Tianwen-1 (TW-1; simplified Chinese: 天问; traditional Chinese: 天問; lit. Heavenly Questions) is an interplanetary mission by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) which sent a robotic spacecraft to Mars, consisting of 6 spacecraft: an orbiter, two deployable cameras, lander, remote camera, and the Zhurong rover. The spacecraft, with a total mass of nearly five tons, is one of the heaviest probes launched to Mars and carries 14 scientific instruments. It is the first in a series of planned missions undertaken by CNSA as part of its Planetary Exploration of China program.
|Names||Huoxing-1 (火星-1) (2018–2020)|
|Mission type||Mars exploration|
|Dimensions||Zhurong: 2.6 m × 3 m × 1.85 m (8 ft 6 in × 9 ft 10 in × 6 ft 1 in)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||23 July 2020, 04:41:15 UTC|
|Rocket||Long March 5 (Y4)|
|Launch site||Wenchang LC-101|
|Contractor||China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation|
|Spacecraft component||Tianwen-1 Orbiter|
|Orbital insertion||10 February 2021, 11:52 UTC|
|Flyby of Mars|
|Spacecraft component||Tianwen-1 Deployable Camera 1 (TDC-1)|
|Closest approach||~10 February 2021 (deployed from Tianwen-1 Orbiter in September 2020)|
|Spacecraft component||Tianwen-1 Lander|
|Landing date||14 May 2021, 23:18 UTC |
MSD 52387 06:38 AMT
|Landing site||Utopia Planitia|
|Spacecraft component||Zhurong Rover|
|Landing date||14 May 2021, 23:18 UTC (deployed from Tianwen-1 lander on 22 May 2021, 02:40 UTC)|
|Landing site||Utopia Planitia|
|Distance driven||1.921 km (1.194 mi) as of 5 May 2022[update]|
|Spacecraft component||Tianwen-1 Remote Camera (TRC)|
|Landing date||14 May 2021, 23:18 UTC (deployed from Zhurong rover on 1 June 2021 which itself was deployed from Tianwen-1 lander on 22 May 2021, 02:40 UTC)|
|Landing site||Utopia Planitia|
|Spacecraft component||Tianwen-1 Deployable Camera 2 (TDC-2)|
|Orbital insertion||10 February 2021, 11:52 UTC (entered orbit with the orbiter but was released from Tianwen-1 Orbiter on 31 December 2021)|
Planetary Exploration of China Mars logo
The mission's scientific objectives include: investigation of Martian surface geology and internal structure, search for indications of current and past presence of water, and characterization of the space environment and the atmosphere of Mars.
The mission was launched from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on 23 July 2020 on a Long March 5 heavy-lift launch vehicle. After seven months of transit through the inner Solar System, the spacecraft entered Martian orbit on 10 February 2021. For the next three months the probe studied the target landing sites from a reconnaissance orbit. On 14 May 2021, the lander/rover portion of the mission successfully touched down on Mars, making China the second nation[a] to make a soft landing on and establish communication from the Martian surface, after the United States.[b]
On 22 May 2021, the Zhurong rover drove onto the Martian surface via the descent ramps on its landing platform. With the successful deployment of the rover, China became the second nation to accomplish this feat, after the United States. In addition, China is the first nation to carry out an orbiting, landing and rovering mission on Mars successfully on its maiden attempt. Tianwen-1 is also the second mission to capture audio recordings on the Martian surface, after United States' Perseverance rover. The "smallsat" deployed by the Zhurong rover on the Martian surface consists of a "drop camera" which photographed both the rover itself as well as the Tianwen-1 lander. With a mass of less than 1 kg, the Tianwen-1 remote camera is the lightest artificial object on Mars as of May 2021. On December 31, 2021, the Tianwen-1 orbiter deployed a second deployable camera (TDC-2) into Mars orbit which captured photographs of the Tianwen-1 in orbit to celebrate its achievement of the year and a selfie stick payload was deployed to its working position on orbiter to take images of the orbiter's components and Chinese flag on 30 January 2022 to celebrate the Chinese New Year. In September 2022, the mission was awarded the World Space Award by the International Astronautical Federation.
The Tianwen-1 mission was the second of three Martian exploration missions launched during the July 2020 window, after the United Arab Emirates Space Agency's Hope orbiter, and before NASA's Mars 2020 mission, which landed the Perseverance rover with the attached Ingenuity helicopter drone.
