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List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies

This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the Solar System, including soft landings and both intended and unintended hard impacts. The list includes orbiters that were intentionally crashed, but not orbiters which later crashed in an unplanned manner due to orbital decay.

For a list of all planetary missions, including orbiters and flybys, see List of Solar System probes.

LandingsEdit

Colour key:

     – Successful soft landing with intelligible data return. The tannish hue indicates extraterrestrial soil.
     – Successful soft landing, intelligible data return, and sample return to Earth. The greenish hue indicates terrestrial return.
     – Successful soft landing, data/voice/video communication, sample return to Earth, and safe astronaut landing and return to Earth. All lunar astronaut landings have fulfilled the Kennedy challenge of a safe return to Earth.

PlanetsEdit

MercuryEdit

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
MESSENGER   United States 30 April 2015 Probably around 54.4° N, 149.9° W, near the crater Janáček Intentionally crashed at end of mission.

VenusEdit

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Venera 3   USSR 1 March 1966 Probably around -20° to 20° N, 60° to 80° E First impact on the surface of another planet. Contact lost before atmospheric entry.
Venera 4   USSR 18 October 1967 Estimated near 19°N 38°E / 19°N 38°E / 19; 38.[1] Crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 5   USSR 16 May 1969 3°S 18°E / 3°S 18°E / -3; 18 Atmospheric probe; crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 6   USSR 17 May 1969 5°S 23°E / 5°S 23°E / -5; 23 Atmospheric probe; crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 7   USSR 15 December 1970 5°S 351°E / 5°S 351°E / -5; 351 First successful soft landing on another planet; transmitted from surface for 23 minutes, The spacecraft definitively confirmed that humans cannot survive on the surface of Venus, and excluded the possibility that there is any liquid water on Venus.
Venera 8   USSR 22 July 1972 Within 150 km radius of 10°42′S 335°15′E / 10.70°S 335.25°E / -10.70; 335.25 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 50 minutes.
Venera 9 lander   USSR 22 October 1975 Within a 150 km radius of 31°01′N 291°38′E / 31.01°N 291.64°E / 31.01; 291.64 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 53 minutes. First pictures from surface.
Venera 10 lander   USSR 25 October 1975 Within a 150 km radius of 15°25′N 291°31′E / 15.42°N 291.51°E / 15.42; 291.51 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 65 minutes.
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe   USA 9 December 1978 Surviving "Day Probe" landed at
31°18′S 317°00′E / 31.3°S 317.0°E / -31.3; 317.0
One of four atmospheric probes survived impact and continued to transmit for 67 minutes.
Venera 12 lander   USSR 21 December 1978 7°S 294°E / 7°S 294°E / -7; 294 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 110 minutes.
Venera 11 lander   USSR 25 December 1978 14°S 299°E / 14°S 299°E / -14; 299 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 95 minutes.
Venera 13 lander   USSR 1 March 1982 7°30′S 303°00′E / 7.5°S 303°E / -7.5; 303 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 127 minutes.
Venera 14 lander   USSR 5 March 1982 13°15′S 310°00′E / 13.25°S 310°E / -13.25; 310 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 57 minutes.
Vega 1 lander   USSR 11 June 1985 7°12′N 177°48′E / 7.2°N 177.8°E / 7.2; 177.8 Soft landing; some instruments failed to return data.
Vega 2 lander   USSR 15 June 1985 7°08′S 177°40′E / 7.14°S 177.67°E / -7.14; 177.67 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 57 minutes.

MarsEdit

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Mars 2 lander   USSR 27 November 1971 45°S 30°W / 45°S 30°W / -45; -30 First man-made object on Mars. No contact after crash landing.
Mars 3 lander   USSR 2 December 1971 45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 First soft landing on Mars. An attempt to receive clear images from surface failed.[2] Sent signal for only 20 seconds after landing.
Mars 6 lander   USSR 12 March 1974 23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 Contact lost at landing.
Viking 1 lander   USA 20 July 1976 22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 Successful soft landing.
Viking 2 lander   USA 3 September 1976 48°16′08″N 134°00′36″E / 48.269°N 134.010°E / 48.269; 134.010 Successful soft landing.
Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner rover   USA 4 July 1997 19°08′N 33°13′W / 19.13°N 33.22°W / 19.13; -33.22 First airbag landing on Mars and first Mars rover.
Mars Polar Lander and two penetrators Deep Space 2   USA 3 December 1999

73°N 210°W / 73°N 210°W / 73; -210

Contact lost prior to landing.
Beagle 2   UK/
  ESA
25 December 2003 11°31′35″N 90°25′46″E / 11.5265°N 90.4295°E / 11.5265; 90.4295 Successful soft landing. No contact due to solar "petals" not deploying fully, blocking antenna.[3]
MER-A 'Spirit'   USA 3 January 2004 14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 Mars rover. Contact lost 22 March 2010.
MER-B 'Opportunity'   USA 25 January 2004 1°56′46″S 5°31′36″W / 1.9462°S 5.5266°W / -1.9462; -5.5266 Mars rover. Contact lost 10 June 2018.
Phoenix   USA 25 May 2008 68°13′08″N 125°44′57″W / 68.2188°N 125.7492°W / 68.2188; -125.7492 Successful soft landing in the north polar region.
Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity)   USA 6 August 2012 4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417 Mars Rover. Landed in Gale Crater.
ExoMars Schiaparelli EDM lander   ESA
  RFSA
19 October 2016 2°04′S 353°47′E / 2.07°S 353.79°E / -2.07; 353.79 Contact lost after entry and parachute deployment, but before planned landing. Hard impact on the surface.[4]
InSight   USA 26 November 2018 4°30′N 135°54′E / 4.5°N 135.9°E / 4.5; 135.9 (InSight landing site) Successful soft landing.

JupiterEdit

Since Jupiter is a gas planet, there is no hard surface on which to "land". All missions listed here are impacts to Jupiter.

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Notes
Galileo atmospheric probe   USA 7 December 1995 Atmospheric probe of Jupiter.
Galileo   USA 21 September 2003 Main craft was intentionally directed at Jupiter and disintegrated in Jovian atmosphere.

SaturnEdit

Since Saturn is a gas planet, there is no hard surface on which to "land". All missions listed here are impacts to Saturn.

Mission Country/ Agency Date of landing/impact Notes
Cassini orbiter   USA 15 September 2017 Main craft was intentionally directed at Saturn and disintegrated in Saturn's atmosphere

Planetary moonsEdit

Earth's MoonEdit

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Luna 2   USSR 13 September 1959 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N -0°E / 29.1; -0 Intentional hard impact.
Ranger 4   USA 26 April 1962 15°30′S 130°42′W / 15.5°S 130.7°W / -15.5; -130.7 Intentional hard impact; hit lunar far side due to failure of navigation system.
Ranger 6   USA 2 February 1964 9°24′N 21°30′E / 9.4°N 21.5°E / 9.4; 21.5 Intentional hard impact.
Ranger 7   USA 31 July 1964 10°21′S 20°35′W / 10.35°S 20.58°W / -10.35; -20.58 Intentional hard impact.
Ranger 8   USA 20 February 1965 2°43′N 24°37′E / 2.72°N 24.61°E / 2.72; 24.61 Intentional hard impact.
Ranger 9   USA 24 March 1965 12°50′S 2°22′W / 12.83°S 2.37°W / -12.83; -2.37 Intentional hard impact.
Luna 5   USSR 12 May 1965 31°S 8°W / 31°S 8°W / -31; -8 Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.
Luna 7   USSR 7 October 1965 9°48′N 47°48′W / 9.8°N 47.8°W / 9.8; -47.8 Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.
Luna 8   USSR 6 December 1965 9°36′N 62°00′W / 9.6°N 62°W / 9.6; -62 Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.
Luna 9   USSR 3 February 1966 7°08′N 64°22′W / 7.13°N 64.37°W / 7.13; -64.37 First successful soft landing; first pictures from the surface.
Surveyor 1   USA 2 June 1966 2°28′S 43°20′W / 2.47°S 43.33°W / -2.47; -43.33 Soft landing.
Surveyor 2   USA 23 September 1966 Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.
Lunar Orbiter 1   USA 29 October 1966 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Luna 13   USSR 24 December 1966 18°52′N 62°3′W / 18.867°N 62.050°W / 18.867; -62.050 Soft landing.
Surveyor 3   USA 20 April 1967 3°01′41″S 23°27′30″W / 3.028175°S 23.458208°W / -3.028175; -23.458208 Soft landing. First lander visited by a later manned mission (Apollo 12).
Surveyor 4   USA 17 July 1967 Contact lost on descent.
Surveyor 5   USA 11 September 1967 1°28′N 23°12′E / 1.46°N 23.20°E / 1.46; 23.20 Soft landing.
Surveyor 6   USA 10 November 1967 0°29′N 1°24′W / 0.49°N 1.40°W / 0.49; -1.40 Soft landing.
Surveyor 7   USA 10 January 1968 40°52′S 11°28′W / 40.86°S 11.47°W / -40.86; -11.47 Soft landing.
Apollo 11   USA 20 July 1969 0°40′26.69″N 23°28′22.69″E / 0.6740806°N 23.4729694°E / 0.6740806; 23.4729694 First manned landing on an extraterrestrial body.
Luna 15   USSR 21 July 1969 Possible attempted sample return; crashed into Moon.

Not a manned mission.

