Open main menu

Comparison of orbital launcher families

This list is a comparison of orbital launcher families. To see the long complete list of launch systems, see Comparison of orbital launch systems.

DescriptionEdit

  • Family: Name of the family/model of launcher
  • Country: Origin country of launcher
  • Manufac.: Main manufacturer
  • Payload: Maximum mass of payload, for 3 altitudes
  • Cost: Price for a launch at this time, in millions of US$
  • Launches reaching...
    • Total: flights which lift-off, or where the vehicle is destroyed during the terminal count
      note: only includes orbital launches (flights launched with the intention of reaching orbit). Suborbital tests launches are not included in this listing.
    • Space (regardless of outcome)
    • Any orbit (regardless of outcome)
    • Target orbit (without damage to the payload)
  • Status: Actual status of launcher (retired, development, active)
  • Date of flight
    • First: Year of first flight of first family's member
    • Last: Year of Last flight (for vehicles retired from service)
  • Refs: citations

Same cores are grouped together (like Ariane 1, 2 & 3, but not V).

List of launcher familiesEdit

Legend
  Active
  In development
  Retired
  Active, and being updated and revised

Family Country Manufac. Payload (kg) Cost (US$,
millions)
Launches reaching... Status Date of flight Notes Refs
LEO GTO TLI Total Space Any orbit Target orbit First Last
Angara 1.2   Russia Khrunichev 3,800 -- -- 25 1 1 0 N/A Active 2014 As of 2017, only launch was suborbital[1] [2][3][4]
Angara A5   Russia Khrunichev 14,600–​35,000 3,600–​12,500 -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2014 [2][5]
Antares   USA Orbital ATK 6,500 -- -- 80[citation needed] 7 6 6 6 Active 2013 Cygnus launcher [6][7][8]
Ariane 1-2-3   Europe Aérospatiale N/A 2,650 N/A -- 28 Retired 1979 1989 [9][10]
Ariane 4   Europe Aérospatiale 7,000 4,720 N/A -- 116 Retired 1988 2003 Var.: 40, 42P, 42L, 44P, 44L, 44LP [10]
Ariane 5   Europe Airbus 21,000 10,735[11] N/A 165–​220 76 74 74 72 Active 1996 Var.: G, G+, GS, ECA, ES. [12][13][14]
Ariane 6   Europe Airbus Safran 21,500 11,500 N/A 115 0 Devel. 2020 Var.: Ariane 62, Ariane 64.
ASLV   India ISRO 150 -- -- -- 4 Retired 1987 1994 [15]
Athena I & II   USA Lockheed ATK 2,065 -- 295 -- 7 Retired 1995 2001 Launch Lunar Prospector.[16] [17]
Atlas A-B-C-D-E-F-G
Atlas I
  USA Lockheed 5,900 2,340 -- -- 514 Retired 1957 1997 Launch Mercury.
Atlas or Centaur upper stage.
[18][19][20][21]
Atlas II   USA Lockheed 8,618 3,833 -- -- 63 63 63 Retired 1991 2004 [22][23][24]
Atlas III   USA Lockheed 10,759 4,609 -- -- 6 6 6 Retired 2003 2005 Var.: IIIA, IIIB [25][26]
Atlas V   USA ULA 18,850 8,900 2,807 109–​153 74 74 74 73 Active 2002 Launched Juno & New Horizons [27][28]
Black Arrow   UK RAE Westland 132 -- -- -- 4 3 Retired 1969 1971 [29]
Delta   USA Douglas 3,848 1,312 -- -- 186 Retired 1960 1989 Launched Pioneer & Explorer probes.
Var. A, B, C, D, E, G, J, L, M, N, 300, 900, 1X00, 4X00, 2X00, 3X00, 5X00
[30][30]
Delta II   USA ULA 6,000 2,171 1,508 51 153 152 152 151 Retired 1989 2018 Launched Mars probes MGS to Phoenix
Var.: 6000, 7000, and Heavy.
[30][31][32]
Delta III   USA Boeing 8,290 3,810 -- -- 3 2 2 Retired 1998 2000 [33][34]
Delta IV   USA ULA 23,040 13,130 9,000 -- 35 35 35 34 Active 2002 Var.: M, M+, and Heavy. [35]
Diamant   France SEREB -- -- -- 12 9 Retired 1965 1975 [citation needed]
R-36M
Dnepr
  Ukraine
  Russia
Yuzhmash 3,600 -- 750 14 17 Retired 1999 2015 [36][37]
[full citation needed][38]
Electron   NZ
  USA
Rocket Lab 225 6 9 9 8 8 Active 2017 [39]
Energia   Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000 240 2 2 1 1 Retired 1987 1988 1 partial failure with Polyus spacecraft, 1 successful flight with Buran shuttle. [40][citation needed]
Epsilon   Japan IHI Corporation 1,200 -- -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2013 [41][42]
Falcon 1   USA SpaceX 420[43] -- -- 7.9[43] 5[44] 4[43] 2[43] 2[44] Retired[43] 2006 2009
Falcon 9
v1.0, v1.1, FT, Block 5
  USA SpaceX 22,800 8,300 -- 61.2 77 76 75 76 Active 2010 Upgrade to version 1.1 in 2013; upgrade to version FT in 2015
Launcher of Dragon capsule.