China's planetary exploration program is officially dubbed the "Tianwen Series". "Tianwen-1" (Chinese: 天问一号) is the program's first mission, and subsequent planetary missions will be numbered sequentially. The name Tianwen means "questions to heaven" or "quest for heavenly truth", from the same classical poem written by Qu Yuan (c. 340–278 BC), an ancient Chinese poet. Tianwen-1's rover is named Zhurong (Chinese: 祝融号), after a Chinese mytho-historical figure usually associated with fire and light. The name was chosen through an online poll held from January to February 2021.
China's Mars program started in partnership with Russia. In November 2011, the Russian spacecraft Fobos-Grunt, destined for Mars and Phobos, was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome. The Russian spacecraft carried with it an attached secondary spacecraft, the Yinghuo-1, which was intended to become China's first Mars orbiter (Fobos-Grunt also carried experiments from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the American Planetary Society). However, Fobos-Grunt's main propulsion unit failed to boost the Mars-bound stack from its initial Earth parking orbit and the combined multinational spacecraft and experiments eventually reentered the atmosphere of Earth in January 2012. In 2014, China subsequently began an independent Mars project.
The new Mars spacecraft, consisting of an orbiter and a lander with an attached rover, was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) and is managed by the National Space Science Centre (NSSC) in Beijing. The mission was formally approved in 2016.
On 14 November 2019, CNSA invited some foreign embassies and international organizations to witness hovering and obstacle avoidance test for the Mars Lander of China's first Mars exploration mission at the extraterrestrial celestial landing test site. It was the first public appearance of China's Mars exploration mission.
As the mission preparation proceeded, in April 2020, the mission was formally named "Tianwen-1".
In September 2020, the Tianwen-1 orbiter deployed the Tianwen-1 First Deployable Camera (TDC-1), a small satellite with two cameras that took photos of and tested a radio connection with Tianwen-1. Its mission was to photograph the Tianwen-1 orbiter and the lander's heat shield. Due to the time when it was deployed, it trajectory predicted to do a flyby of Mars with that happening around the orbit insertion date.
During its cruise to Mars, the spacecraft completed four trajectory correction maneuvers plus an additional maneuver to alter its heliocentric orbital inclination; it also performed self diagnostics on multiple payloads. After payload checkouts, the spacecraft began scientific operations with the Mars Energetic Particle Analyzer, mounted on the orbiter, which transmitted initial data back to ground control.
The lander/rover portion of the mission began its Martian landing attempt on 14 May 2021. About nine minutes after the aeroshell housing the lander/rover combination entered the Martian atmosphere, the lander (carrying the rover) safely touched down in the Utopia Planitia region on Mars. After a period spent conducting system checkouts and other planning activities (including taking engineering images of itself), the lander deployed the Zhurong rover for independent surface operations. This rover is powered by solar panels and will probe the Martian surface with radar and conduct chemical analyses on the soil; it will also look for biomolecules and biosignatures.
This is the CNSA's first interplanetary mission, as well as its first independent probe to Mars. The primary goal is therefore to validate China's deep space communications and control technologies, as well as the Administration's ability to successfully orbit and land spacecraft.
From a scientific point of view, the mission must meet five objectives:
- Study the geological structure of Mars and that structure's historical evolution. To do this, the probe will analyze topographical data from characteristic regions such as dry riverbeds, the reliefs of volcanoes, glaciers at the poles, areas affected by wind erosion, etc. The two cameras present on the orbiter are dedicated to this objective.
- Study the characteristics of both the surface and underground layers of Martian soil, as well as the distribution of water ice. This is the role of the radars present on the orbiter and the rover.
- Study the composition and type of rocks on the Martian surface, carbonate minerals present in ancient lakes, rivers, and other landscapes resulting from the past presence of water on the planet, and weathering mineral such as hematites, lamellar silicates, sulphate hydrates and perchlorate. The spectrometers on board the orbiter and the rover as well as the multispectral camera are dedicated to this objective.
- Study the ionosphere, the climate, the seasons, and more generally the atmosphere of Mars, both in its near-space environment and on its surface. This is the role of the two particle detectors present on the orbiter as well as of the rover's weather station.
- Study the internal structure of Mars, its magnetic field, the history of its geological evolution, the internal distribution of its mass, and its gravitational field. The magnetometers as well as the radars present on the orbiter and the rover are dedicated to this objective.
The aims of the mission include searching for evidence of current and past life, producing surface maps, characterizing soil composition and water ice distribution, and examining the Martian atmosphere, particularly its ionosphere.