Apollo 12   USA 18 November 1969 3°00′45″S 23°25′18″W / 3.012389°S 23.421569°W / -3.012389; -23.421569 Manned mission.
Apollo 13   USA 14 April 1970 S-IVB stage crashed for seismic research (rocket stages from some other Apollo missions that successfully landed were also crashed in this manner[5])
Luna 16   USSR 20 September 1970 0°41′S 56°18′E / 0.683°S 56.300°E / -0.683; 56.300 First successful robotic sample return.
Luna 17/Lunokhod 1   USSR 17 November 1970 38°17′N 35°0′W / 38.283°N 35.000°W / 38.283; -35.000 Robotic lunar rover.
Apollo 14   USA 5 February 1971 3°38′43.08″S 17°28′16.90″W / 3.6453000°S 17.4713611°W / -3.6453000; -17.4713611 Manned mission.
Apollo 15   USA 30 July 1971 26°7′55.99″N 3°38′1.90″E / 26.1322194°N 3.6338611°E / 26.1322194; 3.6338611 (Apollo 15 landing) Manned mission; lunar rover.
Luna 18   USSR 11 September 1971 Failed attempt at sample return; probable crash-landing.
Luna 20   USSR 21 February 1972 3°32′N 56°33′E / 3.533°N 56.550°E / 3.533; 56.550 Robotic sample return.
Apollo 16   USA 21 April 1972 8°58′22.84″S 15°30′0.68″E / 8.9730111°S 15.5001889°E / -8.9730111; 15.5001889 Manned mission; lunar rover.
Apollo 17   USA 7 December 1972 20°11′26.88″N 30°46′18.05″E / 20.1908000°N 30.7716806°E / 20.1908000; 30.7716806 (Apollo 17 landing) Manned mission; lunar rover. Last manned landing on extraterrestrial bodies to date.
Luna 21/Lunokhod 2   USSR 8 January 1973 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.850°N 30.450°E / 25.850; 30.450 Robotic lunar rover.
Luna 23   USSR 6 November 1974 Failed attempt at sample return; damaged on landing.
Luna 24   USSR 18 August 1976 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.750°N 62.200°E / 12.750; 62.200 Robotic sample return.
Hiten   Japan 10 April 1993 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Lunar Prospector   USA 31 July 1999 87°42′S 42°06′E / 87.7°S 42.1°E / -87.7; 42.1 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed into polar crater at end of mission to test for liberation of water vapour (not detected).
SMART-1   ESA 3 September 2006 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Chandrayaan-1 Moon Impact Probe   India 14 November 2008 Impactor. Water found.
SELENE Rstar (Okina)   Japan 12 February 2009 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Chang'e 1   China 1 March 2009 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Kaguya   Japan 10 June 2009 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
LCROSS (Centaur)   USA 9 October 2009 84°40′30″S 48°43′30″W / 84.675°S 48.725°W / -84.675; -48.725
84°43′44″S 49°21′36″W / 84.729°S 49.360°W / -84.729; -49.360
Impactors. Water confirmed.
LCROSS (Shepherding Spacecraft)
Chang'e 3   China 14 December 2013 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 First soft landing on moon since 1976, lunar rover.
Chang'e 4   China 3 January 2019 45°30′S 177°36′E / 45.5°S 177.6°E / -45.5; 177.6 First soft landing on the far side of the moon, lunar rover.
Beresheet   Israel 11 April 2019 Israeli lunar lander crash landed on the moon.
Chandrayaan-2   India 8 September 2019 First attempt to land on south pole of moon, communication lost and hard landing

Moons of MarsEdit

Phobos
Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Phobos 2   USSR February 1989 (planned) Phobos landing was planned but never attempted due to loss of contact

Moons of SaturnEdit

Titan
Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Huygens probe   ESA 14 January 2005 10°17′37″S 163°10′39″E / 10.2936°S 163.1775°E / -10.2936; 163.1775 Titan floating lander. Successful soft landing. Transmitted data for 90 minutes following landing.

Other bodiesEdit

Asteroids and comets

AsteroidsEdit

Body Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Eros (asteroid) NEAR Shoemaker   USA 12 February 2001 Designed as an orbiter, but an improvised landing was carried out on completion of the main mission. Transmission from the surface continued for about 16 days.
Itokawa (asteroid) Hayabusa   Japan 19 November 2005 Accidentally stayed for 30 min.
25 November 2005 Stayed for 1 sec. Sample return (very small amount of dust successfully returned to Earth).
Ryugu (asteroid) Hayabusa2   Japan 21 September 2018 Two of four rovers carried by Hayabusa2, Rover 1A and Rover 1B, deployed successfully. Future missions are planned to deploy the remaining two rovers.

CometsEdit

Body Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Deep Impact   USA 4 July 2005 Impactor.
Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta   ESA 12 November 2014 Philae lander. Successful soft landing, but anchors misfired and Philae bounced multiple times before coming to rest. Philae transmitted briefly but could not maintain power due to its awkward landing.
29 September 2016 The Rosetta orbiter was intentionally crashed into the comet.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brian Harvey (2007). Russian planetary exploration. Springer. pp. 98–101. ISBN 0-387-46343-7.
  2. ^ "Mars 3". Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  3. ^ "Lost Beagle2 probe found 'intact' on Mars", BBC News, 16 January 2015
  4. ^ "Schiaparelli crash site in colour". European Space Agency. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  5. ^ "The Sky is Falling" Archived 2010-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, NASA, April 28, 2006