One flight put primary but not secondary payload into correct orbit,[45] one rocket and payload were destroyed before launch in preparation for static fire[46] and thus is not counted. Falcon 9 Block 5 first launched 11 May 2018 with Bangabandhu 1, the first fully sized Bangladesh satellite.

[47][48]
Falcon Heavy   USA SpaceX 63,800 26,700 -- 90–​150 3 3 3 3 Active 2018 First test launch 2018-02-06 [49][50][51]
GSLV Mk.I   India ISRO 5,000 2,500 -- -- 6 4 2 2 Retired 2001 2010 [52][53][54]
GSLV Mk.II   India ISRO 5,000 2,700 -- -- 7 6 6 6 Active 2010 [52][53][54]
GSLV Mk.III (LVM3)   India ISRO 10,000 4,000 4,000 -- 4 4 4 4 Active 2014 [55][56]
H-I   Japan Mitsubishi 3,200 -- -- 9 9 Retired 1986 1992 License-built version of the Thor-ELT [57]
H-II, IIA & IIB   Japan Mitsubishi 19,000 8,000 -- (190), 90, 112 28 26 Active 1994 Var.: A202, A2022, A2024, A204, B [58]
Haas   Romania ARCA 400 -- -- 0 Devel. 2018 Launch from balloon [59][60]
J-I   Japan IHI Corporation Nissan Motors 880 -- -- -- 1 Retired 1996 1996 Partial demonstration flight only [citation needed]
R-12 & R-14
Kosmos
  Soviet Union Yuzhnoye Polyot 1,500 -- -- 12 610 559 Retired 1967 2010 Var.: 1, 2, 3, 3M [13][61][62]
Kaituozhe   China CALT -- -- -- 3 0 Active 2002 Var.: 1, 2 [citation needed]
Lambda 4S   Japan Nissan ISAS -- -- -- 5 1 Retired 1966 1970 [citation needed]
Long March 1   China CALT 740 440 -- -- 6 Retired 1970 2002 Var.: 1, 1D [63][64][65]
DF-5
Long March 2-3-4
  China CALT 12,000 5,500 3,300 -- 167 158 Active 1971 Var.: 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E, 3, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4, 4B
Launcher of Shenzhou
[66]
Long March 5   China CALT 25,000 14,000 8,000 -- 2 2 1 1 Active 2016 Var.: 5, 5B [67][68]
Long March 6   China CALT 1,500 -- -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2015 [69]
Long March 7   China CALT 20,000 -- -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2016 [70]
Minotaur I   USA Orbital ATK 580 -- -- -- 11 11 11 11 Active 2000 Derived from the Minuteman II [71][72]
Minotaur IV & V   USA Orbital ATK 1,735 640 447 50 4 4 4 4 Active 2010 Also 2 suborbital launches (HTV-2a). Var.: IV, IV Lite, IV HAPS, V. Derived from Peacekeeper missile [71][73]
Mu 1-3-4   Japan Nissan Motor IHI 770 -- -- -- 27 Retired 1966 1995 Var.: 1, 3D, 4S, 3C, 3H, 3S, 3SII [74]
Mu 5   Japan Nissan Motor IHI 1,800 -- -- -- 7 6 Retired 1997 2006 Var.: M-V, M-V KM [citation needed]
N1   Soviet Union NPO Energia 90,000 -- 23,500 -- 4 0 0 0 Retired 1969 1972 Designed for Soviet Manned Lunar Mission [75]
N-I & II   Japan Mitsubishi 2,000 730 -- -- 15 Retired 1975 1987 Derived from the American Delta rocket [76]
Naro   South Korea Khrunichev KARI 100 -- -- -- 3 2 1 1 Retired 2009 2013 First stage uses the Russian RD-151 engine [77]
Nuri   South Korea KARI 1,500 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2021
Pegasus   USA Orbital ATK 450 -- -- -- 43 42 41 38 Active 1990 [78]
UR-500 Proton   Soviet Union
  Russia
Khrunichev 23,000 6,920 5,680 65 (Proton-M) 399 353 Active 1965 Var.: K, M, Medium in development. [79][80][81]
PSLV   India ISRO 3,800 1,300 -- -- 45 44 43 42 Active 1993 Var.: CA, XL, HP, 3S
Launched moon probe Chandrayaan I, Mars probe Mangalyaan I
[82][83]
UR-100N Rokot Strela   Russia Eurockot Khrunichev 2,100 -- -- -- 25 23 23 Active 1994 23 launches of Rokot; 2 launches of Strela [84][85][86][87]
