Club of Madrid

Club de Madrid is an independent non-profit organization created to promote democracy and change in the international community. Composed of 121 regular members from 72 countries,[1] including 7 Nobel Peace Prize laureates and 20 first female heads of State or Government, the Club de Madrid is the world's largest forum of former heads of state and government.[2]

Club de Madrid
Club de Madrid Logo.svg
Formation2001
HeadquartersMadrid, Spain
President
Vice Presidents
Websitewww.clubmadrid.org

Among its main goals are the strengthening of democratic institutions and counselling on the resolution of political conflicts in two key areas: democratic leadership and governance, and response to crisis and post-crisis situations.[2]

Club de Madrid works together with governments, inter-governmental organizations, civil society, scholars and representatives from the business world, to encourage dialogue in order to foster social and political change. The Club de Madrid also searches for effective methods to provide technical advice and recommendations to nations that are taking steps to establish democracy.

CompositionEdit

As of May 2022, there are 121 full Members, all of whom are previous government officials with full voting rights. The club also has institutional members and foundations – private and public organizations that share similar democratic objectives, including FRIDE, the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA), both original sponsors of the founding conference in 2001, the Madrid City Council, the Regional Government of Madrid, and the Government of Spain. Additionally, there are six honorary members (e.g. Kofi Annan, Aung San Suu Kyi) and a number of fellows, who are experts on democratic change.

The club is based in Madrid (Spain), although meetings are held worldwide. Currently, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, the former President of Latvia (1999–2007), is the organization's president, and it has two vice presidents: Jenny Shipley (New Zealand) and Jorge Fernando Quiroga (Bolivia). A former president of the Club of Madrid is Wim Kok (2009–2013).

The club was created from an event that was held in October 2001 in Madrid, a four-day Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation (CDTC). This event brought together 35 world leaders, over 100 academics and policy specialists from Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa to discuss ideas and means of implementation from both objective and subjective perspectives. The conference discussed eight main topics:

  • Constitutional design
  • The Legislative branch and its relation with the Executive branch
  • The Judicial branch and its relation with Executive branch
  • Anti-corruption procedures
  • The role of the armed forces and security forces
  • Reform of the state bureaucracy
  • Strengthening of political and social pluralism and of political parties
  • Economic and social conditions

Structure and organizationEdit

The Club de Madrid's primary asset is its membership, which includes 95 distinguished former heads of state and government of democratic nations. The comparative advantage of the Club de Madrid is based on the following key assets:

  • Personal experience and status of its Members
  • Access to the world's leading experts on democracy
  • Specialization in democratic transition and consolidation issues
  • Practical approach of its activities, through the implementation of projects with tangible results

Full Members are members of the Club de Madrid who provide their personal and political experience as former Heads of State and Government. Their appointment, based on a proposal from the Board of Directors, is approved by the General Assembly.

Direct exchanges with current leaders of countries in the process of democratic transition on a peer-to-peer basis, and the Member's ability to deliver the right message at the right time, are two of the major assets of the Club de Madrid.[2] In this sense, the Members of the Club de Madrid can also help focus much needed international attention on targeted countries and leverage the work of other institutions trying to promote democracy.

The club's members are supported by a network of world-class experts who work together to offer assistance on a range of democratic reform issues. The Club de Madrid is composed of four executive and advisory bodies:

  • General Assembly
  • Board of Directors
  • General Secretariat
  • Advisory Committee

Funding sourcesEdit

The club is a non-profit organisation and members offer their services on a pro bono basis. It relies financially on donations which are used to support a permanent secretariat and fund some specific project. The club's accounts are audited annually by an external organisation.

The Club of Madrid Foundation (USA)Edit

The Club of Madrid Foundation Inc. (COMFI) is a grant-making foundation that has US 501(c)(3) tax exemption status. It exists to raise funds in support of the club's charitable and educational activities.

COMFI is independent and not controlled by the Club itself, but solely by a four-person Board of Directors, all of whom reside in the US.

