Long March 2C

The Long March 2C (LM-2C), also known as the Chang Zheng 2C (CZ-2C), is a Chinese orbital carrier rocket, part of the Long March 2 rocket family. Developed and manufactured by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT),[2] the Long March 2C made its first launch on 9 September 1982. It is a two-stage launch vehicle with storable propellants, consisting of Nitrogen Tetroxide and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine. The rocket was derived from the DF-5 ICBM.[2]

Long March 2C
CZ-2C.svg
FunctionLaunch vehicle
ManufacturerCALT
Country of originPeople's Republic of China
Size
Height42 metres (138 ft)[1]
Diameter3.35 metres (11.0 ft)[1]
Mass233,000 kilograms (514,000 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO3,850 kilograms (8,490 lb)
Payload to SSO2C: 1,400 kilograms (3,100 lb)
2C/SMA: 1,900 kilograms (4,200 lb)
Payload to GTO2C/SM: 1,250 kilograms (2,760 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyLong March
Launch history
StatusActive
Launch sitesLA-2/138 and
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC
LA-7 and LA-9, TSLC
LA-3, XSLC
Total launches53
Successes52
Failures1
First flight9 September 1982
Last flight10 June 2020
First stage
Length25.72 m
Diameter3.35 m
Propellant mass162,706 kilograms (358,705 lb)
Engines4 YF-21C
Thrust2,961.6 kilonewtons (665,800 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.5 metres per second (8,387 ft/s)
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Second stage
Length7.757 m
Diameter3.35 m
Propellant mass54,667 kilograms (120,520 lb)
Engines1 YF-24E
(1 x YF-22E (Main))
(4 x YF-23C (Vernier))
Thrust741.4 kilonewtons (166,700 lbf) (Main)
47.1 kilonewtons (10,600 lbf) (Vernier)
Specific impulse2,922.37 metres per second (9,587.8 ft/s) (Main)
2,834.11 metres per second (9,298.3 ft/s) (Vernier)
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Third stage – (optional)
Length1.5 m
Diameter2.7 m
Propellant mass125 kilograms (276 lb)
Engines1 solid
Thrust10.78 kilonewtons (2,420 lbf)
Specific impulse2,804 metres per second (9,200 ft/s)
FuelHTPB

Several variants of this launch vehicle have been built, all using an optional third solid motor stage:[3]

  • 2C/SD — Commercial satellite launcher with a multi-satellite smart dispenser allowing delivery of two satellites simultaneously
  • 2C/SM — Version for delivery of small satellites to high orbits
  • 2C/SMA — Improved version of the 2C/SM

Note that according to the website Gunter's Space Page,[4] in addition to the launches listed in the following table, there may have been six additional CZ-2C launches during 2014 and 2015. These possible launches apparently were conducted at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on the following dates: 9 January 2014, 7 August 2014, 2 December 2014, 7 June 2015, 20 August 2015, and 23 November 2015; five of these six launches were apparently successful, while the launch on 7 August 2014 appears to have failed. However, due to the lack of additional sources for these six launches, they are not currently included in the following launch list.

Aerodynamic grid fins were added on the Long March 2C in 2019 to help guide falling stages away from populated areas. China is studying using reusable rocket technology in the future.[5]