Safir   Iran ISA 50 -- -- -- 7 5 4 4 Active 2007 [88]
Saturn I & IB   USA Chrysler Douglas 18,600 -- -- 19 13 13 13 13 Retired 1961 1975 Saturn 1 family also included 6 suborbital test launches [89][90]
Saturn V   USA Boeing North American Douglas 118,000 -- 47,000 185 13 13 13 Retired 1967 1973 Var.: Apollo, Skylab [89][91][92]
Scout   USA US Air Force NASA 210 -- -- -- 125 104 Retired 1960 1994 Var.: X1, X2, A, D, G [93]
Shavit   Israel IAI 225 -- -- 15 10 8 8 8 Active 1988 Var.: Shavit, -1, -2 [94]
R-29
Shtil Volna
  Russia Makeyev 430 -- -- -- 8 Active 1995 Var.: Volna, Shtil, 2.1, 2R, 3 [95]
R-7 Semyorka Soyuz   Soviet Union
  Russia
RSC Energia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 2,400 1,200 -- 1,854 Active 1957 Var.: Sputnik, Luna, Vostok-L, Vostok-K, Voskhod, Molniya, Molniya-L, Molniya-M, Polyot, Soyuz, Soyuz-L, Soyuz-M, Soyuz-U, Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-2, Soyuz-2-1v [96][97]
Simorgh   Iran ISA 350 -- -- -- 2 0 0 0 Active 2016 [98]
SLS   USA Orbital ATK Boeing United Launch Alliance Aerojet Rocketdyne 95,000–​130,000 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 Expected 2020 [99][100]
SLV   India ISRO 40 -- -- -- 4 3 3 2 Retired 1979 1983 Launched Rohini satellite series [101]
SS-520   Japan IHI Aerospace 4 -- -- -- 4 3 1 1 2017 Two successful suborbital flights, one failed and one successful attempt to reach orbit. A test how small orbital rockets can be. The rocket has a mass of only 2.6 tonnes. [102]
Small Satellite Launch Vehicle   India ISRO 500 300 -- -- 0 Devel. 2019 As of December 2018, design of the rocket has been completed and first developmental flight was to take place before May 2019.[needs update] [103][104]
STS
Space Shuttle
  USA Alliant Martin Marietta Rockwell 24,400 3,810 -- 450 135 134 134 133 Retired 1981 2011 Orbiter mass: 68585 kg. [105]
Starship   USA SpaceX 150,000 40,000 100,000+[a] -- 0 Devel. 2020 Previously called BFR [106][107][108][109][110]
RT-2PM
Start-1
  Russia MITT 532 -- -- -- 7 6 Active 1993 [111]
Taurus / Minotaur-C   USA Orbital Sciences 1,450 -- -- -- 9 9 6 6 Active 1989 Var.: 2110, 3110, 3210 [112]
Thor   USA Douglas 1,270 -- 38 -- 357 Retired 1957 1980 Launched Pioneer & Explorer probes [30]
LGM-25C
Titan I-II-III-IV
  USA Martin Marietta 21,900 5,773 8,600 350 369 Retired 1959 2005 Var.: I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, IIID, IIIE, 34D, IVA, IVB
Gemini launcher
[113][114]
R-36
Tsyklon
  Soviet Union
  Ukraine
Yuzhmash 4,100 -- -- -- 259 Retired 1967 2009 Var.: 1, 2, 3. [115]
Unified Launch Vehicle   India ISRO 4,500–​41,300 1,500–​16,300 -- -- 0 Devel. Var.: 6S12, 2S60, 2S138, 2S200 [116]
Unha-3   North Korea KCST 200 -- -- -- 4 3 2 Active 2006 Var.: Paektusan based on Taepodong-1 missile; Unha based on Taepodong-2 missile. [117][118]
Vanguard   USA Martin 23 -- -- -- 12 3 Retired 1957 1959 [119]
Vega   Europe Avio 2,300 -- -- 23 14 14 14 14 Revis. 2012 Vega-C and Vega-E in development. [120]
VLM   Brazil CTA 380 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2019 [121]
Vulcan   USA ULA 17,800–​34,900 7,400–​16,300 -- 99 0 Devel. 2021 [122][123][124][125]
Zenit   Soviet Union
  Ukraine
  Russia
Yuzhnoye 13,740 6,160 4,098 -- 82 71 69 Active 1985 Var.: 2, 2M (2SB, 2SLB), 3SL, 3SLB, 3SLBF [126]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ With in-orbit refueling

