur-C (Taurus)[108]   United States NG Innovation 1,458[109] 1,054 to SSO[s] 10[110] 1994 2017
Miura 5   Spain PLD Space 300[111] 0 2021[111]
New Glenn   United States Blue Origin 45,000[112] 13,000 0 2021[113]
New Line 1
(partially reusable)[114]
  China LinkSpace 200 to SSO[114] 0 2020[114]
OmegA   United States NG Innovation 10,100[115] 7,800 to GEO[115] 0 2021[115]
OS-M1   China OneSpace 205[116] 143 to SSO 1 2019[117][t] 2019
OS-M2   China OneSpace 390[116] 292 to SSO 0 TBA
Pegasus   United States NG Innovation 500[119] 43[119][120] 1990 2016
Prime   United Kingdom Orbex 220[121] 150 to SSO[d][122] 0 2021[122]
Proton-M / M+   Russia
  Soviet Union
Khrunichev 23,000 (M+)[123]
21,600 (M)[124]
6,920 (M+)
6,150 (M)
105[125][126][127] 2001 2019
PSLV-CA   India ISRO 2,100[128] 1,100 to SSO 13[128] 2007 2018
PSLV-DL   India ISRO 1[128] 2019 2019
PSLV-QL   India ISRO 1[128] 2019 2019
PSLV-XL   India ISRO 3,800[128] 1,300 1,750 to SSO
1,350 to TMI[129]
20[128] 2008 2018
Rokot   Russia Khrunichev 1,950[130] 1,200 to SSO 32[130] 1990 2018[i][131]
Safir   Iran Iranian Space Agency 65[132] 7[132][u] 2008 2019
Shavit   Israel IAI 300[133] 10[134] 1988 2016
Simorgh   Iran Iranian Space Agency 350[135] 2[135] 2017[v] 2019
Space Launch System Block 1
with ICPS
  United States NASA / Boeing (core)
NG Innovation (SRBs)
95,000[136] 26,000 to TLI[136] 0 2020[137]
SLS Block 1B
with EUS
  United States NASA / Boeing
NG Innovation
105,000[138] 37,000 to TLI[136] 0 2024[139]
SLS Block 2
with EUS and
advanced boosters
  United States NASA / Boeing
NG Innovation
130,000[140] 45,000 to HCO[136] 0 2029[141]
Soyuz-FG   Russia TsSKB-Progress 6,900[142] 68[143][144] 2001 2019[i]
Soyuz-2.1a   Russia TsSKB-Progress 7,020 from Baikonur[145] 31[146][144][147] 2006[w] 2019
Soyuz-2.1b   Russia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 from Baikonur[145] 2,400[148] 29[149][144] 2006 2019
Soyuz ST-A   Russia
  Europe
TsSKB-Progress
Arianespace
7,800 from Kourou[150] 2,810 with Fregat[151] 6[144] 2011 2018
Soyuz ST-B   Russia
  Europe
TsSKB-Progress
Arianespace
9,000 from Kourou[152] 3,250 with Fregat[151] 4,400 to SSO[153] 16[144] 2011 2019
Soyuz-2-1v   Russia TsSKB-Progress 2,800[154] 1,400 to SSO 4[154] 2013 2018
Soyuz-5   Russia TsSKB-Progress
RSC Energia
18,000[155] 2,500 to GEO 0 2022[156][157]
SS-520   Japan IHI Aerospace 4[158] 2[159] 2017[160][x] 2018
SSLV   India ISRO 500[161] 300 to SSO 0 2019[162]
Unha   North Korea KCST 100[163] 4[164] 2009[y] 2016
Vector-R   United States Vector Space Systems 64[165] 0 2019[81][z]
Vector-H   United States Vector Space Systems 160[166] 0 2019[166]
Vega   Europe ESA / ASI 1,500[h][167] 1,330 to SSO[168] 14[169] 2012 2019
