Comparison of orbital rocket engines

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Current and upcoming rocket enginesEdit

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Status Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[b] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aeon 1   USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 1st CH4 / LOX 310 86,740 (SL)[1]
Aeon 1 Vacuum   USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 2nd CH4 / LOX 360 100,085 (SL)[1]
AJ-10-190   USA Aerojet Space Shuttle

Orion

Active Upper N2O4/MMH 316[2] 26,689[2] 118[2] 23.08 8.62[2]
AJ-60A   USA Aerojet Atlas V Active Booster HTPB 275 1,270,000[3]
AR1   USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Beta (potential)[4] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 2,200,000 (SL)[5] 2.72
BE-3   USA Blue Origin New Shepard Active 1st LH2 / LOX 490,000[6]
BE-3U   USA Blue Origin New Glenn Development 2nd LH2 / LOX 710,000[6]
BE-4   USA Blue Origin New Glenn
Vulcan
Development 1st CH4 / LOX 2,400,000[7][8] 134[9]
CE-20   India LPSC GSLV Mk III Active Upper LH2 / LOX 443 200,000 588 34.7 60.00 5.05
CE-7.5   India LPSC GSLV Mk II Active Upper LH2 / LOX 454[10] 73,500 445 16.85 58
Engine-2   USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 327[11]
290 (SL)
100,000[11] 2.62
Engine-2 Vacuum   USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 365[11] 100,000[11] 2.62
GEM 63   USA Northrop Grumman Atlas V Development Booster HTPB 1,662,745[12] 44,225
GEM 63XL   USA Northrop Grumman Vulcan Development Booster HTPB 2,025,720[12] 47,990
Hadley   USA Ursa Major Technologies GOLauncher 1[13] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 22,241 (SL)[14]
HM-7B   Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
Ariane 5 ECA
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 446[15]
310 (SL)[16]
64,800[15]
43,600 (SL)[16]
165[15] 43.25 37[15] 5
LE-5B   Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 447[17] 137,000 269 51.93 36.0 5
LE-7A   Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 438[18]
338 (SL)[18]
1,098,000
870,000 (SL)
1,800 62.2 121 5.9
Lightning 1   USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 322[19] 70,100[19]
Merlin 1D FT   USA SpaceX Falcon 9 FT
Falcon Heavy
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 311 914,000[20]
845,000 (SL)[20]
470 194.5[20]
Merlin Vacuum 1D   USA SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon Heavy
Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 348[21] 934,000[21] 2.36
Mira (LM10)   Italy Avio Vega E[22] Development 3rd[22] CH4 / LOX[22] 362.3[22] 98,100[22] 250[22] 40[22] 3.4[22]
NewtonThree   USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Development Booster RP-1 / LOX 266,893[23]
NewtonFour   USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 22,241[23]
NK-33A (AJ26-62)
11Д111 / 14Д15
  Soviet Union JSC Kuznetsov Antares 100
Soyuz-2-1v
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 331[24]
297 (SL)
1,680,000
1,510,000 (SL)
1,222 136.8 145
P80   Europe Avio Vega Active 1st HTPB 280[25] 3,015,000[25] 96,000 with fuel
P120C   Europe Avio Ariane 6
Vega-C
Development Booster, 1st HTPB 279[26] 4,650,000[26] 161,000 with fuel[26]
P230   Europe Avio Ariane 5 Active Booster HTPB 286[27]
259 (SL)
6,470,000
5,860,000 (SL)
269,000 with fuel[27]
S139   India SDSC PSLV Active 1st HTPB 269[28] 4,860,000 160,200
with fuel
58
Raptor[29]   USA SpaceX Starship Development 1st, 2nd CH4 / LOX 356[30]
330 (SL)
1,960,000 (SL)[31] ~1,360 (goal)[32] ≥170 (goal)[32] 300[33] 3.6[34]
Raptor Vacuum[29]   USA SpaceX Starship Development 2nd CH4 / LOX 380+[35] 2,150,000[36] ~1,360 (goal)[32] ≤120 (goal)[32] 300[33] 3.6[34]
RD-0124
14Д23
  Russia KBKhA Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2-1v
Angara
Active 2nd, 3rd RP-1 / LOX 359[37] 294,300 520 57.7 160