The mission also serves as a technology demonstration that will be needed for an anticipated Mars sample-return mission proposed for the 2030s. Zhurong will also cache rock and soil samples for retrieval by the later sample-return mission, and the orbiter will make it possible to locate a caching site.
In late 2019, the Xi'an Aerospace Propulsion Institute, a subsidiary of CASC, stated that the performance and control of the future spacecraft's propulsion system has been verified and had passed all requisite pre-flight tests, including tests for hovering, hazard avoidance, deceleration and landing. The main component of the lander's propulsion system consists of a single engine that provides 7,500 N (1,700 lbf) of thrust. The spacecraft's supersonic parachute system had also been successfully tested.
CNSA initially focused on the Chryse Planitia and Elysium Mons regions of Mars in its search for possible landing sites. However, in September 2019 during a joint meeting in Geneva, in Switzerland, of the European Planetary Science Congress-Division for Planetary Sciences, the presenters announced that two preliminary sites in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars have instead been chosen for the anticipated landing attempt, with each site having a landing ellipse of approximately 100 by 40 kilometres.
In July 2020, CNSA provided landing coordinates of 110.318° East longitude and 24.748° North latitude, within the southern portion of Utopia Planitia, as the specific primary landing site. The area was chosen for being both of scientific interest and being safe enough for landing attempts. Simulated landings have been performed as part of mission preparations by the Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electricity.
By 23 January 2020, the Long March 5 Y4 rocket's hydrogen-oxygen engine had completed a 100-seconds test, which was the last engine test prior to the final assembly of the launch vehicle. It successfully launched on 23 July 2020.
Entering Mars orbitEdit
The three Tianwen-1 spacecraft were launched by Long March 5 Heavy-lift launch vehicle on 23 July 2020. Having traveled for about seven months, it entered Mars orbit on 10 February 2021 by performing a burn of its engines to slow down just enough to be captured by Mars' gravitational pull. The orbiter spent several months scanning and imaging the surface of Mars to refine the target landing zone for the lander/rover. It approached at about 265 km (165 mi) (periareion, or periapse) to Mars' surface, allowing a high-resolution camera to return images to Earth and to map the landing site in Utopia Planitia, and to prepare for landing.
|Periareion altitude||275 km|
|Apoareion altitude||10,749 km|
Landing on MarsEdit
Landing area selectionEdit
The landing area selection was based on two major criteria:
- Engineering feasibility, including latitude, altitude, slope, surface condition, rock distribution, local wind speed, visibility requirements during the EDL process.
- Scientific objectives, including geology, soil structure and water ice distribution, surface elements, mineral, and rock distribution, magnetic field detection.
Three initial areas were selected by the site selection team after a global survey of Mars; the three areas were: Amazonis Planitia, Chryse Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. All three candidate landing areas were between five degrees North and thirty degrees North latitude.
According to the site selection team, Amazonis Planitia was dropped from consideration upon further analysis due to the area's small thermal inertias and the possible presence of thick dust in the region; Chryse Planitia was eliminated next due to its rough terrain in terms of elevations, slopes, crater densities, and rock abundances. Finally, a region measuring approximately 180 km (110 mi) x 70 km (43 mi) in Utopia Planitia and centered on  The target landing regions in Utopia Planitia were favored by the selection team also because they present higher chances of finding evidence for the possible presence of ancient ocean on the northern lowlands of Mars.was selected as the primary target for further analysis (a backup target with about the same total area and centered on was also selected at that time.)
The primary target region was further constrained in extent using the high-resolution camera (HiRIC) on board the Tianwen-1 orbiter after it entered Martian orbit in February 2021. The HiRIC camera collected high resolution stereo images of the primary landing region; these images were built into mosaics of varying resolutions (e.g. digital elevation models with a resolution of 5 meters per pixel, and maps for automatic crater detection with a resolution of 0.7 meters per pixel.) The accuracy of some of the HiRIC image results were evaluated by comparing them with images generated by the cameras on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Using the HiRIC mosaics, the selection team conducted various terrain analyses on potential candidate landing ellipses within the primary target region in an iterative manner; these analyses included the determination of the candidate ellipse's average slope, the percentage of slope with an angle greater than 8%, average rock abundance, the percentage of area within the candidate ellipse with a rock abundance greater than 10%, and the percentage of cratered area. A 'hazard index' is then distilled from the analyses for each candidate ellipse. Cadidate ellipse 16, with the lowest hazard index, emerged as the paimary target (candidate ellipse 128, with the next lowest hazard index, was the backup). See the following figure produced by the landing selection team intended to illustrate the calculation of the hazard indices for candidate ellipses 16 and 128.
