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The first eleven Soviet cosmonauts, July 1965. Back row, left to right: Leonov, Titov, Bykovsky, Yegorov, Popovich; front row: Komarov, Gagarin, Tereshkova, Nikolayev, Feoktistov, Belyayev.
A Soviet space skafander in the Museum of Cosmonautics, Moscow.

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia are marked with an asterisk and their place of birth is shown in an additional list.

For the full plain lists of Russian and Soviet cosmonauts in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian cosmonauts

Four female cosmonauts have flown on the Soviet/Russian program: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Elena V. Kondakova, and Elena O. Serova[1]

Russian and Soviet cosmonautsEdit

 
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space

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Eastern Bloc cosmonautsEdit

From 1978–1988, the Soviet Union transported 11 citizens of 10 nations closely allied to the USSR in the Soyuz manned vehicle. All of them flew as a result of the Intercosmos program. These space travelers have usually been referred to as "cosmonauts".

Other cosmonautsEdit

In 1982, as an extension of the Intercosmos program, the Soviet Union began to fly the citizens of countries not part of the Soviet bloc, starting with Jean-Loup Chrétien of France. The USSR and later Russia have transported 49 citizens of 18 other nations on the Soyuz vehicle, usually as part of a commercial arrangement, including seven space tourists flying through the Space Adventures contract. Since 2001, the Soyuz has been used to transport ESA, JAXA, and NASA astronauts to the International Space Station. These space travelers are not always referred to as "cosmonauts", especially if they belong to another space program; e.g., NASA employees are almost always referred to as "astronauts", even if they are flying on a Russian vehicle.

AfricaEdit

AmericasEdit

AsiaEdit

EuropeEdit

Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside RussiaEdit

All Soviet and RKA cosmonauts have been born within the borders of the U.S.S.R.; no cosmonaut who was born in independent Russia has yet flown. Many cosmonauts, however, were born in Soviet territories outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by various Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. All claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.

  Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan  Edit

  Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus  Edit

  Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia  Edit

  Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan  Edit

  Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan  Edit

  Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia  Edit

  Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan  Edit

  Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine  Edit

  Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan  Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Garber, Todd Messer, Claire Rojstaczer, and Steve. "Women in Space". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-02.