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This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination. It includes planetary probes, solar probes, and probes to asteroids and comets, but excludes lunar missions, which are listed separately at List of lunar probes and List of Apollo missions. Flybys (such as gravity assists) that were incidental to the main purpose of the mission are also included. Flybys of Earth are listed separately at List of Earth flybys. Confirmed future probes are included, but missions that are still at the concept stage, or which never progressed beyond the concept stage, are not.

Contents

KeyEdit

Colour key:

     – Mission or flyby completed successfully (or partially successfully)         Failed or cancelled mission
     – Mission en route or in progress (including mission extensions)     Planned mission
  • means "tentatively identified", as classified by NASA.[1] These are Cold War-era Soviet missions, mostly failures, about which few or no details have been officially released. The information given may be speculative.
  • Date is the date of:
  • closest encounter (flybys)
  • impact (impactors)
  • orbital insertion to end of mission, whether planned or premature (orbiters)
  • landing to end of mission, whether planned or premature (landers)
  • launch (missions that never got underway due to failure at or soon after launch)
In cases which do not fit any of the above, the event to which the date refers is stated. Note that as a result of this scheme missions are not always listed in order of launch.
  • Some of the terms used under Type:
  • Flyby: The probe flies by an astronomical body, but does not orbit it
  • Orbiter: Part of a probe that orbits an astronomical body
  • Lander: Part of a probe that descend to the surface of an astronomical body
  • Rover: Part of a probe that acts as a vehicle to move on the solid-surface of an astronomical body
  • Penetrator: Part of a probe that impacts an astronomical body
  • Atmospheric probe or balloon: Part of a probe that descend through or floats in the atmosphere of an astronomical body
  • Sample return: Parts of the probe return back to Earth with physical samples
  • Under Status, in the case of flybys (such as gravity assists) that are incidental to the main mission, "success" indicates the successful completion of the flyby, not necessarily that of the main mission.

Solar probesEdit

While the Sun is not physically explorable with current technology, the following solar observation probes have been designed and launched to operate in heliocentric orbit or at one of the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points – additional solar observatories were placed in Earth orbit and are not included in this list:

1960–1969Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 5   NASA/
  DOD
March–April 1960 orbiter success measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region   1960-001A
Pioneer 6(A)   NASA December 1965 – still contactable in 2000 orbiter success network of solar-orbiting "space weather" monitors, observing solar wind, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields   1965-105A
Pioneer 7(B)   NASA August 1966 – still contactable in 1995 orbiter success 1966-075A
Pioneer 8(C)   NASA December 1967 – still contactable in 2001 orbiter success 1967-123A
Pioneer 9(D)   NASA November 1968 – May 1983 orbiter success 1968-100A
Pioneer-E   NASA 27 August 1969 orbiter failure intended as part of the Pioneer 6–9 network; failed to reach orbit   PIONE

1974–1997Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Helios A   NASA/
  DFVLR
November 1974 – 1982 orbiter success observations of solar wind, magnetic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust between Earth and Sun   1974-097A
Helios B   NASA/
  DFVLR
January 1976 – 1985? orbiter success 1976-003A
ISEE-3   NASA 1978–1982 orbiter success observed solar phenomena in conjunction with earth-orbiting ISEE-1 and ISEE-2; later renamed International Cometary Explorer (ICE) and directed to Comet Giacobini-Zinner   1976-003A
Ulysses
(first pass)
  ESA/
  NASA
1994 orbiter success south polar observations   1990-090B
1995 north polar observations
WIND   NASA November 1994 – still active as of December 2017[2] orbiter success solar wind measurements   1994-071A
SOHO   ESA/
  NASA
May 1996 – extended to December 2018[3] orbiter success investigation of Sun's core, corona, and solar wind; comet discoveries   1995-065A
ACE   NASA August 1997 – projected until 2024[4] orbiter success solar wind observations   1997-045A

2000–presentEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ulysses
(second pass)
  ESA/
  NASA
2000 orbiter success south polar observations   1990-090B
2001 north polar observations
Genesis   NASA 2001–2004 orbiter/
sample return
success solar wind sample return; crash landed on return to Earth, much data salvaged   2001-034A
STEREO A   NASA December 2006 –
still active as of September 2016[5][6]
orbiter success stereoscopic imaging of coronal mass ejections and other solar phenomena   2006-047A
STEREO B   NASA December 2006 – October 2014
August 2016 –
(communication lost between October 1, 2014 and August 21, 2016)[6][7]
orbiter success 2006-047B
Ulysses
(third pass)
  ESA/
  NASA
2007 orbiter success south polar observations   1990-090B
2008 partial success north polar observations; some data returned despite failing power and reduced transmission capacity
DSCOVR   NOAA February 2015 – orbiter success solar wind and coronal mass ejection monitoring, as well as Earth climate monitoring   2015-007A [8]
Parker Solar Probe   NASA November 2018 – December 2025 orbiter/flyby
(approach 26 times)
en route close-range solar coronal study 2018-065A [9]

ProposedEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Solar Orbiter   ESA 2020 orbiter Scheduled solar and heliospheric physics [10]
Aditya-L1   ISRO 2019–2020[11] orbiter planned to study solar corona
Intergelio-Zond   RKA 2026 orbiter planned close-range solar observations [12]

Mercury probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 10   NASA 29 March 1974 flyby success minimum distance 704 km   1973-085A
21 September 1974 48,069 km
16 March 1975 327 km
MESSENGER   NASA 14 January 2008 flyby success minimum distance 200 km   2004-030A
6 October 2008 minimum distance 200 km
29 September 2009 minimum distance 228 km
18 March 2011 –
30 April 2015
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Mercury; unavoidable impact on the surface at end of mission
BepiColombo   ESA/
  JAXA
October 2021 flyby en route BEPICLMBO
June 2022 en route
June 2023
September 2024
December 2024
January 2025
   Mercury
Planetary Orbiter
  ESA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion)
27 March 2025 (final MPO orbit)
orbiter en route
Mio
(Mercury
Magnetospheric Orbiter)
  JAXA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion) orbiter en route

Venus probesEdit

1961–1969Edit

Venus Probes (List) [1961-1965]
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Tyazhely Sputnik   (USSR) 4 February 1961 lander failure failed to escape from Earth orbit 1961-002A
Venera 1   (USSR) 19 May 1961 –
20 May 1961
flyby failure contact lost 7 days after launch; first spacecraft to fly by another planet 1961-003A
Mariner 1   NASA 22 July 1962 flyby failure guidance failure shortly after launch MARIN1
Sputnik 19   (USSR) 25 August 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-040A
Sputnik 20   (USSR) 1 September 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1962-043A
Sputnik 21   (USSR) 12 September 1962 flyby failure third stage exploded 1962-045A
Mariner 2   NASA 14 December 1962 flyby success first successful Venus flyby; minimum distance 34,773 km   1962-041A
Cosmos 21   (USSR) 11 November 1963 flyby? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1963-044A
Venera 1964A   (USSR) 19 February 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Venera 1964B   (USSR) 1 March 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Cosmos 27   (USSR) 27 March 1964 flyby failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1964-014A
Zond 1   (USSR) 1964 flyby and possible lander failure contact lost en route 1964-016D
Cosmos 96   (USSR) 23 November 1965 lander failure exploded? 1965-094A
Venera 1965A   (USSR) 26 November 1965 flyby failure launch vehicle failure? [1]
Venera 2   (USSR) 27 February 1966 flyby failure ceased to operate en route 1965-091A
Venera 3   (USSR) 1 March 1966 lander failure contact lost before arrival; first spacecraft to impact on the surface of another planet 1965-092A
Kosmos 167   (USSR) 17 June 1967 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1967-063A
Venera 4   (USSR) 18 October 1967 atmospheric probe success continued to transmit to an altitude of 25 km 1967-058A
Mariner 5   NASA 19 October 1967 flyby success minimum distance 5,000 km   1967-060A
Venera 5   (USSR) 16 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 53 minutes, to an altitude of about 26 km 1969-001A
Venera 6   (USSR) 17 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 51 minutes, to an altitude of perhaps 10–12 km 1969-002A