MembersEdit

Several members of the Club played prominent roles in the diplomatic and military proceedings aimed at ending the wars in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s:

List of current membersEdit

List of members as of 30 April 2022.[10]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
  Valdas Adamkus 95   Lithuania None President of Lithuania (1998–2003, 2004–2009)
  Esko Aho 68   Finland Centre Prime Minister of Finland (1991–1995)
  Óscar Arias 81   Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1986–1990, 2006–2010)
  José María Aznar 69   Spain PP President of the Government of Spain (1996–2004)
  Michelle Bachelet 70   Chile Socialist President of Chile (2006–2010, 2014–2018)
Executive Director of UN Women (2010–2013)
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2018–)
  Jan Peter Balkenende 66   Netherlands CDA Prime Minister of the Netherlands (2002–2010)
  Joyce Banda 72   Malawi People's Party President of Malawi (2012–2014)
  Rupiah Banda 85   Zambia MMD President of Zambia (2008–2011)
  José Manuel Barroso 66   Portugal PSD Prime Minister of Portugal (2002–2004)
President of the European Commission (2004–2014)
  Carl Bildt 73   Sweden Moderate Prime Minister of Sweden (1991–1994)
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995–1997)
  Valdis Birkavs 80   Latvia LC Prime Minister of Latvia (1993–1994)
  Kjell Magne Bondevik 74   Norway Christian Democratic Prime Minister of Norway (1997–2000, 2001–2005)
  Gordon Brown 71   United Kingdom Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (2007–2010)
  Gro Harlem Brundtland 83   Norway Labour Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–1989, 1990–1996)
Director-General of the World Health Organization (1998–2003)
  John Bruton 75   Ireland Fine Gael Taoiseach of Ireland (1994–1997)
EU Ambassador to the United States (2004–2009)
  Jerzy Buzek 82   Poland Civic Platform Prime Minister of Poland (1997–2001)
President of the European Parliament (2009–2012)
  Felipe Calderón 59   Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2006–2012)
  Micheline Calmy-Rey 77    Switzerland Social Democratic Member of the Federal Council (2003–2011)
(President in 2007 and 2011)
  Kim Campbell 75   Canada Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada (1993)
  Fernando Henrique Cardoso 91   Brazil Social Democracy President of Brazil (1995–2003)
  Aníbal Cavaco Silva 83   Portugal Social Democratic Prime Minister of Portugal (1985–1995)
President of Portugal (2006–2016)
  Laura Chinchilla 63   Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (2010–2014)
  Joaquim Chissano 82   Mozambique FRELIMO President of Mozambique (1986–2005)
  Jean Chrétien 88   Canada Liberal Prime Minister of Canada (1993–2003)
  Helen Clark 72   New Zealand Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand (1999–2008)
  Bill Clinton 75   United States Democratic President of the United States (1993–2001)
  Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca 63   Malta Labour President of Malta (2014–2019)
  Dominique de Villepin 68   France RS Prime Minister of France (2005–2007)
  Philip Dimitrov 67   Bulgaria SDS Prime Minister of Bulgaria (1991–1992)
  Luísa Diogo 64   Mozambique FRELIMO Prime Minister of Mozambique (2004–2010)
  Leonel Fernández 68   Dominican Republic PLD President of the Dominican Republic (1996–2000, 2004–2012)
  José María Figueres 67   Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1994–1998)
  Vigdís Finnbogadóttir 92   Iceland None President of Iceland (1980–1996)
  Vicente Fox 80   Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2000–2006)
  Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle 80   Chile Christian Democratic President of Chile (1994–2000)
  Yasuo Fukuda 86   Japan Liberal Democratic Prime Minister of Japan (2007–2008)
  César Gaviria 75   Colombia Liberal President of Colombia (1990–1994)
Secretary General of the Organization of American States (1994–2004)
  Amine Pierre Gemayel 80   Lebanon Kata'eb President of Lebanon (1982–1988)
  Felipe González 80   Spain PSOE President of the Government of Spain (1982–1996)
  Mikhail Gorbachev 91   Russia
  Soviet Union
Communist (until 1991) General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–1991)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet/President of the Soviet Union (1988–1991)
  Dalia Grybauskaitė 66   Lithuania None President of Lithuania (2009–2019)
  Alfred Gusenbauer 62   Austria Social Democratic Chancellor of Austria (2007–2008)
  António Guterres 73   Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1995–2002)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2005–2016)
UN Secretary-General (2016–present)
  Tarja Halonen 78   Finland Social Democratic President of Finland (2000–2012)
  Han Seung-soo 85   South Korea Saenuri Prime Minister of South Korea (2008–2009)
  François Hollande 68   France PS President of France (2012–2017)
  Osvaldo Hurtado 83   Ecuador Christian Democratic President of Ecuador (1981–1984)
  Hamadi Jebali 72   Tunisia Ennahdha (until 2014)