Ellipse 16 was selected for the attempted landing in May 2021; it is centered on with major and minor axes of 55 km (34 mi) and 22 km (14 mi) respectively (the boundary of the ellipse is defined by a landing probability uncertainty of 3 sigmas); also, the major axis of the landing ellipse is tilted with respect to the Martian north by 1.35 degrees to the west, this is a consequence of the planned orbital descent path. On 14 May 2021 (UTC), the Zhurong rover and its landing platform touched down at , at an elevation of −4,099.4 m (−13,449 ft), about 3.1 km (1.9 mi) south of the center of landing ellipse 16.
At 23:18 UTC, on 14 May 2021, the Tianwen-1 lander successfully landed in the preselected landing area in the southern part of the Mars Utopia Planitia. The landing phase began with the release of the protective capsule containing the lander/rover. The capsule made an atmospheric entry followed by a descent phase under parachute, after which the lander used retro-propulsion to soft-land on Mars.
On 19 May 2021, CNSA released for the first time images showing the preparation of the final transfer of the Zhurong rover from the platform of the lander to the Martian soil. The photographs show the solar panels of Zhurong already deployed while Zhurong is still perched on the lander along with two circular windows on the deck under which n-undecane wad stored in 10 containers that absorbs heat and melts during the daytime and solidifies and releases heat at night. The long delay for the publication of the first images is explained by the short periods of time when the Zhurong rover and the orbiter are in radio contact and can effectively communicate and transfer data.
On 11 June 2021, CNSA released the first batch of scientific images from the surface of Mars including a panoramic image taken by Zhurong and a group photo of Zhurong and the Tianwen-1 lander taken by the drop camera. The panoramic image is composed of 24 single shots taken by the NaTeCam before the rover was deployed to the Martian surface. The image reveals that the topography and rock abundance near the landing site was consistent with previous anticipations from the scientist on typical south Utopia Planitia features with small but widespread rocks, white wave patterns, and mud volcanoes.
Exploration of Martian surfaceEdit
On 22 May 2021 (02:40 UTC), the Zhurong rover descended from its lander onto the Martian surface to begin its scientific mission. The first images received on Earth after the rover deployment showed the empty landing platform and the extended rover-descent ramps. During its deployment, the Rover's instrument, Mars Climatic Station, recorded the sound, acting as the second martian sound instrument to record Martian sounds successfully after Mars 2020 Perseverance rover's microphones.
The Zhurong rover deployed a drop camera to the surface which was able to photograph both the Zhurong rover and the Tianwen-1 lander.
The rover is designed to explore the surface for 90 sols; its height is about 1.85 m (6.1 ft) and it has a mass of about 240 kg (530 lb). After the rover deployment, the orbiter would serve as a telecommunications relay for the rover while continuing to conduct its own orbital observations of Mars.
From mid-September to late October 2021, both the Tianwen-1 orbiter and Zhurong rover entered safe mode due to a communications blackout around solar conjunction. Both devices were back to active mode after the ending of the blackout.
To achieve the scientific objectives of the mission, the Tianwen-1 orbiter is equipped with eight scientific instruments, while the Zhurong rover is equipped with six, which include:
- Moderate Resolution Imaging Camera (MoRIC) with a resolution of 100 m from a 400 km altitude. It takes color photos in visible band.
- High Resolution Imaging Camera (HiRIC) with a resolution of 2.5 m from a 256 km altitude in panchromatic mode, 10 m in color mode.
- Mars Orbiter Magnetometer (MOMAG) is used to map Martian magnetic field.
- Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) utilizes the visible and near infrared imaging spectrometer with detection wavelengths ranging from 0.45 to 3.4 µm to investigate and analyze the Martian surface composition. It also investigate the distribution of regolith types and subsurface structure of Mars.
- Mars Orbiter Scientific Investigation Radar (MOSIR) aims to explore the Martian surface and subsurface water-ice by means of the dual-polarization echo characteristics of radar.
- Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) measures the flux of ions in space environment, distinguishes the main ions and obtains their physical parameters such as the density, velocity and temperature.
- Mars Energetic Particle Analyzer (MEPA) obtains the energy spectrum, flux and elemental composition of energy electrons, protons, α particles and ions.