List of launchesEdit

Flight number Date (UTC) Launch site Upper stage (if used) Payload Orbit Result
1 9 September 1982
07:19
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.4 LEO Success
2 19 August 1983
06:00
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.5 LEO Success
3 12 September 1984
05:44
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.6 LEO Success
4 21 October 1985
05:04
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.7 LEO Success
5 6 October 1986
05:40
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.8 LEO Success
6 5 August 1987
06:39
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-0 No.9 LEO Success
7 9 September 1987
07:15
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.1 LEO Success
8 5 August 1988
07:29
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.2 LEO Success
9 5 October 1990
06:14
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.3 LEO Success
10 6 October 1992
06:20
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.4
Freja
LEO Success
11 8 October 1993
08:00
LA-2/138, JSLC FSW-1 No.5 LEO Success
12 1 September 1997
14:00
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium mass simulator A
Iridium mass simulator B
LEO Success
13 8 December 1997
07:16
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 42
Iridium 44
LEO Success
14 25 March 1998
17:01
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 51
Iridium 61
LEO Success
15 2 May 1998
09:16
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 69
Iridium 71
LEO Success
16 19 August 1998
23:01
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 76
Iridium 78
LEO Success
17 19 December 1998
11:39
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 88
Iridium 89
LEO Success
18 11 June 1999
17:15
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SD Iridium 92
Iridium 93
LEO Success
19 29 December 2003
19:06
LA-3, XSLC 2C/SM Double Star 1 HEO Success
20 18 April 2004
15:59
LA-3, XSLC Shiyan-1
Nano Satellite 1
SSO Success
21 25 July 2004
07:05
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SM Double Star 2 HEO Success
22 29 August 2004
07:50
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC FSW-4 No.1 LEO Success
23 18 November 2004
10:45
LA-3, XSLC Shiyan-2 SSO Success
24 2 August 2005
07:30
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC FSW-4 No.2 LEO Success
25 9 September 2006
07:00
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 8 LEO Success
26 11 April 2007
03:27
LA-7, TSLC HaiYang-1B SSO Success
27 6 September 2008
03:25
LA-7, TSLC 2C/SMA Huanjing-1A
Huanjing-1B
SSO Success
28 22 April 2009
02:55
LA-7, TSLC Yaogan 6 SSO Success
29 12 November 2009
02:45
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-01 SSO Success
30 6 July 2011
04:28
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-03 SSO Success
31 29 July 2011
07:42
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-02 SSO Success
32 18 August 2011
09:28
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-04 SSO Failure
33 29 November 2011
18:50
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 13 SSO Success
34 6 October 2012
03:25
LA-9, TSLC 2C/SMA Shijian 9A
Shijian 9B
SSO Success
35 18 November 2012
22:53
LA-9, TSLC Huanjing-1C
Xinyan 1
Fengniao 1
SSO Success
36 15 July 2013
09:27
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-05 SSO Success
37 29 October 2013
02:50
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 18 SSO Success
38 31 March 2014
02:46
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-06 SSO Success
39 28 September 2014
05:13
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-07 SSO Success
40 27 October 2014
06:59
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC Shijian 11-08 SSO Success
41 14 November 2014
18:53
LA-9, TSLC Yaogan 23 SSO Success
42 29 September 2017
04:21
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-01 A/B/C LEO Success
43 24 November 2017
18:10
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-02 A/B/C LEO Success
44 25 December 2017
19:44
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-03 A/B/C LEO Success
45 25 January 2018
05:39
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-04 A/B/C LEO Success
46 27 June 2018
03:30
LC-3, XSLC XJSS A/B LEO Success
47 9 July 2018
03:56
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/SMA PRSS-1
PakTES-1A
SSO Success
48 7 September 2018
03:15
LA-9, TSLC HaiYang-1C SSO Success
49 9 October 2018
02:43
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC 2C/YZ-1S Yaogan 32A, 32B LEO Success
50 29 October 2018
00:43
LA-4/SLS-2, JSLC CFOSAT SSO Success
51 26 July 2019
03:57
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-05 A/B/C LEO Success
52 24 March 2020
03:43
LA-3, XSLC Yaogan 30-06 A/B/C LEO Success
53 10 June 2020
18:31[5]
TSLC, LA-9 HaiYang 1D SSO Success

Launch failuresEdit

Shijian 11-04 launch failureEdit

On 18 August 2011, a Long March 2C rocket failed during the launch of the Shijian 11-04 satellite. During the powered flight phase of the second stage, the connecting mechanism between vernier engine no.3 and the servo-control mechanism of the second stage failed, which led to the loss of attitude control on the second stage.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "LM-2C". China Great Wall Industry Corporation. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b "China's Orbital Launch Activity 2020" (PDF). Bryce Space and Technology. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Chang Zheng-2C (Long March-2C)". SinoDefence. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  4. ^ Gunter Dirk Krebs. "CZ-2 (Chang Zheng-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  5. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (10 June 2020). "China launches ocean monitoring satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  6. ^ "Malfunction at devices connection blamed for orbiter launch failure". Xinhua News Agency. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2015.