Vega C   Europe ESA / ASI 2,200[h][170] 0 2019[170]
Vega E   Europe ESA / ASI 3,000[h][171] 0 2024[172]
Vikram l[173]   India Skyroot aerospace[174] 280 200 to SSPO 0 2021[175]
Vikram ll[173]   India Skyroot aerospace 520 410 to SSPO 0 (TBA)
Vikram lll[173]   India Skyroot aerospace 720 580 to SSPO 0 (TBA)
Vulcan / Centaur   United States ULA 25,000[176] 15,000[176] 7,300 to GEO[176][177] 0 2021[178]
Vulcan / ACES   United States ULA 37,400[38][179][aa] 18,500[aa] 13,000 to TLI[aa] 0 2023[180]
Yun Feng   Taiwan Taiwan National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology 200[181] 0
Yenisei[182]   Russia TsSKB-Progress
RSC Energia
88,000–115,000[157] 20,000 to TLI[183][184] 0 2028[184]
Zenit-3F   Ukraine Yuzhnoye 1,740 to GEO[185] 4[186] 2011 2017
Zenit-3SL   Ukraine Yuzhmash
RSC Energia
7,000[186] 6,160 36[186] 1999 2014
Zenit-3SLB / 3M   Ukraine Yuzhmash
RSC Energia
3,750[186] 6[186] 2008 2013
Zero   Japan Interstellar Technologies 100 to SSO[d][187] 0 2020[187]
Zhuque-1   China LandSpace 300[188] 200 to SSO 1[189] 2018[189] 2018
Zhuque-2   China LandSpace 4,000[190] 2,000 to SSO 0 2020[191]
  1. ^ Suborbital flight tests and on-pad explosions are excluded, but launches failing en route to orbit are included.
  2. ^ Effective year for active rockets, planned year for rockets in development
  3. ^ A suborbital flight was conducted in 2014 as Angara-1.2pp, testing only the first and second stages.[5]
  4. ^ a b c Reference altitude 500 km
  5. ^ Upgraded to 11,115 kg by 2020[10]
  6. ^ With in-orbit refueling
  7. ^ First tests of the second stage spacecraft planned for 2019[28]
  8. ^ a b c d Reference altitude 700 km
  9. ^ a b c Last flight planned for 2019
  10. ^ a b PAF structural limit: 10,886 kg[53]
  11. ^ GTO payload is 5,550 kg when the first stage lands downrange on a drone ship (ASDS). Reduced to 3,500 kg if the first stage returns to the launch site (RTLS).[48]
  12. ^ Additionally, one rocket exploded on the launch pad in 2016.[52]
  13. ^ GTO payload is 8,000 kg when the core first-stage booster lands downrange on a drone ship (ASDS) and the side boosters return to the launch site (RTLS). Increased to 10,000 kg if all boosters land on drone ships.[48]
  14. ^ GTO payload with enhanced engines, as of GSLV version 2A[61]
  15. ^ A suborbital test flight was conducted in 2014 (designated LVM-3/CARE) without the cryogenic upper stage (CUS).[64]
  16. ^ 5,100 kg to a 500-km Sun-synchronous orbit; 3,300 kg to 800 km[65]:64–65
  17. ^ A suborbital test flight was conducted in April 2018.[72]
  18. ^ A suborbital test flight was conducted in November 2018.