1970–1978Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cosmos 359   (USSR) 22 August 1970 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1970-065A
Venera 7   (USSR) 15 December 1970 lander success first successful landing on another planet; signals returned from surface for 23 minutes 1970-060A
Cosmos 482   (USSR) 31 March 1972 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1972-023A
Venera 8   (USSR) 22 July 1972 lander success signals returned from surface for 50 minutes 1972-021A
Mariner 10   NASA 5 February 1974 flyby success minimum distance 5768 km, en route to Mercury; first use of gravity assist by an interplanetary spacecraft   1973-085A
Venera 9   (USSR) 1975 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Venus; communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies   1975-050A
22 October 1975 lander success first images from the surface; operated on surface for 53 minutes 1975-050D
Venera 10   (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies   1975-054A
23 October 1975 lander success transmitted from surface for 65 minutes 1975-054D
Pioneer Venus Orbiter   NASA 4 December 1978 –
1992
orbiter success atmospheric and magnetic studies   1978-051A
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe   NASA 9 December 1978  
bus probe transporter success deployed four atmospheric probes, then burnt up in Venusian atmosphere, continuing to transmit to 110 km altitude 1978-078A
large probe atmospheric probe success 1978-078D
north probe atmospheric probe success 1978-078E
day probe atmospheric probe success survived impact and continued to transmit from surface for over an hour 1978-078G
night probe atmospheric probe success 1978-078F
Venera 12   SAS
flight platform 21 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-086A
descent craft 21 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 110 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-086C
Venera 11   SAS identical to Venera 12
   flight platform 25 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 1978-084A
descent craft 25 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 95 minutes; failure of some instruments 1978-084D

1982–1999Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 13   SAS
   bus 1 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay   1981-106A
descent craft 1 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 127 minutes 1981-106D
Venera 14   SAS identical to Venera 13
bus 5 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay   1981-110A
descent craft 5 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 57 minutes 1981-110D
Venera 15   SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping 1983-053A
Venera 16   SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping; identical to Venera 15 1983-054A
Vega 1   SAS 11 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet   1984-125A
lander failure instruments deployed prematurely 1984-125E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours   1984-125F
Vega 2   SAS 15 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet   1984-128A
lander success transmitted from surface for 56 minutes 1984-128E
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours   1984-128F
Galileo   NASA 10 February 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 16,000 km   [13]
Magellan   NASA 10 August 1990 –
12 October 1994
orbiter success global radar mapping   1989-033B [14]
Cassini   NASA/
  ESA/
  ASI
26 April 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn   1997-061A [15]
24 June 1999

2006–presentEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venus Express   ESA 11 April 2006 – 18 January 2015 orbiter success atmospheric studies; planetary imaging; magnetic observations   2005-045A
MESSENGER   NASA 24 October 2006 flyby success gravity assist only; minimum distance 2990 km   2004-030A
6 June 2007 success minimum distance 300 km; en route to Mercury
Akatsuki
(PLANET-C)
  JAXA 6 December 2010 (Venus flyby) orbiter failure failed orbital insertion in 2010; success in 2015
science mission ongoing since May 2016
  2010-020D
7 December 2015 (orbital insertion) – orbiter success
IKAROS   JAXA 8 December 2010 flyby[16] success solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration   2010-020E [17]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
  UNISEC December 2010? flyby[18] failure contact lost shortly after launch 2010-020F [19][20]
Parker Solar Probe   NASA October 2018 – November 2024 flyby (approach 7 times) en route gravity assist en route to solar corona 2018-065A [9]
BepiColombo
(first pass)
  ESA/
  JAXA
October 2020 flyby en route gravity assist en route to Mercury BEPICLMBO

ProposedEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Solar Orbiter   ESA 2020 flyby planned gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations [10]
BepiColombo
(second pass)
  ESA/
  JAXA
August 2021 flyby planned gravity assist en route to Mercury BEPICLMBO
JUICE   ESA 2022 flyby planned gravity assist en route to Jupiter   [21]
ISRO Venus orbiter mission   ISRO 2023 orbiter + balloons proposed [22][23]
Venus In Situ Explorer   NASA 2024 lander or airplane proposed   [24]
Venera-D   RKA 2025 orbiter proposed [25][26]

Earth flybysEdit

See List of Earth flybys

In addition, several planetary probes have sent back observations of the Earth-Moon system shortly after launch, most notably Mariner 10, Pioneers 10 and 11 and both Voyager probes.

Lunar probesEdit

Mars probesEdit

1960–1969Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars 1M No.1   USSR 10 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK1
Mars 1M No.2   USSR 14 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit MARSNK2
Mars 1962A   USSR 24 October 1962 flyby failure exploded in or en route to Earth orbit 1962-057A
Mars 1962B   USSR 11 November 1962 (launch) lander failure broke up during transfer to Mars trajectory 1962-062A
Mars 1   USSR 19 June 1963 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within approximately 193,000 km of Mars 1962-061A
Mariner 3   NASA 5 November 1964 flyby failure protective shield failed to eject, preventing craft from attaining correct trajectory   1964-073A
Mariner 4   NASA 15 July 1965 flyby success first close-up images of Mars   1964-077A
Zond 2   USSR 6 August 1965 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within 1,500 km of Mars 1964-078C
Mariner 6   NASA 31 July 1969 flyby success   1969-014A
Mariner 7   NASA 5 August 1969 flyby success   1969-030A
Mars 1969A   USSR 27 March 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69A
Mars 1969B   USSR 2 April 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure MARS69B