None (since 2014)

Head of Government of Tunisia (2011–2013)
  Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 83   Liberia None President of Liberia (2006–2018)
  Mehdi Jomaa 60   Tunisia None (until 2017)

Tunisian Alternative (since 2017)

Head of Government of Tunisia (2014–2015)
  Ivo Josipović 64   Croatia SDP President of Croatia (2010–2015)
  Alain Juppé 77   France UMP Prime Minister of France (1995–1997)
  Horst Köhler 79   Germany Christian Democratic President of Germany (2004–2010)
  Milan Kučan 81   Slovenia
  Yugoslavia
Communist (until 1990)
None (since 1990)
President of Slovenia (1991–2002)
  John Kufuor 83   Ghana NPP President of Ghana (2001–2009)
Chairman of the AU (2007–2008)
  Chandrika Kumaratunga 77   Sri Lanka SLFP President of Sri Lanka (1994–2005)
  Aleksander Kwaśniewski 67   Poland None (since 1995) President of Poland (1995–2005)
  Luis Alberto Lacalle 81   Uruguay PN President of Uruguay (1990–1995)
  Ricardo Lagos 84   Chile PPD President of Chile (2000–2006)
  Zlatko Lagumdžija 66   Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001–2002)
  Lee Hong-koo 66   South Korea NKP South Korea Prime Minister of South Korea (1994–1995)
  Yves Leterme 55   Belgium CD&V Prime Minister of Belgium (2009–2011)
  Enrico Letta 55   Italy PD Prime Minister of Italy (2013–2014)
  Doris Leuthard 77    Switzerland CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Member of the Federal Council (2006–2018)
(President in 2010 and 2017)
  Thabo Mbeki 80   South Africa ANC President of South Africa (1999–2008)
  Rexhep Meidani 77   Albania Socialist President of Albania (1997–2002)
  Carlos Mesa 69   Bolivia FRI President of Bolivia (2003–2005)
  James Michel 77   Seychelles US President of Seychelles (2004–2016)
  Festus Mogae 82   Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1998–2008)
  Mario Monti 79   Italy None Prime Minister of Italy (2011–2013)
  Olusegun Obasanjo 85   Nigeria PDP Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria (1976–1979)
President of Nigeria (1999–2007)
  Roza Otunbayeva 71   Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic (2007–2010) President of Kyrgyzstan (2010–2011)
  Anand Panyarachun 90   Thailand None Prime Minister of Thailand (1991–1992)
  George Papandreou 70   Greece Socialist Prime Minister of Greece (2009–2011)
  Andrés Pastrana 67   Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1998–2002)
  Pratibha Patil 87   India INC President of India (2007–2012)
  P.J. Patterson 87   Jamaica PNP (until 2011) Prime Minister of Jamaica (1992–2006)
  Sebastián Piñera 72   Chile None President of Chile (2010–2014; 2018–2022)
  Romano Prodi 83   Italy Democratic President of the European Commission (1999–2004)
President of the Council of Ministers of Italy (1996–1998, 2006–2008)
  Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat 80   Mongolia None President of Mongolia (1990–1997)
  Jorge Quiroga 62   Bolivia PODEMOS President of Bolivia (2001–2002)
  Iveta Radičová 65   Slovakia SDKÚ-DS
(2006–2012)
Prime Minister of Slovakia (2010–2012)
  Mariano Rajoy 67   Spain PP President of the Government of Spain (2011–2018)
  Fidel V. Ramos 94   Philippines Lakas President of the Philippines (1992–1998)
  José Manuel Ramos-Horta 72   East Timor None Prime Minister of East Timor (2006–2007)
President of East Timor (2007–2012)
  Poul Nyrup Rasmussen 79   Denmark Social Democrats Prime Minister of Denmark (1993–2001)
  Mary Robinson 78   Ireland None President of Ireland (1990–97)
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997–2002)
  José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 62   Spain PSOE President of the Government of Spain (2004–2011)
  Petre Roman 76   Romania FSN (1989–1991) Prime Minister of Romania (1989–1991)
  Kevin Rudd 64   Australia ALP Prime Minister of Australia (2007–2010, 2013)
  Julio María Sanguinetti 86   Uruguay PC President of Uruguay (1985–1990, 1995–2000)
  Wolfgang Schüssel 77   Austria ÖVP Chancellor of Austria (2000–2007)
  Jenny Shipley 70   New Zealand National Prime Minister of New Zealand (1997–1999)
  Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir 79   Iceland Social Democratic Alliance Prime Minister of Iceland (2009–2013)
  Fuad Siniora 79   Lebanon FM Prime Minister of Lebanon (2005–2009)
  Alexander Stubb 54   Finland NCP Prime Minister of Finland (2014–2015)
  Hanna Suchocka 76   Poland UD Prime Minister of Poland (1992–1993)
  Boris Tadić 64   Serbia Social Democratic President of Serbia (2004–2012)
  Jigme Thinley 69   Bhutan DPT Prime Minister of Bhutan (2008–2013)
  Helle Thorning-Schmidt 55   Denmark Social Democrats Prime Minister of Denmark (2011–2015)
  Martín Torrijos 59   Panama PRD President of Panama (2004–2009)
  Aminata Touré 59   Senegal APR Prime Minister of Senegal (2013–2014)
  Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj 59   Mongolia Democratic Party Prime Minister of Mongolia (2004–2006)
President of Mongolia (2009–2017)
  Danilo Türk 70   Slovenia None President of Slovenia (2007–2012)
  Cassam Uteem 81   Mauritius MMM President of Mauritius (1992–2002)
  Herman Van Rompuy 74   Belgium CD&V Prime Minister of Belgium (2008–2009)
President of the European Council (2009–2014)
  Guy Verhofstadt 69   Belgium VLD Prime Minister of Belgium (1999–2008)
  Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga 84   Latvia None President of Latvia (1999–2007)
  Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 72   Indonesia Democratic Party President of Indonesia (2004–2014)
  Ernesto Zedillo 70   Mexico PRI President of Mexico (1994–2000)

Member statisticsEdit

Regional background of members:

  • Africa and the Middle East – 19
  • the Americas – 29
  • Asia-Pacific – 16
  • Europe – 57

Political affiliation of members:

Office held (some members have held both):

List of honorary membersEdit

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
  Aung San Suu Kyi 77   Myanmar NLD State Counsellor of Myanmar (2016–present)
  Ban Ki-moon 78   South Korea None Secretary-General of the United Nations (2007–2016)
  Jimmy Carter 97   United States Democratic President of the United States (1977–81)
  Enrique V. Iglesias 92   Uruguay
  Spain
(unknown) President of the Inter-American Development Bank (1998–2005)
Secretary General of the Iberoamerican General Secretariat (2005–13)
Jacques Delors 97   France Socialist President of the European Commission (1985–95)
  Javier Solana 80   Spain Socialist Secretary General of NATO (1995–99) and High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (1999–2009)

List of members of the constituent foundationsEdit

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
  Diego Hidalgo 79   Spain (unknown) Founder and President of, and donor to, Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE)
Founding Member and Senior Fellow of the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA)[11]
  T. Anthony Jones (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) Vice-president and executive director of GFNA[12]
  George Matthews (unknown)   United States (unknown) Chairman and co-founder of GFNA[13]
  José Manuel Romero Moreno 81   Spain (unknown) Vice President of FRIDE[14]