  19. ^ Reference altitude 400 km
  20. ^ A suborbital test flight was conducted in May 2018.[118]
  21. ^ Additionally, one rocket exploded on the launch pad in 2012.[132]
  22. ^ A suborbital test flight succeeded in 2016; both orbital flights in 2017 and 2019 failed.[135]
  23. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, without Fregat upper stage.[146]
  24. ^ A prior version of the SS-520 flew twice as a suborbital sounding rocket in 1998 and 2000. In 2017, the addition of a small third stage enabled orbital launches of ultra-light nano- or picosatellites.[158]
  25. ^ A suborbital test flight failed in 2006. The first two orbital missions failed in 2009 and 2012, and the rocket finally reached orbit in late 2012.[164]
  26. ^ Two suborbital test flights were performed in 2017.[166]
  27. ^ a b c Calculated as 30% more than Delta IV Heavy, per sources

Retired rocketsEdit

Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to ... (kg) Launches
(+ suborbital)
Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First Last
Antares 110–130   United States Orbital 5,100[6] 1,500 to SSO 5[6] 2013 2014
Ariane 1   Europe Aérospatiale 1,400 1,830[192] 11[192] 1979 1986
Ariane 2   Europe Aérospatiale 2,270[192] 6[192] 1986 1989
Ariane 3   Europe Aérospatiale 2,650[192] 11[192] 1984 1989
Ariane 4 40   Europe Aérospatiale 4,600[192] 2,105 2,740 to SSO 7[192] 1990 1999
Ariane 4 42L   Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[192] 3,480 4,500 to SSO 13[192] 1993 2002
Ariane 4 42P   Europe Aérospatiale 6,000[192] 2,930 3,400 to SSO 15[192] 1990 2002
Ariane 4 44L   Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[192] 4,720 6,000 to SSO 40[192] 1989 2003
Ariane 4 44LP   Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[192] 4,220 5,000 to SSO 26[192] 1988 2001
Ariane 4 44P   Europe Aérospatiale 6,500[192] 3,465 4,100 to SSO 15[192] 1991 2001
Ariane 5 G   Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[11] 6,900[11] 16[11] 1996 2003
Ariane 5 G+   Europe EADS Astrium 7,100[11] 3[11] 2004 2004
Ariane 5 GS   Europe EADS Astrium 16,000[193] 6,600[11] 6[11] 2005 2009[194]
Ariane 5 ES   Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[8] 8,000[11] 8[11] 2008 2018
ASLV   India ISRO[195] 150[196] 4[196] 1987 1994
Athena I   United States Lockheed Martin 795[197] 515 4[198] 1995 2001
Athena II   United States Lockheed Martin 1,800[199] 3[200] 1998 1999[201]
Atlas-Centaur   United States Lockheed 1,134[202] 2,222[203] 148 1962 1983
Atlas G   United States Lockheed 5,900[204] 2,222 1,179 to HCO[204] 7[204] 1984 1989
Atlas H/MSD   United States Lockheed 3,630[205] 5 1983 1987
Atlas I   United States Lockheed Martin 5,900[204] 2,340[204] 11[204] 1990 1997
Atlas II   United States Lockheed Martin 6,780[204] 2,810 2,000 to HCO[204] 10[204] 1991 1998
Atlas IIA   United States Lockheed Martin 7,316[204] 3,180 2,160 to HCO[204] 23[204] 1992 2002
Atlas IIAS   United States Lockheed Martin 8,618[204] 3,833 2,680 to HCO[204] 30[204] 1993 2004
Atlas IIIA   United States Lockheed Martin 8,686[204] 4,060 2,970 to HCO[204] 2[204] 2000 2004
Atlas IIIB/DEC   United States Lockheed Martin 10,759[204] 4,609[204] 1[204] 2002 2002
Atlas IIIB/SEC   United States Lockheed Martin 10,218[206] 4,193[204] 3[204] 2003 2005
Black Arrow   United Kingdom RAE 73[207] 2 (+2) 1969[note 5] 1971
Commercial Titan III   United States Martin Marietta 13,100[208] 4 1990 1992
Delta 0300   United States McDonnell Douglas 340[209] 747 to SSO[210] 3[211] 1972 1973[212]