RD-0146D   Russia KBKhA Angara Development Upper LH2 / LOX 470[38] 68,600 59
RD-107A
14Д22
  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 320.2[39]
263.3 (SL)
1,019,892
839,449 (SL)
1,090 78.53 61.2
RD-108A
14Д21
  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 320.6[39]
257.7 (SL)
921,825
792,377 (SL)
1,075 75.16 55.5
RD-171M[c]11Д520   Russia NPO Energomash Zenit-2M
Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB
Zenit-3SLBF
Soyuz-5
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2[40]
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-180   Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V
Atlas III
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 338.4[41]
311.9 (SL)
4,152,136
3,826,555 (SL)
5,480 71.2 261.7 2.72
RD-181   Russia NPO Energomash Antares 200 Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 339.2[42]
311.9 (SL)
2,085,000
1,922,000 (SL)
2,200 89 262.6
RD-191   Russia NPO Energomash Angara Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[43]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
2,200 89.09 262.6
RD-193   Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2-1v Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[44]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
1,900 103.15
RD-276
14Д14М
  Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH 315.8[45]
288 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,120 171.2 168.5
RD-8
11D513
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Zenit Active 2nd vernier RP-1 / LOX 342 78,450 380 77.47 2.4
RD-801   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 336 [46]
300.7 (SL)
1,339,255
1,198,608 (SL)
1,630 180 2.65
RD-809K   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak Development Upper RP-1 / LOX 352 [46] 98,067 330 2.62
RD-810   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak, Zenit Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 335.5 [47]
299 (SL)
2,104,890
1,876,149 (SL)
2,800 180 2.65
RD-843   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Vega Active upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 2,452 15.93 20.4 2.0
RD-861K   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 330 [48] 77,629 207 2.41
RD-870   Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 340 [49]
301.5 (SL)
876,715
777,667 (SL)
1,353 2.684
Reaver 1   USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 295.6[19] 184,000[19]
RL-10A-4-2[50]   USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Atlas IIIB
Atlas V
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 451 99,195 168 60.27 42 5.5
RL-10B-2[50]   USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 465.5 110,093 301 37.27 44 5.88
RL-10C-1[50]   USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS,
Vulcan
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 450 101,820 191 54.5 44 5.5
RS-25   USA Rocketdyne Space Shuttle
SLS
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 452.3
366 (SL)
2,279,000
1,860,000 (SL)[51]
3,526 53.79 206.4
RS-68A[d]   USA Rocketdyne Delta IV
Delta IV Heavy
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 411[52]
362 (SL)
3,558,577
3,135,996 (SL)
6,686 54.31 109 5.97
Rutherford   New Zealand   USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 311 24,465
16,890 (SL)
Rutherford Vacuum   New Zealand   USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 343 24,465
S200   India SDSC GSLV Mk III Active Booster HTPB 274.5[53] 5,150,000[54][55][56] 207,000
with fuel[53]
SCE-200   India LPSC GSLV Mk III
ULV
Development Upper, main RP-1 / LOX 335
299 (SL)
2,030,000
1,820,000 (SL)
2,700 180
SLS Solid Rocket Booster[e]   USA Orbital ATK SLS Development Booster PBAN 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
SLV-1   India Godrej & Boyce PSLV Active Booster HTPB 253[57] 502,600 10,800
with fuel
43
SRB-A3   Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA

H-IIB
Epsilon

Active Booster HTPB 283.6[58] 2,305,000
2,150,000 (SL)
76,600
with fuel
111
TEPREL   Spain PLD Space Miura 1
Miura 5
Operational 1st RP-1 / LOX 122 32,000 (SL)
TQ-12[59]   China Landspace ZQ-2 Development 1st CH4 / LOX 284 667,000 (SL) 101
Vikas (rocket engine)   India LPSC Active 2nd, main, booster N2O4 / UDMH 262 680,500–804,500
600,500–756,500 (SL)
53.0–58.5
Vinci   Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Development Upper LH2 / LOX 467[60] 180,000 280 65.60 61
Vulcain 2   Europe Snecma Ariane 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX 429[61]
318 (SL)[62]
1,359,000[61]
939,500 (SL)[62]
1,800[61] 77.04 117.3[61]
YF-100   China AALPT Active Booster, 1st RP-1 / LOX 335[63]
300 (SL)
1,340,000
1,200,000 (SL)
180
YF-115   China AALPT Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 341.5 176,500
YF-21B   China AALPT Active Booster, 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[64] 740,400 (SL)[64]
YF-21C   China AALPT Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.7 (SL)[64] 740,400 (SL)[64]
YF-25   China AALPT Active Booster N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[64] 740,400 (SL)[64]
YF-22B   China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[64] 738,400
YF-22C   China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[64] 742,040
YF-22D   China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[64] 741,400
YF-22E   China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[64] 741,400
YF-40   China AALPT Active 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 303 103,000
YF-50D   China AALPT Active Upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 6,500
YF-73   China AALPT Long March 3 Active 3rd LH2 / LOX 420.0 44,150
YF-75   China AALPT Active 3rd LH2 / LOX 438.0[64] 167,170
YF-75D   China AALPT Long March 5 Active 2nd LH2 / LOX 442.0 86,260
YF-77   China AALPT Long March 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX 430
310.2 (SL)
700,000
510,000 (SL)
2,700 102
Zefiro 9A   European Union Avio Vega Active 3rd HTPB 295.2[65] 314,000[65] 11,400 with fuel 75
Zefiro 23   European Union Avio Vega Active 2nd HTPB 287.5[66] 1,122,000[66] 25,935 with fuel
Delphin   USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[67] Active 1st RP-1/LOX[68] 27,000[69]
Aether   USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[70] Active 2nd RP-1/LOX[68]