- Unknown payload, likely the Mars Orbiter Status Monitoring Sensor (MOSMOS), to monitor and evaluate the condition of key components, the Chinese flag and the 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics logo on the orbiter. The selfie rod, 0.8 kg (1.8 lb) in weight and 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in) long, is made from shape memory composite material, solar heat makes it extended to working position with two cameras fixed at one end and attached to orbiter on another end along with some degrees of freedom to the arm.
- Mars Rover Penetrating Radar (RoPeR) Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), two frequencies, to image about 100 m (330 ft) below the Martian surface It was one of the two very first ground-penetrating radars deployed on Mars, along with the one equipped by NASA's Perseverance rover launched and landed in same years.
- Mars Rover Magnetometer (RoMAG) obtains the fine-scale structures of crustal magnetic field based on mobile measurements on the Martian surface.
- Mars Climate Station (MCS) (also MMMI Mars Meteorological Measurement Instrument) measures the temperature, pressure, wind velocity and direction of the surface atmosphere, and a microphone to capture Martian sounds. During rover's deployment, it recorded the sound, acting as the second Martian sound instrument to record Martian sounds successfully after Mars 2020 Perseverance rover's microphones.
- Mars Surface Compound Detector (MarSCoDe) combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and infrared spectroscopy
- Multispectral Camera (MSCam) Combined with MarSCoDe, MSCam investigates the mineral components to establish the relationship between Martian surface water environment and secondary mineral types, and to search for historical environmental conditions for the presence of liquid water.
- Navigation and Topography Cameras (NaTeCam) With 2048 × 2048 resolution, NaTeCam is used to construct topography maps, extract parameters such as slope, undulation and roughness, investigate geological structures, and conduct comprehensive analysis on the geological structure of the surface parameters.
The lander did not have a scientific payload, but carried a Mars Emergency Beacon designed to survive the force of a catastrophic crash. The beacon would have allowed critical engineering data to be collected to aid future design. The lander also carried the Chinese flag and 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics mascots with it like the orbiter.
- Tianwen-1 Deployable Cameras, two secondary Payloads deployed in September 2020 in deep space and 31 December 2021 in Mars orbit respectively, that took photos of and tested a radio connection with Tianwen-1. The first camera's mission was to photograph the Tianwen-1 orbiter and the lander's heat shield while the other one had to image the orbiter and Northern Mars Ice Cap from Mars orbit.
- Tianwen-1 Remote Camera, secondary Payload deployed on 1 June 2021 that took photos of and tested a wireless connection with Zhurong rover like the deployable cameras did with orbiter. Its mission was to take a group selfie of the Zhurong rover and the Tianwen-1 lander. The photo was released on 11 June 2021, confirming their Martian landing success.
Argentina's Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) is collaborating on Tianwen-1 by way of the Espacio Lejano tracking station installed in Las Lajas, Neuquén. The facility played a previous role in China's landing of the Chang'e 4 spacecraft on the far side of the Moon in January 2019.
France's Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP) in Toulouse, in France, is collaborating on the Zhurong rover. Sylvestre Maurice of IRAP said:
For their Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument, we have delivered a calibration target that is a French duplicate of a target which is on [NASA's] Curiosity [Mars rover]. The idea is to see how the two datasets compare.
The Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) aided in the development of a magnetometer installed on the Tianwen-1 orbiter. The Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Graz has confirmed the group's contribution to the Tianwen-1 magnetometer and helped with the calibration of the flight instrument.
You were brave enough for the challenge, pursued excellence and placed our country in the advanced ranks of planetary exploration. Your outstanding achievement will forever be etched in the memories of the motherland and the people.
Together with the global science community, I look forward to the important contributions this mission will make to humanity's understanding of the Red Planet.
The landing of China's spacecraft on the surface of Mars is "a great success" of China's fundamental space research program [and] welcome[d] the resumption of exploration of the planets of the solar system by the leading space powers.
Congratulations to China's Tianwen-1 team for the successful landing of their Zhurong rover on Mars!
- Astrobiology – science concerned with life in the universe
- Climate of Mars – climate patterns of the terrestrial planet
- Chinese Deep Space Network
- Exploration of Mars
- List of missions to Mars
- Life on Mars – scientific assessments on the microbial habitability of Mars
- Emirates Mars Mission, UAE 2020 Mars mission with its Hope orbiter
- Mars sample-return mission – mars mission to collect rock and dust samples
- "中国火星探测器露真容 明年发射". Ta Kung Pao (in Chinese). 12 October 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- The Global Exploration Roadmap (PDF). International Space Exploration Coordination Group. January 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Wang, F. (2018). China's Cooperation Plan on Lunar and Deep Space Exploration (PDF). United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- "China Exclusive: China's aim to explore Mars". Xinhua News Agency. 21 March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Tianwen-1". China National Space Administration (CNSA). Retrieved 2 December 2022.
- 上海卫星 (14 February 2021). "509所为你解密火星环绕器结构设计！" (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 17 January 2023.
- Wall, Mike (23 July 2020). "China launches ambitious Tianwen-1 Mars rover mission". Space.com. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "天问一号探测器飞行里程突破3亿千米" [Tianwen-1 has flown more than 300 million kilometres]. cnsa.gov.cn (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Gebhardt, Chris (10 February 2021). "China, with Tianwen-1, begins tenure at Mars with successful orbital arrival". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Clark, Stephen (6 October 2020). "China's Mars-bound probe returns self-portrait from deep space". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "我国首次火星探测任务着陆火星取得圆满成功". cnsa.gov.cn (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 15 May 2021. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- "天问一号成功着陆火星！" (in Chinese). China News Service. 15 May 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Zhang, Hang (15 May 2021). "官宣！7时18分！"天问一号"探测器成功着陆火星". Beijing Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (28 October 2020). "China chooses landing site for its Tianwen-1 Mars rover". Space.com. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- Weitering, Hanneke (15 May 2021). "China's 1st Mars rover 'Zhurong' lands on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Liu, J.; Lai, C.; Zhang, R.; Rao, W.; Cui, X.; Geng, Y.; Jia, Y.; Hiang, H.; Ren, X.; Yan, W. (6 December 2021). "Geomorphic contexts and science focus of the Zhurong landing site on Mars". Nature Astronomy. 6: 65–71. doi:10.1038/s41550-021-01519-5. S2CID 244931773. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
- Hebden, Kerry (14 May 2021). "China is about to land its Zhurong rover on Mars". Room. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
The same Chinese space watchers who revealed the impending descent also report that Zhurong will begin exploration on 22 May
- ""祝融号"火星车准备越冬 环绕器持续开展环绕探测" (in Simplified Chinese). 人民网. 6 May 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
- "天问一号探测器着陆火星首批科学影像图揭幕". cnsa.gov.cn (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 11 June 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
- "New Year's Day greetings-China National Space Administration releases the images returned by the Tianwen-1 probe". 1 January 2022.
- Myers, Steven Lee; Chang, Kenneth (14 May 2021). "China's Mars Rover Mission Lands on the Red Planet". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (23 July 2020). "Tianwen-1 launches for Mars, marking dawn of Chinese interplanetary exploration". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
- Roulette, Joey (5 February 2021). "Three countries are due to reach Mars in the next two weeks". The Verge. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- Fitzsimons, Tim (15 May 2021). "China becomes only second nation in history to land a rover on Mars". NBC News.
- Balint, Tibor. "Summary of Russian Planetary Lander Missions" (PDF). NASA-JPL.
- Corbett, Tobias (14 May 2021). "China succeeds on country's first Mars landing attempt with Tianwen-1". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- Graham, William (13 March 2016). "Proton-M successfully launches first ExoMars spacecraft". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Goddard, Jacqui (13 February 2021). "US rover Perseverance will taste, touch and listen to Mars". The Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Woo, Ryan; Sun, Yilei (22 May 2021). "China says Martian rover takes first drive on surface of Red Planet". Reuters. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- "祝融号火星车成功驶上火星表面" [Zhurong rover successfully descended onto the surface of Mars] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Zhou, Bin; Shen, Shaoxiang; Ji, Yicai; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Guangyou; Su, Yan; Dai, Shun (2016). "The subsurface penetrating radar on the rover of China's Mars 2020 mission". 2016 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). 2016 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Hong Kong, China. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1109/ICGPR.2016.7572700. ISBN 978-1-5090-5181-6. S2CID 306903.
- Williams, Matt (30 May 2021). "Zhurong is Rolling on Mars". Universe Today. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
- Woo, Ryan (15 May 2021). "China completes historic Mars spacecraft landing". Reuters. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- "On its first try, China's Zhurong rover hit a Mars milestone that took NASA decades". space.com. July 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
- "科学影像图揭幕，一次性绕着巡！我国首次火星探测任务取得圆满成功" [The scientific image map was unveiled, and it was a one-time tour! my country's first Mars exploration mission was a complete success]. China Space News (in Chinese). 11 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021 – via WeChat.
The picture of the "touring group photo" shows the rover traveling about 10 meters south of the landing platform, releasing the separate camera installed at the bottom of the vehicle, and then retreating to the vicinity of the landing platform.
- "IAF WORLD SPACE AWARD: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE TIANWEN-1 MISSION". International Astronautical Federation. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
- "China's Tianwen-1 Mars mission wins international space award". Space.com. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
- "Mars Alert: Why Three Spacecraft Must Leave For The Red Planet Within Weeks Or Miss Their Chance". Forbes. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- "中国首次火星探测任务命名为"天问一号"" [China's first Mars exploration mission named "Tianwen No. 1"]. Beijing Daily (in Chinese). 24 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
- "China's first Mars exploration mission named Tianwen-1". Xinhua News Agency. 24 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- Yeung, Jessie (10 February 2021). "Tianwen-1, China's mission to Mars, has entered orbit". CNN. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "China's first Mars rover named Zhurong". Xinhua News Agency. 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- ""祝融号"荣登榜首！中国首辆火星车全球征名投票结束". Hunan Today (in Chinese). 2 March 2021. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021.
- "Russian Phobos-Grunt Mars probe falls in Pacific Ocean". RIA Novosti. 15 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
Phobos-Grunt fragments have crashed down in the Pacific Ocean
- Wu, Nan (24 June 2014). "Next stop – Mars: China aims to send rover to Red Planet within six years". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- "Tianwen-1 (China's first Mars Exploration Mission)". eoPortal. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (8 November 2019). "China Says Its Mars Landing Technology Is Ready For 2020". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
- "CNSA invited embassies and media to witness hovering and obstacle avoidance test for Mars Lander of China's first Mars exploration mission". cnsa.gov.cn. China National Space Administration. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
- Zhao, Lei (24 April 2020). "China's first Mars mission named Tianwen 1". China Daily. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- "China's Mars probe completes deep-space maneuver". Xinhua News Agency. 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- Jones, Andrew (10 February 2021). "China's Tianwen-1 enters orbit around Mars". SpaceNews. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Zhao, Lei (29 July 2020). "Mars probe begins science operations". China Daily. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Update: China's Tianwen-1 probe sends back Mars landing visuals". Xinhua News Agency. 19 May 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Roulette, Joey (19 May 2021). "China releases first images from its Zhurong rover on Mars". The Verge. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Amos, Jonathan (19 May 2021). "China on Mars: Zhurong rover returns first pictures". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (14 May 2021). "China's Zhurong Mars rover lands safely in Utopia Planitia". SpaceNews. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Jia, Yingzhuo; Fan, Yu; Zou, Yongliao (2018). "Scientific Objectives and Payloads of Chinese First Mars Exploration" (PDF). Space Science Activities in China: National Report 2016–2018 (Report). pp. 101–105. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- Normile, Dennis (25 June 2020). "Mars mission would put China among space leaders". Science. 368 (6498): 1420. Bibcode:2020Sci...368.1420N. doi:10.1126/science.368.6498.1420. PMID 32587004. S2CID 220077904. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Lozovschi, Alexandra (17 January 2019). "China Plans To Land A Rover On Mars In 2020". Inquisitr. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Zhao, Lei (3 December 2019). "Country making strides toward Mars mission". China Daily. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (5 January 2021). "China's Tianwen-1 spacecraft will reach Mars orbit on 10 February 2021". Space.com. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Amos, Jonathan (10 February 2021). "China Mars mission: Tianwen-1 spacecraft enters into orbit". BBC News. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Daniel Estévez. "Tianwen-1 remote sensing orbit". Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- Li, Chunlai; Zhang, Rongqiao; Yu, Dengyun; Dong, Guangliang; Liu, Jianjun; Geng, Yan; Sun, Zezhou; Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Su, Yan; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Tielong; Cao, Jinbin; Fang, Guangyou; Yang, Jianfeng; Shu, Rong; Lin, Yangting; Zou, Yongliao; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Bin; Kong, Deqing; Zhu, Xinying; Ouyang, Ziyuan (June 2021). "China's Mars Exploration Mission and Science Investigation". Space Science Reviews. 217 (4): 57. Bibcode:2021SSRv..217...57L. doi:10.1007/s11214-021-00832-9.
- Wu, Bo; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yiran; Rao, Wei; Sun, Zezhou; Li, Zhaojin; Tan, Zhiyan; Chen, Zeyu; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Wai-Chung; Chen, Long; Zhu, Jiaming; Li, Hongliang (April 2022). "Landing site selection and characterization of Tianwen-1 (Zhurong rover) on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 127 (4). Bibcode:2022JGRE..12707137W. doi:10.1029/2021JE007137.