Delta 0900   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,300[213] 818 to SSO[211] 2[211] 1972 1972
Delta 1410   United States McDonnell Douglas 340[214] 1[211] 1975 1975
Delta 1604   United States McDonnell Douglas 390[215] 2[211] 1972 1973
Delta 1900   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,800[211] 1[211] 1973 1973
Delta 1910   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,066[216] 1[211] 1975 1975
Delta 1913   United States McDonnell Douglas 328[217] 1[211] 1973 1973
Delta 1914   United States McDonnell Douglas 680[218] 2[211] 1972 1973
Delta 2310   United States McDonnell Douglas 336[219] 3[211] 1974 1981
Delta 2313   United States McDonnell Douglas 243 to GEO[220] 3[211] 1974 1977
Delta 2910   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,887[211] 6[211] 1975 1978
Delta 2913   United States McDonnell Douglas 2,000[221] 700[221] 6[211] 1975 1976
Delta 2914   United States McDonnell Douglas 724[211] 30[211] 1974 1979
Delta 3910   United States McDonnell Douglas 2,494[211] 1,154 with PAM-D 10[211] 1980 1988
Delta 3913   United States McDonnell Douglas 816[222] 1[211] 1981 1981
Delta 3914   United States McDonnell Douglas 954[211] 13[211] 1975 1987
Delta 3920   United States McDonnell Douglas 3,452[211] 1,284 with PAM-D 10[211] 1982 1989
Delta 3924   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,104[211] 4[211] 1982 1984
Delta 4925   United States McDonnell Douglas 3,400[223] 1,312[211] 2[211] 1989 1990
Delta 5920   United States McDonnell Douglas 3,848[224] 1[211] 1989 1989
Delta II 6920   United States McDonnell Douglas 3,983[211] 3[211] 1990 1992
Delta II 6925   United States McDonnell Douglas 1,447[211] 14[211] 1989 1992
Delta II 7320   United States Boeing IDS / ULA 2,865[211] 1,651 to SSO 12[211] 1999 2015
Delta II 7326   United States Boeing IDS 934[211] 636 to TLI
629 to HCO
3[211] 1998 2001
Delta II 7420   United States ULA 3,185[211] 1,966 to SSO 14[211] 1998 2018
Delta II 7425   United States Boeing IDS 1,100[211] 804 to HCO 4[211] 1998 2002
Delta II 7426   United States Boeing IDS 1,058[211] 734 to TLI
711 to HCO
1[211] 1999 1999
Delta II 7920   United States Boeing IDS / ULA 5,030[211] 3,123 to SSO 29[211] 1998 2017
Delta II 7925   United States Boeing IDS / ULA 1,819[211] 1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO
69[211] 1990 2009
Delta II-H 7920H   United States Boeing IDS / ULA 6,097[211] 3[211] 2003 2011
Delta II-H 7925H   United States Boeing IDS / ULA 2,171 1,508 to HCO[211] 3[211] 2003 2007
Delta III 8930   United States Boeing IDS 8,292[211] 3,810 3[211] 1998 2000
Delta IV M   United States Boeing IDS 9,440[38] 4,440 7,690 to polar 3[39] 2003 2006
Delta IV M+(5,2)   United States ULA 11,470[38] 5,490 9,600 to polar 3[39] 2012 2018
Delta IV M+(5,4)   United States ULA 14,140[38] 7,300 11,600 to polar 8[39] 2009 2019
Diamant   France SEREB 107[225][226] 12 1965 1975
Dnepr   Ukraine Yuzhmash 3,700[227] 22[227] 1999 2015[228]
Energia[note 6]   Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000[229] 20,000 to GEO[229]
32,000 to TLI[229]
1 (failed to orbit)[230] 1987 1987
Energia-Buran   Soviet Union NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
30,000[229]
[note 7]
1 1988 1988
Falcon 1   United States SpaceX 470[231] 5[231] 2006 2009
Falcon 9 v1.0   United States SpaceX 10,450[232] 4,540[232] 5[233] 2010 2013
Falcon 9 v1.1   United States SpaceX 13,150[note 8][234] 4,850[234] 15[233] 2013 2016
Feng Bao 1   China Shanghai Bureau No.2 2,500[235] 8 (+3)[236] 1972 1981
