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Timeline of Solar System exploration

Charted timeline of Solar System exploration, as of December 2014

This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch. It includes:

  • All spacecraft that have left Earth orbit for the purposes of Solar System exploration (or were launched with that intention but failed), including lunar probes.
  • A small number of pioneering or notable Earth-orbiting craft.[vague]

It does not include:

  • Centuries of terrestrial telescopic observation.
  • The great majority of Earth-orbiting satellites.
  • Space probes leaving Earth orbit that are not concerned with Solar System exploration (such as space telescopes targeted at distant galaxies, cosmic background radiation observatories, and so on).
  • Probes that failed at launch.

The dates listed are launch dates, but the achievements noted may have occurred some time later—in some cases, a considerable time later (for example, Voyager 2, launched 20 August 1977, did not reach Neptune until 1989).

Contents

1950sEdit

 
Sputnik 1 – First Earth orbiter
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Sputnik 1 4 October 1957 First Earth orbiter [1][2]
  Sputnik 2 3 November 1957 Earth orbiter, first animal in orbit, a dog named Laika [2][3][4]
  Explorer 1 1 February 1958 Earth orbiter; first American orbiter, discovered Van Allen radiation belts [5]
  Vanguard 1 17 March 1958 Earth orbiter; oldest spacecraft still in Earth orbit [6]
  Luna 1 2 January 1959 First lunar flyby (attempted lunar impact?); first artificial satellite in heliocentric orbit. [7][8][9][10]
  Pioneer 4 3 March 1959 Lunar flyby [11][12]
  Luna 2 12 September 1959 First lunar impact, First artificial object on Moon [10][13]
  Luna 3 4 October 1959 Lunar flyby; First images of far side of Moon [10][14]