List of former members (deceased)Edit

Name Died Nation Party Office(s) held
  Jorge Sampaio September 10, 2021(2021-09-10) (aged 81)   Portugal Socialist President of Portugal (1996–2006)
  Òscar Ribas Reig December 18, 2020(2020-12-18) (aged 84)   Andorra AND Prime Minister of Andorra (1990–1994)
  Tabaré Vázquez December 6, 2020(2020-12-06) (aged 80)   Uruguay PS President of Uruguay (2005–2010, 2015–2020)
  Sadiq al-Mahdi November 26, 2020(2020-11-26) (aged 84)   Sudan Umma Prime Minister of Sudan (1966–1967, 1986–1989)
  Benjamin Mkapa July 24, 2020(2020-07-24) (aged 81)   Tanzania CCM President of Tanzania (1995–2005)
  Abdurrahim El-Keib April 21, 2020(2020-04-21) (aged 70)   Libya None Acting Prime Minister of Libya (2011–2012)
  Javier Pérez de Cuéllar March 4, 2020(2020-03-04) (aged 100)   Peru UPP Secretary-General of the United Nations (1982–1991)
President of the Council of Ministers of Peru (2000–2001)
  Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie September 11, 2019(2019-09-11) (aged 83)   Indonesia Golkar President of Indonesia (1998–1999)
  Belisario Betancur December 7, 2018(2018-12-07) (aged 95)   Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1982–1986)
  Wim Kok October 20, 2018(2018-10-20) (aged 80)   Netherlands Labour Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1994–2002)
  Kofi Annan August 18, 2018(2018-08-18) (aged 80)   Ghana None Secretary-General of the United Nations (1997–2006)
  Álvaro Arzú April 27, 2018(2018-04-27) (aged 72)   Guatemala Unionist President of Guatemala (1996–2000)
Mayor of Guatemala City (2004–2018)
  Ruud Lubbers February 14, 2018(2018-02-14) (aged 78)   Netherlands Christian Democratic Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1982–1994)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2001–2005)
  Quett Masire June 22, 2017(2017-06-22) (aged 91)   Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1980–1998)
  Helmut Kohl 20170616June 16, 2017(2017-06-16) (aged 87)   Germany
  West Germany
Christian Democratic Chancellor of West Germany (1982–1990)
Chancellor of Germany (1990–1998)
  James Mancham 20170108January 8, 2017(2017-01-08) (aged 77)   Seychelles Democratic President of Seychelles (1976–1977)
  Mário Soares 20170107January 7, 2017(2017-01-07) (aged 92)   Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1976–1978, 1983–1985)
President of Portugal (1986–1996)
  António Mascarenhas Monteiro 20160916September 16, 2016(2016-09-16) (aged 72)   Cape Verde MPD President of Cape Verde (1991–2001)
  Patricio Aylwin 20160419April 19, 2016(2016-04-19) (aged 87)   Chile PDC President of Chile (1990–1994)
  Abd Al-Karim Al-Iryani 20151108November 8, 2015(2015-11-08) (aged 81)   Yemen
  North Yemen
GPC Prime Minister of North Yemen (1980–1983)
Prime Minister of Yemen (1998–2001)
  Adolfo Suárez 20140323March 23, 2014(2014-03-23) (aged 81)   Spain
 
MN (until 1977)
UCD (1977–82)
President of the Government of Spain (1976–81)
  Tadeusz Mazowiecki 20131028October 28, 2013(2013-10-28) (aged 86)   Poland
  PR Poland
KO "S" (1980–91)
UD (1991–94)
Prime Minister of Poland (1989–91)
  Inder Kumar Gujral 20121130November 30, 2012(2012-11-30) (aged 92)   India Janata Dal Prime Minister of India (1997–98)
  Václav Havel 20111218December 18, 2011(2011-12-18) (aged 75)   Czech Republic
  Czechoslovakia
OF (1989–93)
None (1993–2004)
President of Czechoslovakia (1989–92)
President of the Czech Republic (1993–2003)
  Ferenc Mádl 20110529May 29, 2011(2011-05-29) (aged 80)   Hungary None President of Hungary (2000–05)
  Raúl Alfonsín 20090331March 31, 2009(2009-03-31) (aged 82)   Argentina UCR President of Argentina (1983–89)
  Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 20080503May 3, 2008(2008-05-03) (aged 82)   Spain UCD President of the Government of Spain (1981–82)
  Lennart Meri 20060314March 14, 2006(2006-03-14) (aged 76)   Estonia
  Soviet Union
Isamaa (since 1992) President of Estonia (1992–2001)
  Valentín Paniagua 20061016October 16, 2006(2006-10-16) (aged 70)   Peru AC President of Peru (2000–01)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Members". Club de Madrid. Retrieved 2022-05-18.
  2. ^ a b c "Club de Madrid". European Partnership for Democracy (EPD). Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  3. ^ "Milan Kučan". European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation. 2020-03-16. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  4. ^ "Milan Kučan is the former President of Slovenia, club madrid member". Club de Madrid (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  5. ^ Gelb, Leslie H. (1993-02-07). "Opinion | Foreign Affairs; Sarajevo, Dead and Alive". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  6. ^ "Zlatko Lagumdzija". www.culturaldiplomacy.org. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  7. ^ Warsaw Voice Poland Recognizes Kosovo Archived 2010-04-12 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "NATO Who's who?: Carl Bildt". www.nato.int. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  9. ^ "Dayton Accords | international agreement". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  10. ^ "These Are Our Members". clubmadrid.org. Club of Madrid. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Diego Hidalgo". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  12. ^ "Anthony Jones". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  13. ^ "George Matthews". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  14. ^ "José Manuel Romero Moreno". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.

External linksEdit