GSLV Mk.I(a)   India ISRO 5,000[59] 1,540[237] 1[237] 2001 2001
GSLV Mk.I(b)   India ISRO 5,000[59] 2,150[237] 4[237] 2003 2007
GSLV Mk.I(c)   India ISRO 5,000[59] 1[237] 2010 2010
H-I   Japan
  United States
Mitsubishi 1,400[238] 9 1986 1992
H-II / IIS   Japan Mitsubishi 10,060[239] 4,000[240] 7[240] 1994 1999
H-IIA 2022   Japan Mitsubishi 4,500[66] 3[66] 2005 2007
H-IIA 2024   Japan Mitsubishi 11,000[241] 5,000[66] 7[66] 2002 2008
J-I   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 1,000[243] 0 (+1) 1996 1996
Kaituozhe-1   China CALT 100[244] 2 2002 2003
Kosmos-3M   Soviet Union
  Russia
NPO Polyot 1,500[245] 442[246] 1967 2010
Lambda 4S   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 26[247] 5 1966 1970
Long March 1   China CALT 300[248] 2[249] 1970 1971
Long March 1D   China CALT 740[250] 0 (+3)[249] 1995[note 9] 2002
Long March 2A   China CALT 2,000[251] 4[83] 1974 1978
Long March 2E   China CALT 9,200[83] 7[83] 1990 1995
Long March 3   China CALT 5,000[85] 14[85] 1984 2000
Long March 3B   China CALT 11,200[84] 5,100 5,700 to SSO 12[85] 1996 2012
Long March 4A   China CALT 4,000 2[86] 1988 1990
M-V   Japan Nissan Motors[242] (1997–2000)
IHI Aerospace[42] (2000–2006)
1,850[247] 7 1997 2006
Molniya   Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,800[252] 40[253] 1960 1967
Molniya-M   Soviet Union
  Russia
RSC Energia 2,400[254] 280[255] 1965 2010
Mu-3C   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 195[247] 4 1974 1979
Mu-3H   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 300[247] 3 1977 1978
Mu-3S   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 300[247] 4 1980 1984
Mu-3SII   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 770[247] 8 1985 1995
Mu-4S   Japan Nissan Motors[242] 180[247] 4 1971 1972
N1   Soviet Union NPO Energia 95,000[note 10] [256][257][258] 4[259] (never reached orbit) 1969 1972
N-I   Japan
  United States
Mitsubishi 1,200[260] 7 1975 1982
N-II   Japan
  United States
Mitsubishi 2,000[261] 8 1981 1987
Naro-1   South Korea
  Russia
KARI/Khrunichev 100[262] 3 2009 2013
Paektusan   North Korea KCST 700[263] 0 (+1) 1998 1998
Polyot   Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,400 2 1963 1964
Proton-K   Soviet Union
  Russia
Khrunichev 19,760[264] 4,930[265] 311[266] 1965 2012
PSLV-G   India ISRO 3,200[128] 1,050 1,600 to SSO 12[128] 1993 2016[267]
Saturn I   United States Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
9,000[268] 10[269] 1961 1965[269]
Saturn IB   United States Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
18,600[270] 9[271] 1966 1975
Saturn V   United States Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
140,000[272][273] 47,000 to TLI[274] 13[275][276] [note 11] 1967 1973
Scout   United States US Air Force/NASA 174[277] 125 1961 1994
Shtil'   Russia Makeyev 280–420[278] 2[279] 1998 2006
SLV   India ISRO 40[280] 4[280] 1979 1983[280]
Soyuz   Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,450 31[281] 1966 1976
Soyuz-L   Soviet Union RSC Energia 5,500 3[282] 1970 1971
Soyuz-M   Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,600 8[283] 1971 1976
Soyuz-U   Soviet Union
  Russia
TsSKB-Progress 6,650 from Baikonour[284]
6,150 from Plesetsk[284]
786[285][147][144] 1973 2017
Soyuz-U2   Soviet Union
  Russia
TsSKB-Progress 7,050 72[286] 1982 1995
Space Shuttle   United States ATK (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (External tank)
Rockwell (Orbiter)
24,400[note 7]
3,550 to escape with IUS[287] 135[289] 1981 2011
