List of human spaceflights
Human Spaceflight includes all crewed spaceflights which reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight, see Kármán line), or were launched with that intention but failed. The USA has adopted a different definition of spaceflight, requiring an altitude of only 50 miles (80 km). During the 1960s, 13 flights of the US X-15 rocket plane met the US criteria, but only two met the FAI's. These lists include only the latter two flights; see the list of highest X-15 flights for all 13. As of the launch of Soyuz MS-10 on 11 October 2018, there have been 320 crewed spaceflights that reached 100 km or more in altitude (323 attempted crewed flights with three failed attempts), 8 of which were sub-orbital spaceflights. One uncrewed flight, Soyuz 34, was launched in order to provide a return vehicle to the crew of Soyuz 32.
To date, there have been four fatal missions in which 18 astronauts died.
Since 1961, three countries[a] and one private business have conducted human spaceflight using twelve different spacecraft series, or: "programs", "projects".
|Entity|| Soviet Union
|United States||China||Scaled Composites
|Agency||Soviet Space Program
The Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, ISS, and Tiangong series space stations, with which many of these flights docked in orbit, are not listed separately here. See the detailed lists (links below) for information.
Missions which were intended to reach space but which failed to do so are listed in italics, and fatal missions are marked with asterisks.
- Treating the Soviet Union and Russia as one country. Russia inherited the Soviet Union's space program following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
- Dates in this table refer only to actual flights, and not the broader duration of their associated programs. For example, while Project Gemini was begun in 1961 and concluded in 1966, its crewed spaceflights occurred only from 1965-1966.
- Soyuz missions include the following: two fatal missions, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11, both of which reached space; Soyuz 19, the Soviet participant in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project; Soyuz 34, which was launched uncrewed to provide a return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32, who were aboard the Salyut 6 space station; Soyuz T-10-1, a non-fatal accident in which the crewed launch was aborted due to a fire, failing to reach space; and Soyuz MS-10, a non-fatal accident which booster failed mid-flight and aborted, failing to reach space.
- Following the Apollo program, the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz flights also used Apollo hardware.
- Includes two fatal missions, STS-51-L, and STS-107. The former did not reach space, while the latter did.
- Spacefacts Compare with the present article. The Spacefacts list includes most flights listed here, but omits eleven: The two failed launches of STS-51-L and Soyuz T-10-1, neither of which actually achieved human spaceflight, the uncrewed launch of Soyuz 34 (which nevertheless returned a crew to earth), and the eight sub-orbital human spaceflights: Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4, X-15 flights 90 and 91, SpaceShipOne flights 15P, 16P and 17P, and Soyuz 18-1, the latter being an aborted mission which nevertheless exceeded the Kármán line.
- Astronautix Similarly, see the list for "Manned Spaceflight" given at Astronautix, which includes other related categories.
- Vostok and Voskhod flight history
- Mercury flight history
- X-15 flight history (altitudes given in feet)
- Gemini flight history
- Apollo flight history (student resource)
- Skylab flight history
- Apollo-Soyuz flight history
- Space Shuttle flight history infographic
- Shenzhou flight history timeline
- SpaceShipOne flight history