1971–1976Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 8   NASA 9 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure launch vehicle failure   MARINH
Kosmos 419   USSR 10 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1971-042A
Mariner 9   NASA 14 November 1971 –
27 October 1972
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit another planet   1971-051A
Mars 2   USSR 27 November 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter success first Russian spacecraft to orbit another planet 1971-045A
   Mars 2 Lander   USSR 27 November 1971 lander and short range rover failure crashed; first manmade object to reach surface of Mars 1971-045D
Mars 3   USSR 2 December 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter partial success attained a different orbit than intended due to insufficient fuel 1971-049A
Mars 3 Lander   USSR 2 December 1971 lander and short range rover partial success first soft landing on Mars; contact lost 110 sec after soft landing, first picture from surface 1971-049F
Mars 4   USSR 10 February 1974 orbiter failure orbit insertion failed, became flyby 1973-047A
Mars 5   USSR 12 February 1974 –
28 February 1974
orbiter success 1973-049A
Mars 6   USSR 12 March 1974 flyby success 1973-052A
Mars 6 Lander   USSR 12 March 1974 lander failure contact lost 148 sec after parachute deployment (returned 224 seconds of atmospheric data)
Mars 7   USSR 9 March 1974 flyby success 1973-053A
Mars 7 Lander   USSR 9 March 1974 lander failure missed Mars
Viking 1 Orbiter   NASA 19 June 1976 –
17 August 1980
orbiter success 1975-075A
Viking 1 Lander   NASA 20 July 1976 –
13 November 1982
lander success   1975-075C
Viking 2 Orbiter   NASA 7 August 1976 –
25 July 1978
orbiter success 1975-083A
Viking 2 Lander   NASA 3 September 1976 –
11 April 1980
lander success   1975-083C

1988–1999Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1   USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost en route to Mars   1988-058A
Phobos 2   USSR 29 January 1989 –
27 March 1989
orbiter partial success Mars orbit acquired, but contact lost shortly before Phobos approach phase and deployment of Phobos landers   1988-059A
Mars Observer   NASA 25 September 1992 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost shortly before Mars orbit insertion 1992-063A
Mars 96   RKA 16 November 1996 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit 1996-064A
lander   MARS96B
lander MARS96C
penetrator   MARS96D
penetrator MARS96E
Mars Pathfinder   NASA 4 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
lander success 1996-068A
    Sojourner   NASA 6 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
rover success first Mars rover   MESURPR
Mars Global Surveyor   NASA 12 September 1997 –
2 November 2006
orbiter success   1996-062A
Mars Climate Orbiter   NASA 23 September 1999 orbiter failure Mars orbit insertion failed due to navigation error   1998-073A
Mars Polar Lander   NASA 3 December 1999 lander failure contact lost just prior to entering Martian atmosphere   1999-001A
Deep Space 2 "Amundsen"   NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator   DEEPSP2
Deep Space 2 "Scott"   NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator

2001–2009Edit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2001 Mars Odyssey   NASA 24 October 2001 – orbiter success studying climate and geology; communications relay for Spirit and Opportunity rovers
longest surviving spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth
  2001-014A
Nozomi   ISAS 14 December 2003 orbiter failure failed to attain Mars orbit, became flyby 1998-041A
Mars Express   ESA 25 December 2003 – orbiter success surface imaging and mapping; first European probe in Martian orbit   2003-022A
   Beagle 2   UK 25 December 2003 lander failure Deployed by the Mars Express; lost for 11 years and imaged by NASA's MRO in 2015[27]   2003-022C
MER-A "Spirit"   NASA 4 January 2004 – 22 March 2010 rover success became stuck in May 2009; then operating as a static science station until contact lost in March 2010   2003-027A
MER-B "Opportunity"   NASA 25 January 2004 – 10 June 2018 rover success lost contact 10 June 2018 due to 2018 global dust storm. NASA concluded mission on 13 February 2019 after failed communication attempts since August 2018.   2003-032A
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter   NASA 10 March 2006 – orbiter success surface imaging and surveying   2005-029A
Rosetta   ESA 25 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters   2004-006A
Phoenix   NASA 25 May 2008 –
10 November 2008
lander success collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water and investigate Mars' geological history and biological potential   2007-034A [28]
Dawn   NASA 17 February 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to Vesta and Ceres   2007-043A

