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The Soyuz-M (Russian: Союз, meaning "Union"), GRAU index 11A511M was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia. It was originally built to launch crewed Soyuz 7K-VI spacecraft for the Soviet armed forces. Following the cancellation of this programme, development of the rocket continued for the Soyuz 7K-S spacecraft. After this too was cancelled, Soyuz-M development was also abandoned, and the rockets that had been completed were used to launch reconnaissance satellites.
|Country of origin||Soviet Union|
|Height||50 metres (160 ft)|
|Diameter||10.3 metres (34 ft)|
|Mass||300,000 kilograms (660,000 lb)|
|Payload to LEO||6,600 kilograms (14,600 lb)|
|Launch sites||Plesetsk Sites 41/1 & 43/4|
|First flight||27 December 1971|
|Last flight||31 March 1976|
While the exact details of the Soyuz-M are not known, it is believed to be a two-stage rocket, derived from the Soyuz. It may have been similar to the later Soyuz-U. Following the cancellation of the Soyuz 7K-S, eight were launched with Zenit-4MT spacecraft. The first of these launches occurred on 27 December 1971, and the last on 31 March 1976. All launches occurred from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, six from pad 41/1 and two from pad 43/4.
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