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Tyazhely Sputnik, (Russian: Тяжелый Спутник meaning Heavy Satellite), also known by its development name as Venera 1VA No.1,[2] and in the West as Sputnik 7, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was intended to be the first spacecraft to explore Venus. Due to a problem with its upper stage it failed to leave low Earth orbit. In order to avoid acknowledging the failure, the Soviet government instead announced that the entire spacecraft, including the upper stage, was a test of a "Heavy Satellite" which would serve as a launch platform for future missions. This resulted in the upper stage being considered a separate spacecraft, from which the probe was "launched", on several subsequent missions.[3]

Tyazhely Sputnik
Mission typeVenus impact
OperatorSoviet Academy of Sciences
Harvard designation1961 Beta 1
COSPAR ID1961-002A
SATCAT no.71
Mission durationLaunch failure
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft1VA No.1
ManufacturerOKB-1
Launch mass6,483 kilograms (14,293 lb)
Dry mass644 kilograms (1,420 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date4 February 1961, 01:18:03 (1961-02-04UTC01:18:03Z) UTC
RocketMolniya 8K78/L1-6
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5
End of mission
Decay date26 February 1961 (1961-02-27)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Semi-major axis6,643 kilometres (4,128 mi)
Eccentricity0.00797
Perigee212 kilometres (132 mi)
Apogee318 kilometres (198 mi)
Inclination64.95 degrees
Period89.8 minutes
Epoch3 February 1961, 20:18:04 UTC[1]
 

Tyazhely Sputnik was launched at 01:18:03 UTC on 4 February 1961, atop a Molniya 8K78 carrier rocket flying from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.[4] When the upper stage ignited, cavitation in the liquid oxygen flowing through the oxidiser pump caused the pump to fail, resulting in an engine failure eight-tenths of a second after ignition.[5] It reentered the atmosphere over Siberia on 26 February 1961.[6]

According to the memoirs of Boris Chertok, "...A pendant shaped like a small globe with the continents etched on it was placed on the 1VA. Inside this small sphere was a medal depicting the Earth-to-Venus flight path. On the other side of the medal was the emblem of the Soviet Union. The pendant was placed in a spherical capsule with thermal shielding to protect it during entry into Venus’ atmosphere at reentry velocity." [7] In what he refers to as a "Strange but True [incident]...in the history of cosmonautics," while the spacecraft was originally thought to have re-entered over the Pacific Ocean, it was subsequently (in 1963) found to have re-entered over Siberia, when this medal made its way back to Chertok by way of his boss, Chief Rocket Designer Sergei Korolev. He relates that, "while swimming in a river — a tributary of the Biryusa River in eastern Siberia — a local boy hurt his foot on some sort of piece of iron. When he retrieved it from the water, rather than throw it into deeper water, he brought it home and showed it to his father. The boy’s father, curious as to what the dented metal sphere contained, opened it up and discovered this medal inside… The boy’s father brought his find to the police. The local police delivered the remains of the pendant to the regional department of the KGB, which in turn forwarded it to Moscow. In Moscow the appropriate KGB directorate… after notifying Keldysh as president of the Academy of Sciences," delivered the pendant to Korolev. "Thus, [Chertok] was awarded the medal that had been certified for the flight to Venus by the protocol that [he and Korolev] signed in January 1961. After the launch we were all certain that the Tyazhelyy sputnik and the pendant had sunk in the ocean. Now it turned out that it had burned up over Siberia. The pendant had been designed to withstand Venus’ atmosphere and therefore it reached the Earth’s surface."

The sister probe, Venera 1, successfully launched and was injected into a heliocentric orbit toward Venus one week later, although telemetry on the mission failed a week into flight.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Trajectory Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  2. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Russia's unmanned missions to Venus". RussianSpaecWeb. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  3. ^ Wade, Mark. "Venera 1VA". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  5. ^ Wade, Mark. "Soyuz". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  6. ^ "Sputnik 7". NSSDC (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center). Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  7. ^ Chertok, Boris. Creating a Rocket Industry (PDf). pp. 578 and 585–586.