1960sEdit

 
Vostok 1 – First manned Earth orbiter
 
Mariner 2 – First successful Venus flyby
 
Mariner 4 – First successful Mars flyby
 
Luna 9 – First lunar lander
 
Venera 4 – First Venus atmospheric probe
 
Zond 5 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth
 
Apollo 8 – First manned lunar orbiter
 
Apollo 11 – First manned lunar landing
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Pioneer 5 11 March 1960 Interplanetary space investigations [15][16]
  Venera 1 12 February 1961 First probe to another planet; Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby) [17][18][19]
  Vostok 1 12 April 1961 First manned Earth orbiter [20][21]
  Mercury-Redstone 3 5 May 1961 First American in space [22]
  Ranger 1 23 August 1961 Attempted lunar test flight (failed to leave Earth orbit) [23][24][25]
  Ranger 2 18 November 1961 Attempted lunar test flight (failed to leave Earth orbit) [25][26][27]
  Ranger 3 26 January 1962 Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon) [25][28][29]
  Mercury-Atlas 6 20 February 1962 First American manned Earth orbiter [30]
  Ranger 4 23 April 1962 Lunar impact (but unintentionally became the first spacecraft to hit the lunar farside and returned no data) [25][31][32][33]
  Mariner 2 27 August 1962 First successful planetary encounter, First successful Venus flyby [34][35][36]
  Ranger 5 18 October 1962 Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon) [25][37][38]
  Mars 1 1 November 1962 First probe to Mars: flyby (contact lost) [39][40]
  Luna 4 2 April 1963 Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon) [41][42]
  Cosmos 21 11 November 1963 Attempted Venera test flight? [43]
  Ranger 6 30 January 1964 Lunar impact (cameras failed) [44][45]
  Zond 1 2 April 1964 Venus flyby (contact lost) [46][47][48]
  Ranger 7 28 July 1964 Lunar impact [49][50]
  Voskhod 1 12 October 1964 First orbiter with multimember crew [51][52]
  Mariner 3 5 November 1964 Attempted Mars flyby (failed to attain correct trajectory) [53][54]
  Mariner 4 28 November 1964 First successful Mars flyby [55][56]
  Zond 2 30 November 1964 Mars flyby (contact lost) [48][57][58]
  Ranger 8 17 February 1965 Lunar impact [59][60]
  Voskhod 2 18 March 1965 First space walk by Alexei Leonov [52][61]
  Ranger 9 21 March 1965 Lunar impact [62][63]
  Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 6 May 1965 Oldest spacecraft still in use[citation needed] [64]
  Luna 5 9 May 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing) [65]
  Luna 6 8 June 1965 Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon) [66]
  Zond 3 18 July 1965 Lunar flyby [48][67][68]
  Luna 7 4 October 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing) [69]
  Venera 2 12 November 1965 Venus flyby (contact lost) [70][18]
  Venera 3 16 November 1965 Venus lander (contact lost) – First spacecraft to reach another planet's surface, First Venus impact [71][18]
  Luna 8 3 December 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing?) [72]
  Pioneer 6 16 December 1965 "Space weather" observations [73][74][75][76]
  Luna 9 31 January 1966 First lunar lander [10][77]
  AS-201 26 February 1966 Lunar programme test flight [78]
  Luna 10 31 March 1966 First lunar orbiter [79]
  Surveyor 1 30 May 1966 Lunar lander [80][81][82]
  Explorer 33 1 July 1966 Attempted lunar orbiter (failed to attain lunar orbit) [83][84]
  Lunar Orbiter 1 10 August 1966 Lunar orbiter [85][86][87]
  Pioneer 7 17 August 1966 "Space weather" observations [76][88][89]
  Luna 11 24 August 1966 Lunar orbiter [90]
  Surveyor 2 20 September 1966 Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon) [91][92]
  Luna 12 22 October 1966 Lunar orbiter [93]
  Lunar Orbiter 2 6 November 1966 Lunar orbiter [94][95]
  Luna 13 21 December 1966 Lunar lander [96]
  Lunar Orbiter 3 5 February 1967 Lunar orbiter [97][98]
  Surveyor 3 17 April 1967 Lunar lander [99][100]
  Lunar Orbiter 4 4 May 1967 Lunar orbiter [101][102]
  Venera 4 12 June 1967 First Venus atmospheric probe [18][103]
  Mariner 5 14 June 1967 Venus flyby [104][105]
  Surveyor 4 14 July 1967 Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon) [106][107]
  Explorer 35 (IMP-E) 19 July 1967 Lunar orbiter [108]
  Lunar Orbiter 5 1 August 1967 Lunar orbiter [87][109][110]
  Surveyor 5 8 September 1967 Lunar lander [111][112]
  Surveyor 6 7 November 1967 Lunar lander, first lift-off from an extraterrestrial body [81][113][114]
  Apollo 4 9 November 1967 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (unmanned) [115]
  Pioneer 8 13 December 1967 "Space weather" observations [76][116][117]
  Surveyor 7 7 January 1968 Lunar lander [118][119]
  Apollo 5 22 January 1968 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (unmanned) [120][121]
  Zond 4 2 March 1968 Lunar programme test flight out of Earth orbit (unmanned) [48][122][123][124]
  Luna 14 7 April 1968 Lunar orbiter [125]
  Zond 5 14 September 1968 First lunar flyby and return to Earth, first life forms to circle the Moon [48][126][127][128][129]
  Apollo 7 11 October 1968 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (manned) [130][131]
  Pioneer 9 8 November 1968 "Space weather" observations [76][132][133]
  Zond 6 10 November 1968 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][134][135]
  Apollo 8 21 December 1968 First manned lunar orbiter [131][136][137]
  Venera 5 5 January 1969 Venus atmospheric probe [18][138]
  Venera 6 10 January 1969 Venus atmospheric probe [18][139]
  Mariner 6 25 February 1969 Mars flyby [140][141]
  Apollo 9 3 March 1969 Manned lunar lander (LEM) flight test in Earth orbit [131][142]
  Mariner 7 27 March 1969 Mars flyby [143][144]
  Apollo 10 18 May 1969 Manned lunar orbiter [131][145][146]
  Luna 15 13 July 1969 Second attempted lunar sample return [147][148]
  Apollo 11 16 July 1969 First manned lunar landing and first successful sample return mission [149][150][151][152][153]
  Zond 7 7 August 1969 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][154][155]
  Apollo 12 14 November 1969 Manned lunar landing [156][157][158]