Retired and canceled rocket enginesEdit

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[f] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aestus   Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 G, G+, ES Upper N2O4 / MMH 324[71] 30,000 111 27.6 11 1.9
Aestus II   Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4 / MMH 340[72] 55,400 138 41.0 60 1.9
F-1[g]   USA Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1 / LOX 304
263 (SL)
7,770,000
6,770,000 (SL)
8,391 82.27 70 2.27
F-1A[h][73]   USA Rocketdyne 1st RP-1 / LOX 303
270 (SL)
8,989,000
8,007,000 (SL)
9,015 90.6 80 2.27
Gamma 2   United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd RP-1 / H2O2 265[74] 68,200 173 40.22 8
Gamma 8   United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st RP-1 / H2O2 265[75] 234,800 342 70.01 47.40 8
HM-7A   Europe Snecma Ariane 1 3rd LH2 / LOX 443[76]
308 (SL)
61,700 149 42.2 30 5
J-2   USA Rocketdyne Saturn V
Saturn IB
2nd, 3rd LH2 / LOX 421[77]
200 (SL)
1,033,100
486,200 (SL)
1,438 73.18 30 5.5
J-2X   USA Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne SLS(proposed) Upper LH2 / LOX 448[78] 1,310,000 2,470 58.41 95 5.5–4.5
Kestrel   USA SpaceX Falcon 1 Upper RP-1 / LOX 317 31,000 52 65 9.3
LE-5   Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-I Upper LH2 / LOX 450[79] 103,000 245 42.87 36.0 5.5
LE-5A   Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II Upper LH2 / LOX 452[80] 121,500 242 51.19 40.0 5
LE-7   Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II 1st LH2 / LOX 446[81] 1,078,000
843,500 (SL)
1,714 64.13 127 5.9
Merlin 1C   USA SpaceX 1st, 2nd RP-1 / LOX 304[82]
266 (SL)[83]
480,408[82]
422,581 (SL)[82]
630 92[82] 67.7
Merlin 1D   USA SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1 / LOX 311[84]
282 (SL)[84]
723,000 470 158 97 2.34
Merlin Vacuum 1C   USA SpaceX 2nd RP-1 / LOX 336[83] 413,644[83] 92
RD-0120
11Д122
  Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2 / LOX 455[85] 1,962,000
1,526,000 (SL)
3,450 57.80 219
RD-56 (KVD-1)
11Д56У
  Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2 / LOX 462[86] 69,626 282 25.17 55.9
RD-117
11Д511
  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 316[87]
253 (SL)
978,000
778,648 (SL)
1,100 72.18 54.2
RD-118
11Д512
  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1 / LOX 314[87]
257 (SL)
1,000,278
818,855 (SL)
1,100 75.91 59.7
RD-170[i]11Д521[88]   Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-264
11Д119
  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4 / UDMH 318[89]
293 (SL)
4,521,000 3,600 128.15 206
RD-275
14Д14
  Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH 316[90]
287 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,070 171.2 160.0
RD-854
8D612
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36ORB 3rd N2O4 / UDMH
RD-855
8D68M
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 1st vernier N2O4 / UDMH 328,000 320 65.70 1.97
RD-856
8D69M
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3, (Tsyklon-4) 2nd vernier N2O4 / UDMH 54,230 112.5 71.60 1.98
RD-861
11D25
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 78,710 123 88.8 2.1
RD-864
15D177
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36 (missile), Dnipro 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 309 high, 298 low 20,200 high, 8,450 low 199 41 high/17 low 1.8
RD-869
15D300
  Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36M 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 313 high, 302.3 low 20,470 high, 8,580 low 196 41 high/17 low 1.8
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster[j]   USA Thiokol Space Shuttle
Ares I
Booster PBAN / APCP 268 14,000,000
12,500,000 (SL)
590,000
with fuel
SRB-A   Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA Booster HTPB 280[91] 2,250,000 76,400 with fuel
UA1207   USA United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN 272[92]
245 (SL)
7,116,000
6,410,400 (SL)
319,330
with fuel
Viking 2   Europe Snecma Ariane 1 1st N2O4 / UDMH 690,000
611,200 (SL)
776 90.67
Viking 2B   Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
1st N2O4 / UH 25 643,000 (SL) 776 84.5
Viking 4   Europe Snecma Ariane 1 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 713,000 826 88
Viking 4B   Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
2nd N2O4 / UH 25 800,000 826 98.76
Viking 5C   Europe Snecma Ariane 4 1st N2O4 / UH 25 758,000
678,000 (SL)
826 93.57
Viking 6   Europe Snecma Ariane 4 Booster N2O4 / UH 25 750,000 826 92.59
Vulcain
HM-60
  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 439[93]
326 (SL)[94]
1,113,000[93]
773,200 (SL)[94]
1,300[94] 84.38 109[93]
Waxwing   United Kingdom Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid 278[95]
245 (SL)
29,400
25,900 (SL)
87 34.48

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d At sea level if denoted SL, in vacuum otherwise
  2. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  3. ^ Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world
  4. ^ Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world
  5. ^ Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built
  6. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  7. ^ Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed
  8. ^ Tested but never flown
  9. ^ World's most powerful liquid fueled rocket engine
  10. ^ Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions


ReferencesEdit

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  4. ^ "Aerojet Rocketdyne and Firefly Aerospace to Provide Flexible Access to Space". Global Newswire (Press release). October 18, 2019.
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  6. ^ a b "BE-3". Blue Origin.
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  8. ^ "BE-4". Blue Origin. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
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  26. ^ a b c Press release: Successful first test firing for the P120C solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C
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