2011–presentEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Fobos-Grunt   RKA 8 November 2011 (launch) orbiter and Phobos sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit 2011-065A
    Yinghuo-1   CNSA orbiter YINGHUO-1
MSL Curiosity   NASA 6 August 2012 – rover success investigation of past and present habitability, climate and geology   2011-070A [29]
Mangalyaan / Mars Orbiter Mission   ISRO 24 September 2014 – orbiter success technology development; studying Martian atmosphere; mineralogical mapping.   2013-060A [30][31]
MAVEN   NASA 25 September 2014 – orbiter success studying Martian atmosphere   2013-063A [32]
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars 2016)   ESA/
  RKA
19 October 2016 – orbiter in orbit atmospheric gas analysis; communication relay for surface probes   2016-017A [33]
    Schiaparelli EDM lander   ESA 19 October 2016 lander crashed upon landing[34] landing test, meteorological observation  
InSight   NASA 26 November 2018 - lander landed full deployment will take 3 months after landing[35]   INSIGHT [36]
MarCO A "WALL-E"   NASA 26 November 2018 flyby success relaying data from InSight during its entry, descent, and landing
MarCO B "Eva"   NASA 26 November 2018 flyby success

ProposedEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
ExoMars rover   ESA /
  RKA
2020 rover planned   [37]
Mars 2020   NASA 2020 rover planned [38]
    Mars Helicopter Scout   NASA 2020 robotic helicopter planned providing guidance for the Mars 2020 rover  
Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover   CNSA 2020 rover planned Studying Martian environment [39]
Mars Orbiter Mission 2   ISRO 2022-23 orbiter planned Studying Martian atmosphere [40]
Psyche   NASA 2022 (launch)
2023 (flyby)
flyby planned gravity assist en route to Psyche [41]
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)   JAXA 2024 (launch)
Mid-2025 (arrival)
orbiter planned monitoring Martian climate [42]
JUICE   ESA 2022 (launch)
2025 (flyby)
flyby planned gravity assist en route to Jupiter   [21]
Mars Sample Return Mission   NASA /
  ESA
2026 orbiter, lander, rover, and sample return under study   [43][44]
Next Mars Orbiter (NeMO)   NASA Late 2020s[45] orbiter under study Laser communications relay, high-resolution mapping   [46]

Phobos probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1   USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) flyby failure contact lost en route to Mars   1988-058A
   DAS   USSR 2 September 1988 fixed lander failure never deployed
Phobos 2   USSR 27 March 1989 (contact lost) flyby failure attained Mars orbit; contact lost prior to deployment of lander   1988-059A
   DAS   USSR 27 March 1989 fixed lander failure never deployed
   "Frog"   USSR 27 March 1989 mobile lander failure never deployed
Fobos-Grunt   RKA 8 November 2011 (launch) sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Yinghuo-1 Mars orbiter 2011-065A
MMX   JAXA 2024 (launch)
2025 (arrival)
sample return planned orbital insertion in 2025 [47][48]
    MMX rover   CNES/
  DLR
2025 rover planned

Ceres probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Dawn   NASA March 6, 2015 – November 1, 2018 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; previously visited Vesta   2007-043A