1970sEdit

 
Venera 7 – First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet
 
Mars 3 – First Mars lander
 
Pioneer 10 – First Jupiter flyby
 
Mariner 10 – First Mercury flyby
 
Voyager 2 – First Uranus/first Neptune flyby
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Apollo 13 11 April 1970 Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth (manned lunar landing aborted) Farthest from Earth a human has gone (401,056 km) [159][160][161][162]
  Venera 7 17 August 1970 First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet [18][163][164]
  Luna 16 12 September 1970 First robotic lunar sample return [10][165]
  Zond 8 20 October 1970 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][166][167]
  Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 10 November 1970 First remote controlled rover [10][168]
  Apollo 14 31 January 1971 Manned lunar landing [169][170][171]
  Salyut 1 19 April 1971 First space station [172][173]
  Mars 2 19 May 1971 First Mars impact, Mars orbiter and attempted lander; First rover on Martian surface (Prop-M unsuccessful) [174][175][176][177][178]
  Mars 3 28 May 1971 Mars orbiter, First Mars lander (lost contact after 14.5s) [179][180][181][182][183]
  Mariner 9 30 May 1971 First Mars orbiter [184][185]
  Apollo 15 26 July 1971 Manned lunar landing; First manned lunar rover [131][186][187][188]
  Luna 18 2 September 1971 Attempted lunar sample return (crashed into Moon) [189][190]
  Luna 19 28 September 1971 Lunar orbiter [191]
  Luna 20 14 February 1972 Lunar robotic sample return [192]
  Pioneer 10 3 March 1972 First Jupiter flyby [193][194][195]
  Venera 8 27 March 1972 Venus lander [18][196][197]
  Apollo 16 16 April 1972 Manned lunar landing [198][199][200]
  Apollo 17 7 December 1972 Last manned lunar landing [201][202][203][204]
  Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 8 January 1973 Lunar rover [205]
  Pioneer 11 5 April 1973 Jupiter flyby and First Saturn flyby [195][206][207]
  Skylab 14 May 1973 First American space station [208][209]
  Explorer 49 (RAE-B) 10 June 1973 Lunar orbiter/radio astronomy [210][211]
  Mars 4 21 July 1973 Mars flyby (attempted Mars orbiter) [212][213]
  Mars 5 25 July 1973 Mars orbiter [214][215]
  Mars 6 5 August 1973 Mars flyby and attempted lander (failed due to damage on Mars landing) [216][217]
  Mars 7 9 August 1973 Mars flyby and attempted lander (missed Mars) [218][219]
  Mariner 10 3 November 1973 Venus flyby and First Mercury flyby [220][221][222]
  Luna 22 29 May 1974 Lunar orbiter [10][223]
  Luna 23 28 October 1974 Attempted lunar sample return (failed due to damage on lunar landing) [224]
    Helios-A 10 December 1974 Solar observations [225][226]
  Venera 9 8 June 1975 First Venus orbiter and lander; First images from surface of Venus [18][227][228][229]
  Venera 10 14 June 1975 Venus orbiter and lander [18][230][231][232]
  Viking 1 20 August 1975 Mars orbiter and lander; First pictures from Martian surface [233][234][235][236]
  Viking 2 9 September 1975 Mars orbiter and lander [236][237][238][239]
    Helios-B 15 January 1976 Solar observations [240][241]
  Luna 24 9 August 1976 Lunar robotic sample return [10][242]
  Voyager 2 20 August 1977 Jupiter/Saturn/first Uranus/first Neptune flyby [243][244][245]
  Voyager 1 5 September 1977 Jupiter/Saturn flyby, first to exit the heliosphere [245][246][247]
  Pioneer Venus 1 20 May 1978 Venus orbiter [248][249]
  Pioneer Venus 2 8 August 1978 Venus atmospheric probes [250][251]
    ISEE-3 12 August 1978 Solar wind investigations; later redesignated International Cometary Explorer and performed Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley flybys – First comet flyby [252][253][254]
  Venera 11 9 September 1978 Venus flyby and lander [18][255][256][257]
  Venera 12 14 September 1978 Venus flyby and lander [18][258][259][260]

1980sEdit

 
Giotto – Comet Halley flyby
 
Galileo – Mission to Jupiter
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Venera 13 30 October 1981 Venus flyby and lander [18][261][262][263]
  Venera 14 4 November 1981 Venus flyby and lander [18][264][265][266]
  Venera 15 2 June 1983 Venus orbiter [18][267][268]
  Venera 16 7 June 1983 Venus orbiter [18][269][270]
  Vega 1 15 December 1984 Venus flyby, lander and first balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby [271][272][273][274][275]
  Vega 2 21 December 1984 Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby [275][276][277][278][279]
  Sakigake 8 January 1985 Comet Halley flyby [280][281]
  Giotto 2 July 1985 First close observation of comet (distance 596 kilometers), Comet Halley flyby [282][283][284]
  Suisei (Planet-A) 18 August 1985 Comet Halley flyby [285][286]
  Mir 19 February 1986 First modular space station (operational 1986–2000; final module added 1996) [287][288][289]
  Phobos 1 7 July 1988 Attempted Mars orbiter/Phobos landers (contact lost) [290][291]
  Phobos 2 12 July 1988 Mars orbiter/attempted Phobos landers (contact lost) [292][293]
  Magellan 4 May 1989 Venus orbiter [294][295]
  Galileo 18 October 1989 Venus flyby, first Asteroid flyby (Gaspra), first Asteroid moon discovery (Dactyl), first Jupiter orbiter, first Jupiter atmospheric probe [296][297][298][299]

1990sEdit

 
Mars Pathfinder – Mars lander and first successful Mars rover
 
Cassini–Huygens – First Saturn orbiter and first Titan lander
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Hiten (MUSES-A) 24 January 1990 Lunar flyby and orbiter [300][301]
    Hubble Space Telescope 24 April 1990 Orbital space telescope (operational since 1990) [302][303][304]
    Ulysses 6 October 1990 Solar polar orbiter [305][306][307]
    Yohkoh (Solar-A) 30 August 1991 Solar observations (1991–2001) [308][309]
  Mars Observer 25 September 1992 Attempted Mars orbiter (contact lost) [310][311]
  Clementine 25 January 1994 Lunar orbiter/attempted asteroid flyby (contact lost) [312][313][314]
  WIND 1 November 1994 Solar wind observations [315][316]
    SOHO 2 December 1995 Solar observatory (operational since 1996) [317][318][319]
  NEAR Shoemaker 17 February 1996 Eros orbiter, first near-Earth asteroid flyby, first asteroid orbit and first asteroid landing [320][321][322]
  Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 Mars orbiter [323][324]
  Mars 96 16 November 1996 Attempted Mars orbiter/landers (failed to escape Earth orbit) [325][326]
  Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 Mars lander and first successful planetary rover [327][328][329]
  ACE 25 August 1997 Solar wind and "space weather" observations (operational since 1998) [330][331]
      Cassini–Huygens 15 October 1997 First Saturn orbiter and first outer planet lander [332][333][334][335][336]
  AsiaSat 3/HGS-1 24 December 1997 Lunar flyby (correction of failed geosynchronous orbit)[relevant? ] [337][338]
  Lunar Prospector 7 January 1998 Lunar orbiter [339][340]
  Nozomi (also known as Planet-B) 3 July 1998 Attempted Mars orbiter (failed to enter Mars orbit) [341][342]
  Deep Space 1 (DS1) 24 October 1998 Asteroid and comet flyby [343][344]
           ISS 20 November 1998 International space station [345][346]
  Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 Attempted Mars orbiter (orbit insertion failed)
  Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 (DS2) 3 January 1999 Attempted Mars lander/penetrators (contact lost)
  Stardust 7 February 1999 First comet coma sample return – returned 15 January 2006

2000sEdit

 
Mars Express/Beagle 2 – First planetary mission by the ESA
 
MESSENGER – First Mercury orbiter
 
Chandrayaan-1 – Water Around Fresh Moon Crater
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  2001 Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 Mars orbiter
  Genesis 8 August 2001 First solar wind sample return
  CONTOUR 3 July 2002 Attempted flyby of three comet nuclei (lost in space)
  Hayabusa (MUSES-C) 9 May 2003 Asteroid lander and first sample return from asteroid
    Mars Express/Beagle 2 1 June 2003 Mars orbiter/lander (lander failure)
  Mars Exploration Rover Spirit 10 June 2003 Mars rover
  Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 7 July 2003 Mars rover
  SMART-1 27 September 2003 Lunar orbiter
  Shenzhou 5 15 October 2003 China's first manned Earth orbiter
  Rosetta/Philae 2 March 2004 First comet orbiter and lander (Landed in November 2014)
  MESSENGER 3 August 2004 First Mercury orbiter (Achieved orbit 18 March 2011)
  Deep Impact 12 January 2005 First comet impact
  Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 12 August 2005 Mars orbiter
  Venus Express 9 November 2005 Venus polar orbiter
  New Horizons 19 January 2006 First Pluto/Charon flyby (on 14 July 2015) [347]
      Hinode (Solar-B) 22 September 2006 Solar orbiter
  STEREO 26 October 2006 Two spacecraft, solar orbiters
  Phoenix 4 August 2007 Mars polar lander (Mars landing on 25 May 2008)
  SELENE (Kaguya) 14 September 2007 Lunar orbiters
  Dawn 27 September 2007 Asteroid Ceres and Vesta orbiter (Entered orbit around Vesta on 16 July 2011 and around Ceres on 6 March 2015)
  Chang'e 1 24 October 2007 Lunar orbiter
  Chandrayaan-1 22 October 2008 Lunar orbiter and impactor – Discovered water on the Moon
  Herschel Space Observatory 14 May 2009 Infrared space telescope
  Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS 18 June 2009 Lunar polar orbiter and lunar impactor
 WISE(NEOWISE) 14 December 2009 Near-Earth object survey

2010sEdit

 
Mars Science Laboratory — Mars lander and large rover
 
Mangalyaan — First Indian Mars orbiter
 
Trace Gas Orbiter, ESA/Roscosmos Mars orbiter


Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Solar Dynamics Observatory 11 February 2010 Continuous solar monitoring
  Akatsuki (Planet-C) 20 May 2010 Venus orbiter (orbit insertion failed in 2010 / successful orbit insertion on 7 December 2015)
  PICARD 15 June 2010 Solar monitoring
  Chang'e 2 1 October 2010 Lunar orbiter, Asteroid 4179 Toutatis flyby
  Juno 5 August 2011 Jupiter orbiter
  GRAIL 10 September 2011 Two spacecraft, Lunar orbiters
  Tiangong (Project 921-2) 29 September 2011 First Chinese space station [348]
    Fobos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 failed to escape Earth orbit
  Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover) 26 November 2011 large Mars 900 kg Rover (landed 6 August 2012)
  Van Allen Probes (RBSP) 30 August 2012 Earth Van Allen radiation belts study
  IRIS 27 June 2013 Solar observations
  LADEE 6 September 2013 Lunar orbiter
  Hisaki 14 September 2013 Planetary atmosphere observatory
  Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) 5 November 2013 Mars orbiter
  MAVEN 18 November 2013 Mars orbiter
  Chang'e 3 1 December 2013 First Chinese lunar lander and rover (first lander since Soviet Luna 24 in 1976)
  Chang'e 5-T1 23 October 2014 Lunar flyby/orbiter and Earth reentry probe; technology demonstration to prepare for Chang'e 5 mission
      Hayabusa2 / MASCOT 3 December 2014 Asteroid lander and sample return, first asteroid rover
  PROCYON 3 December 2014 Comet observer and failed asteroid flyby
  Exploration Flight Test 1 5 December 2014 Unmanned Earth orbital test of Orion interplanetary vehicle.
  DSCOVR 11 February 2015 Solar observation
  Astrosat 28 September 2015 Space observatory
  LISA Pathfinder 3 December 2015 Test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory
    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and EDM lander 14 March 2016 Mars orbiter and lander (lander failure)
  OSIRIS-REx 8 September 2016 Asteroid sample return mission
  InSight 5 May 2018 Mars lander
  Parker Solar Probe 12 August 2018 Solar corona probe, closest solar approach (0.04 AU)
    BepiColombo 20 October 2018 two Mercury orbiters
  Chang'e 4 7 December 2018 Lunar lander and rover, first landing on the lunar far side
  SpaceIL Beresheet 22 February 2019 Private lunar lander, mission unsuccessful but impacts moon returning no pictures.

Planned or scheduledEdit

 
Rosalind Franklin rover of Euro-Russian ExoMars mission
 
American Mars 2020 rover


Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
  Moon Express Lunar Scout April 2019 Private lunar lander
  Chandrayaan-2 (early 2019) Lunar orbiter and rover [349]
  Chang'e 5 December 2019 China's first lunar sample return mission (and first since Luna 24 in 1976)
  SolO February 2020 Solar Orbiter, moving as close as 0.28 AU of the Sun [350]
  Exploration Mission 1 June 2020 Unmanned lunar orbital test of Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System
    ExoMars 25 July 2020 European carrier module, Russian lander and first non-American planetary rover, Rosalind Franklin rover
  Mars Hope July 2020 Emirati Mars orbiter [351][352]
  Mars Terahertz Microsatellite July 2020 Japanese Mars orbiter, first microsatellite to Mars [353][354]
  Mars 2020 July or August 2020 Mars rover [355]
  Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover July or August 2020 Mars orbiter, lander and rover
  Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter December 2020 Korean lunar orbiter
            Astrobotic Technology Mission One / AEM rover / Uni / EXA-AEC lunar orbiter 2020 Private lunar lander, multiple rovers, lunar orbiter
  ispace M1 2020 Private lunar orbiter
  PTScientists 2020 Private lunar lander and rovers
      James Webb Space Telescope 30 March 2021 Orbital space telescope
  Luna 25 May 2021 First mission of the Luna-Glob Moon exploration programme, lunar south pole lander
  Lucy October 2021 Flyby six Jupiter trojan asteroids [356]
  Gaganyaan December 2021 First Indian manned orbiter
  Aditya-L1 2021 Solar observations
  ispace M2 2021 Private lunar lander and rover
  SLIM 2021 Lunar lander and rover
    DART / LICIA 2021 Kinetic impactor for 65803 Didymos to test asteroid deflection and flyby [357]
  JUICE June 2022 Mission to explore Jupiter's moons Ganymede, Callisto and Europa [358]
  DESTINY+ 2022 Multiple flyby of a rock comet and its separated objects
  Exploration Mission-2 June 2023 Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth
  Psyche October 2023 Orbit the metallic asteroid 16 Psyche [356]
  Luna 26 2023 Lunar orbiter
  Chang'e 7 2023 Lunar orbiter and rover [359]
  SpaceX dearMoon 2023 Manned circumlunar tourism mission
  Luna 27 2024 Lunar south pole lander and rover
  Chang'e 6 2024 Lunar sample return mission
  Exploration Mission 3 2024 Manned lunar orbiter and return to Earth
  Blue Origin Blue Moon 2024 Private lunar south polar landing capable of delivering 4,500 kg
  SpaceX BFR 2024 first human mission to Mars
      MMX 2024 Phobos lander, sample return mission and Deimos flyby / Phobos rover [360]
  Europa Lander 2025 Europa lander
  Luna 28 2025 Lunar south pole lander, rover, and sample return
  Federation spacecraft 2025 manned lunar orbit
  Europa Clipper 2022–2025 Europa moon orbiter
  Venera-D 2026 Venus orbiter and lander
  Intergelio-Zond 2026 Solar orbiter [361]
  Chang'e 8 2028 Lunar lander
  (before 2030) Mars sample return [362]
  (early 2030s) Manned landing on the Moon [363]
  Mercury-P 2031 First Mercury lander[speculation?]
  M1 2031 Manned lunar landing [364]
  M2 2032 Manned lunar landing and rover [364]
  M3 2033 Manned lunar landing and cosmonauts will undertake long-distance trips on lunar rover [364]
  M4 2034 Manned lunar landing and beginning of building of a human colony [364]
  M5 2035 Manned lunar landing and completion of robotic lunar base [364]
  2037 First human mission to Mars by NASA
  2040–2060 Manned phase of the Chinese Mars exploration program [365]
  2040–2060 Manned phase of the Russian Mars exploration program [366]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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