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Peter B. de Selding, "Russia's Angara 1.2 Rocket Succeeds in Inaugural Flight, Khrunichev Says", Space News, Jul. 9, 2014 (accessed 22 Sept 2014)
  2. ^ a b "Angara launchers family on manufacturer website". Khrunichev.ru. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  3. ^ The market for launching small satellite in Russia... Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Angara, Russia's brand-new launch vehicle, is successfully launched from Plesetsk". Khrunichev. Retrieved 2014-09-21.
  5. ^ http://www.russianspaceweb.com/angara5_flight1.html Angara-5 takes to the sky
  6. ^ "Antares (Taurus-2)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  7. ^ "Antares - Fact Sheet" (PDF). Orbital Sciences. 2017. FS007 06 OA 3695 021317. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Antares Medium-class Launch Vehicle: Fact Sheet" (PDF). Orbital Sciences Corporation. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  9. ^ esa. "ESA". European Space Agency. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Ariane-1, -2, -3, -4". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  11. ^ "Intelsat Pair lifted into Orbit in Record-Setting Ariane 5 Launch". Spaceflight 101. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  12. ^ "Ariane-5". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b "FAA Semi- Annual Launch Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Arianespace aims high in Asia-Pacific". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  15. ^ "ASLV page, Astronautix". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Lunar Prospector". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Athena-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Atlas-G Centaur-D1AR". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  19. ^ "Atlas Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  20. ^ "Atlas I". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  21. ^ "Atlas-1 (Atlas-I)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  22. ^ Spaceflight Now, Atlas IIAS (accessed 24 Sept 2014)
  23. ^ "Atlas-2AS (Atlas-IIAS)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  24. ^ Tariq Malik "Final Atlas 2 Rocket Orbits Classified U.S. Satellite", Space News, August 31, 2004 (Accessed 24 Sept 2014)
  25. ^ Space Launch Report: Atlas III Data Sheet (accessed 24 Sept. 2014)
  26. ^ "Atlas IIIA". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2014-09-24.
  27. ^ "Atlas V Product Page". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  28. ^ "LRO/LCROSS Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  29. ^ Hill, C. N. (2001). "Black Arrow". A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950-1971 (2006 ed.). London: Imperial College Press. pp. 155–188. ISBN 1-86094-268-7.
  30. ^ a b c d "Thor Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  31. ^ "Full perfs of Delta Family, SkyRocket.de". Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2012-02-15.
  32. ^ "Delta-7925H (Delta-II)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Delta 3 on Encyclopedia Astronautica, Astronautix". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  34. ^ "Delta III Data Sheet". Space Launch Report. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  35. ^ Delta IV Heavy Delta IV
  36. ^ "Dnepr SLS User's Guide" (PDF). ISC Kosmotras. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  37. ^ "Dnepr". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  38. ^ Clark, Stephen (30 December 2016). "Iridium satellites closed up for launch on Falcon 9 rocket". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 30 December 2016. Russian officials have said they plan to discontinue Dnepr launches.
  39. ^ "Completed Missions". Rocket Lab. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  40. ^ Russian Space Web, Energia page. Accessed 21 September 2010
  41. ^ JAXA pages: Epsilon Design E Archived 2013-06-10 at the Wayback Machine, and Result E
  42. ^ JAXA, Epsilon E press package
  43. ^ a b c d e "Encyclopedia Astronautica Falcon 1". Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  44. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (July 14, 2009). "Commercial launch of SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket a success". Spaceflight Now.
  45. ^ de Selding, Peter. "Satellite Left Stranded by SpaceX Rocket Falls From Space". Space.com. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  46. ^ "SpaceX on Twitter". Retrieved 2016-09-01.
  47. ^ "SpaceX Product Page". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  48. ^ "Falcon-9 Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  49. ^ Clark, Stephen (2011-04-05). "SpaceX enters the realm of heavy-lift rocketry". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
  50. ^ "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Falcon Heavy". SpaceX. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
  51. ^ Sheetz, Michael. "Elon Musk says the new SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket crushes its competition on cost". CNBC. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  52. ^ a b "GSLV Mk.1 (2)". Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  53. ^ a b ISRO GSLV Archived 2014-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ a b "GSLV". Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  55. ^ "First Experimental Flight of GSLV Mk-III Successful". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
  56. ^ "GSLV Mk.III". Indian Space Research Organisation. 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
  57. ^ "H-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
  58. ^ "H-IIB Launch Vehicle". Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09.
  59. ^ "Haas Orbital Rocket Launcher" (PDF). Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  60. ^ "ARCA Unveils the World's first Single-Stage-to-Orbit Rocket". 2017-03-31. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  61. ^ "Kosmos 3M page on Encyclopedia Astronautica". Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  62. ^ "Kosmos / Kosmos-2". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  63. ^ "CZ-1D page on Encyclopedia Astronautica". Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  64. ^ "CZ-1". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  65. ^ "List of retired launchers, Encyclopedia Astronautica". Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  66. ^ "DF-5 Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  67. ^ "Long March 5 Will Have World's Second Largest Carrying Capacity". Space Daily. 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  68. ^ Space.com staff (30 July 2012). "China Tests Powerful Rocket Engine for New Booster". Space.com. The more capable Long March 5 rocket is expected to help the country achieve its goal of constructing a space station in orbit by the year 2020, as well as play a key role in China's future space exploration aims beyond low-Earth orbit. The rocket's maiden launch is expected to occur in '
  69. ^ "CZ-6 (Chang Zheng-6)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  70. ^ Perrett, Bradley (2010-03-15). "Longer Marches". Aviation Week.
  71. ^ a b Orbital Sciences, Minotaur History Archived December 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ Orbital Sciences, Minotaur-1 Overview Archived 2014-10-30 at the Wayback Machine (accessed 25 September 2014)]
  73. ^ Orbital Sciences, Minotaur IV-V-VI Overview Archived 2014-07-16 at the Wayback Machine (accessed 25 September 2014)]
  74. ^ "M-class". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  75. ^ "Complex N1-L3 Components". S.P. Korolev RSC "Energia". Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  76. ^ "N-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  77. ^ Bergin, Chris (30 January 2013). "South Korea launch STSAT-2C via KSLV-1". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  78. ^ "Pegasus User's Guide" (PDF). Orbital Sciences Corporation. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  79. ^ "Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide. Section 2. LV Performance" (PDF). International Launch Services.
  80. ^ "Soyuz 7K-L1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2010-05-16. Circumlunar probe launched by Proton-K/D.
  81. ^ Surplus Missile Motors (PDF) (Report). United States Government Accountability Office. August 2017. GAO-17-609. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  82. ^ Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
  83. ^ "PSLV - ISRO". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  84. ^ "Rockot User's Guide, Chapter 3: General Performance Capabilities (5.0)" (PDF). Eurockot Launch Services. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  85. ^ "Rokot (Rockot)". space.skyrocket.de. Archived from the original on 22 April 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  86. ^ "Strela". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  87. ^ Russian Strela Launches Kondor Satellite (retrieved 24 Sept 2014)
  88. ^ "Safir". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  89. ^ a b NASA, Saturn launch vehicles (PDF)
  90. ^ "Saturn-1 & Saturn-1B". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  91. ^ "Saturn-5". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  92. ^ "ch6". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  93. ^ "Scout Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  94. ^ "Shavit page on Encyclopedia Astronautica". Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  95. ^ "Vysota / Volna / Shtil". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  96. ^ "R-7 Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  97. ^ "РКЦ Прогресс РН "Союз-2"". en.samspace.ru. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  98. ^ "Simorgh (Safir-2)". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  99. ^ SLS fact sheet, PDF, Nasa website
  100. ^ Clark, Stephen. "NASA expects first Space Launch System flight to slip into 2020". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  101. ^ Claude Lafleur, SLV / Indian Launch Vehicle, Spacecraft Encyclopedia (accessed Sept 25 2014)
  102. ^ "SS-520". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  103. ^ "SSLV". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  104. ^ Rajwi, Tiki (2018-12-21). "Design for Small Satellite Launch Vehicle ready". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  105. ^ "NASA – Space Shuttle and International Space Station". Nasa.gov. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
  106. ^ SpaceX (29 September 2017). "Making Life Multiplanetary". Retrieved 2 November 2017 – via YouTube.
  107. ^ Foust, Jeff (2017-09-29). "Musk unveils revised version of giant interplanetary launch system". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  108. ^ Ralph, Eric. "SpaceX will launch its Mars spaceship into orbit as early as 2020". Teslarati.com. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  109. ^ https://www.spacex.com/mars
  110. ^ "Elon Musk renames his BFR spacecraft Starship". BBC News. 20 November 2018.
  111. ^ "Start". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  112. ^ "Taurus / Minotaur-C". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  113. ^ "Titan Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  114. ^ "Titan-4". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  115. ^ "Tsiklon". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  116. ^ http://www.indiandefensenews.in/2014/10/isros-unified-launch-vehicle-ulv.html
  117. ^ "North Korea Successfully Launches Satellite: Reports", SPACE.com, December 12, 2012 (accessed 24 Sept. 2014)
  118. ^ http://spaceflight101.com/status-of-north-korean-satellite-unknown-after-prolonged-radio-silence-reports-of-tumbling/
  119. ^ "Vanguard Page on Encyclopedia Astronautica. Vanguard 3 satellite was 23 kg". Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  120. ^ Kyle, Ed. "New Launchers - ESA Vega". www.spacelaunchreport.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  121. ^ "VLS". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  122. ^ Bruno, Tory. "Lots of requests to update the Capabilities info-G with the #VulcanRocket. (ie; future systems). Here you go.pic.twitter.com/QGK835yStI". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  123. ^ "United Launch Alliance to lay off up to 875 by end of 2017: CEO". 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2017 – via Reuters.
  124. ^ "ULA now planning first launch of Vulcan in 2021 - SpaceNews.com". SpaceNews.com. 2018-10-25. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  125. ^ "Atlas V, Delta IV and Vulcan technical summary" (PDF). ulalaunch.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  126. ^ "Zenit Family". space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved 2 November 2017.