Asteroid probesEdit

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
951 Gaspra Galileo   NASA 29 October 1991 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 1900 km   [13]
243 Ida Galileo   NASA 28 August 1993 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 2400 km; discovery of the first asteroid satellite Dactyl   [13]
1620 Geographos Clementine   BMDO/
  NASA
1994 flyby failure flyby cancelled due to equipment malfunction   1994-004A
253 Mathilde NEAR
Shoemaker
  NASA 27 June 1997 flyby success flew within 1200 km of 253 Mathilde en route to 433 Eros   1996-008A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
  NASA January 1999 orbiter failure became flyby due to software and communications problems (later attempt at orbit insertion succeeded; see below)   1996-008A
9969 Braille Deep Space 1   NASA 29 July 1999 flyby partial success no close-up images due to camera pointing error; went on to visit comet 19P/Borrelly   1998-061A
2685 Masursky Cassini   NASA/
  ESA/
  ASI
23 January 2000 distant flyby success en route to Saturn   1997-061A
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
  NASA February 2000 –
February 2001
orbiter, became lander success improvised landing by orbiter at end of mission   1996-008A
5535 Annefrank Stardust   NASA November 2, 2002 distant flyby success went on to visit comet 81P/Wild   1999-003A
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa   ISAS 2005–07 sample return success landed on Itokawa in 2005, initially failed as sampling device failed to operate, but second landing resulted in a success. It returned to Earth in 2010   2003-019A
    MINERVA   ISAS 12 November 2005 hopper failure missed target
132524 APL New Horizons   NASA June 2006 distant flyby success flew past Pluto successfully 2006-001A
2867 Šteins Rosetta   ESA 5 September 2008 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko   2004-006A
21 Lutetia Rosetta   ESA 11 July 2010 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko   2004-006A
4 Vesta Dawn   NASA 16 July 2011 – 5 September 2012 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; now orbiting Ceres   2007-043A
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2   CNSA 13 December 2012 flyby success 2010-050A
2000 DP107 PROCYON   University of Tokyo / JAXA 12 May 2016[49] flyby failure launched with Hayabusa2 in 2014; mission abandoned after ion thruster failure[50] 2014-076D
162173 Ryugu Hayabusa2   JAXA July 2018 sample return in orbit orbital insertion in June 2018, sample capture in 2019, return to Earth in 2020 2014-076A
    Minerva II-1A   JAXA 21 September 2018 hopper success
    Minerva II-1B   JAXA 21 September 2018 hopper success
    MASCOT   DLR/
  CNES
3 October 2018 mobile lander success
    Minerva II-2   JAXA 2019 hopper en route
    SCI   JAXA 2019 impactor success
    DCAM-3   JAXA 2019 orbiter success observing SCI's impact, and the ejecta created by the impact
101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx   NASA August 2018 sample return in orbit orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2020, return to Earth in 2023   2016-055A
2002 GT Deep Impact   NASA January 2020[51] flyby failure contact lost; previously visited comet 103P/Hartley   2005-001A
? Near-Earth Asteroid Scout   NASA 2020 (launch) flyby planned Small spacecraft asteroid flyby technology demonstration [52]
65803 Didymos DART   NASA 2021 (launch)
October 2022 (impact)
impactor planned [53]
    LICIA   ASI 2022 flyby planned observe DART's impact
52246 Donaldjohanson Lucy   NASA 2021 (launch)
April 2025 (flyby)
flyby planned Selected for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program, main-belt asteroid flyby en route to Jupiter Trojans [41]
16 Psyche Psyche   NASA 2022 (launch)
2026 (arrival)
orbiter planned Selected for mission #14 of NASA's Discovery Program [41]
3200 Phaethon DESTINY+   JAXA 2022 (launch)
2026 (arrival)
flyby planned First flyby of a rock comet [54]
3548 Eurybates Lucy   NASA August 2027 flyby planned First flyby of a Jupiter trojan [41]
15094 Polymele Lucy   NASA September 2027 flyby planned [41]
11351 Leucus Lucy   NASA April 2028 flyby planned [41]
21900 Orus Lucy   NASA November 2028 flyby planned [41]
Patroclus and Menoetius Lucy   NASA March 2033 flyby planned First flyby of a Trojan Camp Jupiter Trojan [41]

Jupiter probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10   NASA 3 December 1973 flyby success first probe to cross the asteroid belt; first Jupiter probe; first man-made object on an interstellar trajectory; now in the outer regions of the Solar System but no longer contactable   1972-012A
Pioneer 11   NASA 4 December 1974 flyby success went on to visit Saturn   1973-019A
Voyager 1   NASA 5 March 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn   1977-084A
Voyager 2   NASA 9 July 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn, Uranus and Neptune   1977-076A
Ulysses
(first pass)
  ESA/
  NASA
February 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations   1990-090B
Galileo Orbiter   NASA/
  West Germany
7 December 1995 –
21 September 2003
orbiter success also flew by various of Jupiter's moons; intentionally flown into Jupiter at end of mission; first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter; first spacecraft to flyby an asteroid   1989-084B
   Galileo Probe   NASA 7 December 1995 atmospheric probe success first probe to enter Jupiter's atmosphere   1989-084E
Cassini   NASA/
  ESA/
  ASI
December 2000 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn   1997-061A
Ulysses
(second pass)
  ESA/
  NASA
2003–04 distant flyby success   1990-090B
New Horizons   NASA 28 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to Pluto 2006-001A
Juno   NASA 5 July 2016 – July 2018, with spacecraft disposal planned for July 2021[55] orbiter success First solar-powered Jupiter orbiter, first mission to achieve a polar orbit of Jupiter.   2011-040A
JUICE   ESA 2022 (launch) orbiter planned mission to study Jupiter's three icy moons Callisto, Europa and Ganymede, eventually orbiting Ganymede as the first spacecraft to orbit a satellite of another planet   [21]
Europa Clipper   NASA 2020s orbiter under study planned to orbit Jupiter and fly by Europa multiple times   [56]