- Ryan, Jackson (14 May 2021). "China's Tianwen-1 mission to attempt daring Mars rover landing Friday". CNET. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Amos, Jonothan (15 May 2021). "China lands its Zhurong rover on Mars". BBC News. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "科普贴|"祝融"成功登陆火星 为何选择在"乌托邦"？ 恐怖9分钟经历了什么？". Eastday (in Chinese). 15 May 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- "天問一號探測器登陸「烏托邦平原」 中國火星着陸任務創歷史". HK01 (in Chinese). 15 May 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Tianwen-1 | Deep Space Exploration of China [@CNDeepSpace] (5 January 2022). "The secret keeping #Zhurong warm during freezing night is under the two circular windows: N-undecane stored in 10 containers absorbs heat and melts during the daytime and solidifies and releases heat at night. t.co/UBT9fD94bw" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Barthélémy, Pierre (19 May 2021). "Le rover chinois Zhurong envoie ses premières photos de Mars" [The Chinese rover Zhurong sends its first photographies]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Wall, Mike (17 May 2021). "China's newly landed Mars rover Zhurong likely to roll into action this weekend". Space.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
- ""祝融号"近距离"看"降落伞与背罩". CNSA (in Chinese). 16 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (15 July 2021). "China's Zhurong Mars rover visits own parachute". SpaceNews. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (5 September 2021). "China's Zhurong Mars rover returns panorama ahead of planetary blackout". Space.com. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
- Jones, Andrew (22 October 2021). "China's Zhurong Mars rover returns panorama ahead of planetary blackout". Space.com. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
- Tianwen-1 | Deep Space Exploration of China [@CNDeepSpace] (31 January 2022). "Correction: the stick that I thought to be the selfie stick (MOSMOS) is actually the 3rd Scientific Investigation Radar (MOSIR). The selfie stick should locate at the lower right as shown in the red circle in this attached photo. It seems not deployed yet when the photo was taken t.co/a9SupzjrnD" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Tianwen-1 | Deep Space Exploration of China [@CNDeepSpace] (30 January 2022). "Classic way of taking selfie. Tianwen-1 deploys a selfie stick that is made out of shape memory composite. It weighs only 0.8kg and extends to 1.6 meters long. In this video, the folded stick was heated after Mars orbit insertion, and it automatically extended #Zhurong #Tianwen1 t.co/qobX0FeulZ" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Tianwen-1 | Deep Space Exploration of China [@CNDeepSpace] (30 January 2022). "Here is how the selfie stick looks in folded state. How many secrets do #Tianwen1 have that we don't know yet? #Zhurong update: 1524 meters driving distance after 255 sols as of Jan.31 #天问一号 #祝融号火星车 t.co/llkBKNp9Ft" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Tianwen-1 | Deep Space Exploration of China [@CNDeepSpace] (9 February 2022). "The cameras #Tianwen1 used for selfies. t.co/3WWqalmuEd" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Jones, Andrew (22 July 2020). "China raises the stakes with second Mars attempt". SpaceNews. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- Zou, Yongliao; Zhu, Yan; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Lianguo; Jia, Yingzhuo; Shen, Weihua; Fan, Yu; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Aibing; Yu, Guobin; Dong, Jihong; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Zhang, Tielong; Du, Aimin; Fan, Mingyi; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yi; Peng, Yongqing (2021). "Scientific objectives and payloads of Tianwen-1, China's first Mars exploration mission". Advances in Space Research. 67 (2): 812–823. Bibcode:2021AdSpR..67..812Z. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2020.11.005. ISSN 0273-1177.
- "为天问一号装上"会打电话的黑匣子"". 人民网. 17 May 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- 火星之后我们会去哪里？| 《火星来了》第三季第⑨集 (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 11 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021 – via Bilibili.
- David, Leonard (22 July 2020). "China's Tianwen-1 Mars rover mission gets a boost from international partners". Space.com. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- O'Callaghan, Jonathan (14 May 2021). "China Lands Tianwen-1 Rover on Mars in a Major First for the Country". Scientific American. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Moritsugu, Ken (15 May 2021). "China lands on Mars in major advance for its space ambitions". Associated Press. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "Russian space corporation praises China's first Mars landing". Xinhua News Agency. 15 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- @ESA (15 May 2021). "Congratulations to China's #Tianwen1 team for the successful landing of their #Zhurong rover on Mars!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.