Sputnik 8K71PS   Soviet Union RSC Energia 500[290] 2 1957 1957
Sputnik 8A91   Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,327 2 1958 1958
Start-1   Russia MITT 532 350 to SSO[291] 5[292] 1993 2006
Strela   Russia Khrunichev 1,400[293] 3[294] 2003 2014
Titan II GLV   United States Martin Marietta 3,600[295] 11 (+1) 1964 1966
Titan II(23)G   United States Martin Marietta 3,600[296] 13 1988 2003
Titan IIIA   United States Martin Marietta 3,100[297] 4 1964 1965
Titan IIIB   United States Martin Marietta 3,000[298] 70 1966 1987
Titan IIIC   United States Martin Marietta 13,100[299] 36 1965 1982
Titan IIID   United States Martin Marietta 12,300[300] 22 1971 1982
Titan IIIE   United States Martin Marietta 15,400[301] 7 1974 1977
Titan 34D   United States Martin Marietta 4,515[302] 15 1982 1989
Titan IVA   United States Martin Marietta 17,110[303] 4,944 with IUS
22[304] 1989 1998
Titan IVB   United States Lockheed Martin 21,682[305] 5,761[305]
(9,000 with upper stage)
17[304] 1997 2005
Tsyklon-2A   Soviet Union Yuzhmash 3,350[306] 8[307] 1967 1969
Tsyklon-2   Soviet Union
  Ukraine
Yuzhmash 2,820[308] 106[309] 1969 2006[309]
Tsyklon-3   Soviet Union
  Ukraine
Yuzhmash 1,920[310] 122[311] 1977 2009[311]
Vanguard   United States Martin 9[312] 11 (+1) 1957 1959
VLS-1   Brazil AEB, IAE 380[313] 2[note 12] (never reached orbit) 1997 2003
Volna   Russia Makeyev 100[314] 1 (+5)[279] 1995[note 13] 2005[279]
Voskhod   Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[315] 306 1963 1976
Vostok-L   Soviet Union RSC Energia 390 to TLI[316] 4 1960 1960
Vostok-K   Soviet Union RSC Energia 2,460[317] 16 1960 1964
Vostok-2   Soviet Union RSC Energia 4,730[317] 45 1962 1967
Vostok-2M   Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,300[318] 93 1964 1991
Soyuz/Vostok   Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[319] 2 1965 1966
Zenit-2   Soviet Union
  Ukraine
Yuzhnoye 13,740[320] 36[321] 1985 2004[322]
Zenit-2M / 2SLB   Ukraine Yuzhnoye 13,920[320] 2[321] 2007 2011

Launch systems by countryEdit

The following chart shows the number of launch systems developed in each country, and broken down by operational status. Rocket variants are not distinguished; i.e., the Atlas V series is only counted once for all its configurations 401–431, 501–551, 552, and N22.

10
20
30
40
AUS
BRZ
CHN
EUR
ESP
FRA
IND
IRN
ISR
JPN
NKR
NZL
RUS
SKR
UKR
UK
USA
  •   Operational
  •   In development
  •   Retired

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
  2. ^ The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in warfare as early as the 13th century.
  3. ^ Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
  4. ^ Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
  5. ^ First suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  6. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  7. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  8. ^ The SpaceX website lists the F9 payload to LEO as 13,150kg. The payload to GTO is listed as 4,850kg. However, SpaceX has stated that these numbers include a 30% margin to accommodate re-usability.
  9. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  10. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90–95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  11. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  12. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  13. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005

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