Saturn probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 11   NASA 1 September 1979 flyby success previously visited Jupiter   1973-019A
Voyager 1   NASA 12 November 1980 flyby success previously visited Jupiter   1977-084A
Voyager 2   NASA 5 August 1981 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, went on to visit Uranus and Neptune   1977-076A
Cassini   NASA/
  ESA/
  ASI
1 July 2004 – 15 September 2017 orbiter success also performed flybys of a number of Saturn's moons, and deployed the Huygens Titan lander; first spacecraft to orbit Saturn   1997-061A

Titan probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Huygens   ESA 14 January 2005 atmospheric probe, lander success deployed by Cassini; first probe to land on a satellite of another planet 1997-061C
Dragonfly   NASA 2025 rotorcraft lander under study finalist for New Frontiers 4 competition   [57] [58]

Uranus probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2   NASA 24 January 1986 flyby success previously visited Jupiter and Saturn; went on to visit Neptune   1977-076A

Neptune probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2   NASA 25 August 1989 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus   1977-076A

Pluto probesEdit

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
New Horizons   NASA 14 July 2015 flyby success later flew by Kuiper belt object 2014 MU69 when it was 43.4 AU from the Sun.   2006-001A

Comet probesEdit

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
21P/Giacobini-Zinner ICE (formerly ISEE3)   NASA 11 September 1985 flyby success previously solar monitor ISEE3; went on to observe Halley's Comet   1978-079A
1P/Halley Vega 1   SAS 6 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus   1984-125A
1P/Halley Suisei   ISAS 8 March 1986 flyby success 151,000 km   1985-073A
1P/Halley Vega 2   SAS 9 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus   1984-128A
1P/Halley Sakigake   ISAS March 1986 distant flyby partial success minimum distance 6.99 million km   1985-001A
1P/Halley Giotto   ESA 14 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 596 km; went on to visit comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup   1985-056A
1P/Halley ICE (formerly ISEE3)   NASA 28 March 1986 distant obser-
vations
success minimum distance 32 million km; previously visited comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner   1978-079A
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto   ESA 10 July 1992 flyby success previously visited Halley's Comet   1985-056A
45P/
Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
Sakigake   ISAS 1996 flyby failure contact lost; previously visited Halley's Comet   1985-001A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Sakigake   ISAS 1998 flyby failure
55P/Tempel-Tuttle Suisei   ISAS 1998 flyby failure abandoned due to lack of fuel; previously visited Halley's Comet   1985-073A
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Suisei   ISAS 1998 flyby failure
19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1   NASA 22 September 2001 flyby success previously visited asteroid 9969 Braille   1998-061A
2P/Encke CONTOUR   NASA 2003 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch   2002-034A
81P/Wild Stardust   NASA 2 January 2004 flyby, sample return success sample returned January 2006; also visited asteroid 5535 Annefrank   1999-003A
9P/Tempel Deep Impact   NASA July 2005 flyby success   2005-001A
    Impactor   NASA 4 July 2005 impactor success
73P/
Schwassmann-Wachmann
CONTOUR   NASA 2006 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch   2002-034A
6P/d'Arrest CONTOUR   NASA 2008 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch   2002-034A
103P/Hartley Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI)   NASA 4 November 2010 flyby success mission extension (target changed from comet Boethin)   2005-001A
9P/Tempel Stardust (redesignated NExT)   NASA 14 February 2011 flyby success mission extension   1999-003A
67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko
Rosetta   ESA 6 August 2014 – 30 September 2016 orbiter success flybys of asteroids 2867 Šteins and 21 Lutetia completed; intentionally impacted at end of mission   2004-006A
    Philae   ESA 12 November 2014 – 9 July 2015 lander success   2004-006C
67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko
CAESAR   NASA/
  JAXA
2024 August sample return under study finalist for New Frontiers 4 competition   [59][60]

Kuiper Belt probesEdit

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2014 MU69 New Horizons   NASA 1 January 2019 flyby success extended mission after Pluto encounter, currently sending back data from flyby; may flyby other Kuiper Belt object in 2020s.[61]   2006-001A

