The Long March 2C (LM-2C), also known as the Chang Zheng 2C (CZ-2C), is a Chinese orbital launch vehicle, part of the Long March 2 rocket family. Developed and manufactured by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT),[2] the Long March 2C made its first launch on 9 September 1982. It is a two-stage launch vehicle with storable propellants, consisting of Nitrogen Tetroxide and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine. The launch vehicle was derived from the DF-5 ICBM.[2]

Long March 2C
Rendering of Long March 2C
FunctionLaunch vehicle
ManufacturerCALT
Country of originPeople's Republic of China
Size
Height42 m (138 ft) [1]
Diameter3.35 m (11.0 ft) [1]
Mass233,000 kg (514,000 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to Low Earth orbit
Mass3,850 kg (8,490 lb)
Payload to Sun-synchronous orbit
Mass2C: 1,400 kg (3,100 lb)
2C/SMA: 1,900 kg (4,200 lb)
Payload to GTO
Mass2C/SM: 1,250 kg (2,760 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyLong March
Launch history
StatusActive
Launch sitesLA-2/138 and
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC
LA-7 and LA-9, TSLC
LA-3, XSLC
Total launches77
Success(es)75
Failure(s)1
Partial failure(s)1
First flight9 September 1982
Last flight13 March 2024
First stage
Height25.72 m
Diameter3.35 m
Propellant mass162,706 kg (358,705 lb)
Powered by4 YF-21C
Maximum thrust2,961.6 kN (665,800 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.5 m/s (8,387 ft/s)
PropellantN2O4 / UDMH
Second stage
Height7.757 m
Diameter3.35 m
Propellant mass54,667 kg (120,520 lb)
Powered by1 YF-24E
(1 x YF-22E (Main))
(4 x YF-23C (Vernier))
Maximum thrust741.4 kN (166,700 lbf) (Main)
47.1 kN (10,600 lbf) (Vernier)
Specific impulse2,922.37 m/s (9,587.8 ft/s) (Main)
2,834.11 m/s (9,298.3 ft/s) (Vernier)
PropellantN2O4 / UDMH
Third stage – (optional)
Height1.5 m
Diameter2.7 m
Propellant mass125 kg (276 lb)
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust10.78 kN (2,420 lbf)
Specific impulse2,804 m/s (9,200 ft/s)
PropellantHTPB

Several variants of this launch vehicle have been built, all using an optional third solid motor stage:[3]

  • 2C/SD: Commercial satellite launcher with a multi-satellite smart dispenser allowing delivery of two satellites simultaneously
  • 2C/SM: Version for delivery of small satellites to high orbits
  • 2C/SMA: Improved version of the 2C/SM

According to the website Gunter's Space Page,[4] in addition to the launches listed in the following table, there may have been six additional CZ-2C launches during 2014 and 2015. These possible launches apparently were conducted at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on the following dates: 9 January 2014, 7 August 2014, 2 December 2014, 7 June 2015, 20 August 2015, and 23 November 2015; five of these six launches were apparently successful, while the launch on 7 August 2014 appears to have failed. However, due to the lack of additional sources for these six launches, they are not currently included in the following launch list.

Aerodynamic grid fins were added on the Long March 2C in 2019 to help guide falling stages away from populated areas. China is studying using reusable rocket technology in the future.[5] A fairing recovery system through parachutes has been tested during the Yaogan 30-09 and Yaogan 30-10 launches in order to improve control of debris landing inland on potentially populated areas.[6]

List of launches edit

Flight number Serial number Date (UTC) Launch site Upper stage (if used) Payload Orbit Result
1 Y1 9 September 1982
07:19
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.4 LEO Success
2 Y2 19 August 1983
06:00
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.5 LEO Success
3 Y3 12 September 1984
05:44
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.6 LEO Success
4 Y4 21 October 1985
05:04
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.7 LEO Success
5 Y5 6 October 1986
05:40
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.8 LEO Success
6 Y6 5 August 1987
06:39
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.9 LEO Success
7 Y7 9 September 1987
07:15
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.1 LEO Success
8 Y8 5 August 1988
07:29
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.2 LEO Success
9 Y9 5 October 1990
06:14
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.3 LEO Success
10 Y10 6 October 1992
06:20
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.4
Freja
LEO Success
11 Y11 8 October 1993
08:00
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.5 LEO Success
12 2CFP-Y1 1 September 1997
14:00
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium mass simulator A
Iridium mass simulator B
LEO Success
13 2CFP-Y2 8 December 1997
07:16
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 42
Iridium 44
LEO Success
14 2CFP-Y3 25 March 1998
17:01
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 51
Iridium 61
LEO Success
15 2CFP-Y4 2 May 1998
09:16
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 69
Iridium 71
LEO Success
16 2CFP-Y5 19 August 1998
23:01
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 76
Iridium 78
LEO Success
17 2CFP-Y6 19 December 1998
11:39
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 88
Iridium 89
LEO Success
18 2CFP-Y7 11 June 1999
17:15
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 92
Iridium 93
LEO Success
19 2CSM-Y1 29 December 2003
19:06
LA-3, XSLC 2C/SM Double Star 1 HEO Success
20 Y14 18 April 2004
15:59
LA-3, XSLC Shiyan 1
Nano Satellite 1
SSO Success
21 2CSM-Y2 25 July 2004
07:05
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SM Double Star 2 HEO Success
22 Y12 29 August 2004
07:50
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC FSW-4 No.1 LEO Success
23 Y15 18 November 2004
10:45
LA-3, XSLC Shiyan 2 SSO Success
24 Y13 2 August 2005
07:30
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC FSW-4 No.2 LEO Success
25 Y16 9 September 2006
07:00
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 8 LEO Success
26 Y18 11 April 2007
03:27
LA-7, TSLC HaiYang-1B SSO Success
27 2CSMA-Y1 6 September 2008
03:25
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SMA Huanjing-1A
Huanjing-1B
SSO Success
28 Y19 22 April 2009
02:55
LA-7, TSLC Yaogan 6 SSO Success
29 Y21 12 November 2009
02:45
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-01 SSO Success
30 Y25 6 July 2011
04:28
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-03 SSO Success
31 Y24 29 July 2011
07:42
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-02 SSO Success
32 Y26 18 August 2011
09:28
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-04 SSO Failure
33 Y20 29 November 2011
18:50
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 13 SSO Success
34 2CSMA-Y2 14 October 2012
03:25
LA-9, TSLC 2C/SMA Shijian 9A
Shijian 9B
SSO Success
35 Y17 18 November 2012
22:53
LA-9, TSLC Huanjing-1C
Xinyan 1
Fengniao 1
SSO Success
36 Y23 15 July 2013
09:27
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-05 SSO Success
37 Y28 29 October 2013
02:50
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 18 SSO Success
38 Y27 31 March 2014
02:46
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-06 SSO Success
39 Y31 28 September 2014
05:13
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-07 SSO Success
40 Y32 27 October 2014
06:59
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-08 SSO Success
41 Y35 14 November 2014
18:53
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 23 SSO Success
42 Y29 29 September 2017
04:21
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-01 A/B/C LEO Success
43 Y33 24 November 2017
18:10
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-02 A/B/C LEO Success
44 Y34 25 December 2017
19:44
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-03 A/B/C LEO Success
45 Y36 25 January 2018
05:39
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-04 A/B/C LEO Success
46 Y44 27 June 2018
03:30
LC-3, XSLC XJSS A/B LEO Success
47 2CSMA-Y3 9 July 2018
03:56
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/SMA PRSS-1
PakTES-1A
SSO Success
48 Y39 7 September 2018
03:15
LA-9, TSLC HaiYang-1C SSO Success
49 Y38 9 October 2018
02:43
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Yaogan 32A, 32B SSO Success
50 Y22 29 October 2018
00:43
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC CFOSAT SSO Success
51 Y37 26 July 2019
03:57
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-05 A/B/C LEO Success
52 Y42 24 March 2020
03:43
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-06 A/B/C LEO Success
53 Y40 10 June 2020
18:31 [5]
LA-9, TSLC HaiYang 1D SSO Success
54 Y43 26 October 2020
15:19 [7]
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-07 A/B/C LEO Success
55 Y47 6 May 2021
18:11[8]
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-08 A/B/C
Tianqi-12
LEO Success
56 Y48 18 June 2021
06:30[9]
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-09 A/B/C
Tianqi-14
LEO Success
57 Y49 19 July 2021
00:19[6]
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-10 A/B/C
Tianqi-15
LEO Success
58 Y51 24 August 2021
11:15[10]
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S RSW-01
RSW-02
Undisclosed payload
LEO Success
59 Y41 3 November 2021
07:43
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Yaogan 32-02 A/B SSO Success
60 Y62 5 March 2022
06:01
LA-3, XSLC Yinhe Hangtian-2 01/.../06
Xuanming Xingyuan
LEO Success
61 Y70 29 April 2022
04:11
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC SuperView Neo 1-01/02 (Siwei Gaojing 1-01/02) SSO Success
62 Y53 20 May 2022
10:30
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S LEO Test Sat 1/2
Digui Tongxin Weixing
LEO Success
63 Y65 2 June 2022
04:00
LA-3, XSLC GeeSAT-1 01/.../09 LEO Success
64 Y71 15 July 2022
22:57
LA-9, TSLC SuperView Neo 2-01/02 (Siwei-03/04) SSO Success
65 Y66 12 October 2022
22:53
LA-9, TSLC S-SAR 01 (Huanjing-2E) SSO Success
66 Y61 12 January 2023
18:10
LA-3, XSLC Apstar 6E +(independent propulsion module) GTO Success
67 Y63 24 February 2023
04:01
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Horus-1 SSO Success
68 Y64 13 March 2023
04:02
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Horus-2 SSO Success
69 Y60 21 May 2023
08:00
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC MSS-1 A/B
Luojia-2 01
LEO Success
70 Y52 9 July 2023
11:00
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Hulianwang Jishu Shiyan A, B LEO Success
71 Y46 8 August 2023
22:53
LA-9, TSLC S-SAR 02 (Huanjing-2F) SSO Success
72 Y56 16 November 2023
03:55
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Haiyang-3A SSO Success
73 Y54 4 December 2023
04:10
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC MisrSat-2
Xingchi-2A/2B
SSO Success
74 Y73 30 December 2023
00:13
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Hulianwang Jishu Shiyan 4A, 4B, 4C LEO Success
75 Y30 9 January 2024
07:03
LA-3, XSLC Einstein Probe LEO Success
76 Y85 2 February 2024
23:37
LA-3, XSLC GeeSAT-2 10/.../20 LEO Success
77 Y86 13 March 2024
12:51
LA-3, XSLC 2C/YZ-1S DRO-A, B Selenocentric (DRO) Partial failure
78 Y? May 2024 TBA TBA TBA Planned
Y? 24 June 2024 LA-3, XSLC SVOM LEO Planned

Launch failures edit

Shijian 11-04 launch failure edit

On 18 August 2011, a Long March 2C rocket failed during the launch of the Shijian 11-04 satellite. During the powered flight phase of the second stage, the connecting mechanism between vernier engine no.3 and the servo-control mechanism of the second stage failed, which led to the loss of attitude control on the second stage.[11]

Launch statistics edit

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1982
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
  •   Failure
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success
  •   Planned

References edit

  1. ^ a b "LM-2C". China Great Wall Industry Corporation. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b "China's Orbital Launch Activity 2020" (PDF). Bryce Space and Technology. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Chang Zheng-2C (Long March-2C)". SinoDefence. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  4. ^ Gunter Dirk Krebs. "CZ-2 (Chang Zheng-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  5. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (10 June 2020). "China launches ocean monitoring satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  6. ^ a b Navin, Joseph (18 July 2021). "China tests fairing recovery technologies on Long March 2C launch with four satellites". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. 23 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  8. ^ "成功!老将长二丙2021首战!还有7发!" [success! Veteran Chang Er C first match in 2021! There are 7 more shots!] (in Chinese). 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  9. ^ Cong, Zhao (18 June 2021). "两天两连胜!长二丙火箭成功发射遥感三十号09组卫星" [Two consecutive victories in two days! Long March 2C rocket successfully launched Yaogan 30-09 satellites] (in Chinese). CASC. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  10. ^ "又在整流罩上"搞事情",长二丙送3颗通信卫星飞天" ["Doing things" on the fairing again, Long March 2C sends 3 communication satellites to the sky]. China Space News (in Chinese). 24 August 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  11. ^ "Malfunction at devices connection blamed for orbiter launch failure". Xinhua News Agency. 6 September 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2015.

External links edit