Probes leaving the Solar SystemEdit

Spacecraft Organization Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10   NASA Left Jupiter in December 1973. Mission ended March 1997. Last contact January 23, 2003. Craft now presumed dead; no further contact attempts planned.   1972-012A
Pioneer 11   NASA Left Saturn in September 1979. Last contact September 1995. The craft's antenna cannot be maneuvered to point to Earth, and it is not known if it is still transmitting. No further contact attempts are planned.   1973-019A
Voyager 1   NASA Left Saturn in November 1980. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data. Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020.   1977-084A
Voyager 2   NASA Left Neptune in August 1989. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data. Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020.   1977-076A
New Horizons   NASA Left Pluto July 14, 2015; flew by Kuiper belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019 when it was 43.4 AU from the Sun.   2006-001A

Other probes to leave Earth orbitEdit

For completeness, this section lists probes that have left (or will leave) Earth orbit, but are not primarily targeted at any of the above bodies.

Spacecraft Organization Date Location Status Notes Image Ref
WMAP   NASA 30 June 2001 (launch) – to October 2010 (end)[62] Sun-Earth L2 point success cosmic background radiation observations; sent to graveyard orbit after 9 years of use.[62]   2001-027A
Spitzer Space Telescope   NASA 25 August 2003 (launch) – still active (as of September, 2017) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit success infrared astronomy 2003-038A
Chang'e 2   CNSA 25 August 2011(arrive) to 15 April 2012(end) Sun-Earth L2 point success Left the point on 15 April 2012, then flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis 2010-050A
Kepler   NASA 6 March 2009 (launch) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit completed (2009-2018) search for extrasolar planets   2009-011A [63]
Herschel Space Observatory   ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed study of formation and evolution of galaxies and stars   2009-026A
Planck   ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed (2009-2013) cosmic microwave background observations 2009-026B
IKAROS   JAXA 20 May 2010 (launch) Earth-Venus transfer heliocentric orbit operational solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration   2010-020E [17]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
  UNISEC failure technology development; contact lost shortly after launch[20] 2010-020F [19]
Gaia   ESA 19 December 2013 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point success astrometry mission to measure the position and motion of 1 billion stars 2013-074A [64]
Shin'en 2   Kyushu Institute of Technology 3 December 2014 (launch) heliocentric orbit success amateur radio satellite / material demonstration 2014-076B[65]
ARTSAT2:DESPATCH   Tama Art University success deep space artwork / amateur radio satellite 2014-076C[66]
LISA Pathfinder   ESA 3 December 2015 (launch)[67] – 30 June 2017 Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L1 point success test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory   2015-070A [68]
James Webb Space Telescope   NASA
  ESA
  CSA
March 2021 (launch) Sun-Earth L2 point planned infrared astronomy   [69]
Euclid   ESA Q4, 2020 (launch)[70] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point planned measure the rate of expansion of the Universe through time to better understand dark energy and dark matter   [71]

Cancelled probes and missionsEdit

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mercury BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element   ESA lander cancelled
Moon LUNAR-A   JAXA orbiter, penetrators cancelled originally scheduled for 1995, cancelled 2007 LUNAR-A
Mars Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander   NASA 2001 lander cancelled spacecraft bus repurposed for Phoenix lander   MS2001L
Mars Beagle 2: Evolution 2004 lander cancelled
Mars NetLander   CNES/
  ESA
lander cancelled [72]
Mars Mars Telecommunications Orbiter   NASA 2010 orbiter cancelled Mission could be fulfilled by the proposed Mars 2022 orbiter   [73]
Phobos, Deimos Aladdin   NASA sample return not selected [74]
Europa Europa Orbiter   NASA orbiter cancelled [75]
Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter   NASA 2021 orbiter cancelled   [76]
Pluto Pluto Fast Flyby   NASA 2010 flyby cancelled Re-proposed as Pluto Kuiper Express
Pluto Pluto Kuiper
Express
  NASA 2012 flyby cancelled Replaced by New Horizons   PLUTOKE
4660 Nereus Hayabusa   ISAS sample return cancelled rerouted to 25143 Itokawa   2003-019A
3840 Mimistrobell Rosetta   ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted   2004-006A
4979 Otawara Rosetta   ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted   2004-006A
4660 Nereus Near Earth Asteroid Prospector SpaceDev sample return cancelled [77]
46P/Wirtanen Rosetta   ESA 2011 orbiter cancelled rerouted to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko   2004-006A

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit