National Party (Uruguay)

The National Party (Spanish: Partido Nacional, PN), also known as the White Party (Spanish: Partido Blanco), is a major political party in Uruguay. It was founded in 1836 by Manuel Oribe, making it the country's oldest active political party, and together with the Colorado Party, its origin dates back to the time of the creation of the Uruguayan State.

National Party
Partido Nacional
LeaderLuis Lacalle Pou
PresidentPablo Iturralde
FounderManuel Oribe
Founded10 August 1836; 186 years ago (1836-08-10)
HeadquartersJuan Carlos Gómez 1384, Montevideo
IdeologyLiberal conservatism[1]
Christian democracy[2]
Social liberalism[3]
Political positionCentre-right[2][4]
National affiliationCoalición Multicolor
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International[5]
Regional affiliationCOPPPAL[6]
OCDA[7] (observer)
Colors   Blue and White
Chamber of Deputies
30 / 99
Senate
10 / 30
Intendencias
15 / 19
Mayors
90 / 112
Party flag
Flag of the National Party (Uruguay).svg
Website
www.partidonacional.com.uy

Positioned on the centre-right of the political spectrum, the National Party is ideologically liberal, nationalist, Pan-Americanist and humanist.[8][9] Considering the interim co-government of the Gobierno del Cerrito headed by Manuel Oribe, and the Defense Government from Montevideo led by the Colorado Joaquín Suarez, in the middle of the Uruguayan Civil War, and with the exception of the current administration of Luis Lacalle Pou, the PN has ruled the country for 35 years interruptedly throughout its history; This includes constitutional, interim, de facto presidents, and collegiate governments.[10] Although General Manuel Oribe is recognized as its founder, Aparicio Saravia is considered its idealist.[11]

The National Party is a defender of decentralization, and its demographic base skews toward people living in rural areas.[12]

HistoryEdit

 
National Party flag used from 1880 to 1904

The identity of the National Party dates back to August 10, 1836 when the then president Manuel Oribe decreed the use of the white banner with the inscription "Defenders of the Laws", in the battle of Carpintería, Oribe faced the revolutionary army of Fructuoso Rivera and colored badges were used to distinguish between the parties.[13] For this reason, the National Party is also known as the "White Party."[14]

On July 7, 1872, the first Program of Principles was approved, in which respect for freedoms, the maintenance of peace as the supreme good for the Nation, the representation of minorities, the decentralization of the country, the strengthening of justice, and the promotio of education and instruction.[13]

In March 2020, National Party’s Luis Lacalle Pou was sworn as the new President of Uruguay, meaning Uruguay got the first conservative government after 15 years of left-wing leadership under the Broad Front coalition.[15]

Electoral historyEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Party candidate Running mate Votes % Votes % Result
First Round Second Round
Elections under the Ley de Lemas system
1938 114,506 32.1% Lost  N
1942 Luis Alberto de Herrera Roberto Berro 129,132 22.5% Lost  N
Turena Olivera 1,384 0.2%
Saraiva 667 0.1%
al lema 52 0.0%
Total votes 131,235 22.8%
1946 Luis Alberto de Herrera Martín Echegoyen 205,923 31.7% Lost  N
Basilio Muñoz José Rogelio Fontela 1,479 0.2%
Jacinto D. Durán 557 0.1%
al lema 161 0.0%
Total votes 208,120 47.8%
1950 Luis Alberto de Herrera Martín Echegoyen 253,077 30.7% Lost  N
Salvador Estradé Emeterio Arrospide 1,421 0.2%
al lema 336 0.0%
Total votes 254,843 30.9%
1966 Martín Echegoyen Dardo Ortiz 228,309 18.5% Lost  N
Alberto Gallinal Heber Zeballos 171,618 13.9%
Alberto Héber Usher Nicolás Storace Arrosa 96,772 7.9%
al lema 211 0.0%
Total votes 496,910 40.3%
1971 Wilson Ferreira Aldunate Carlos Julio Pereyra 439,649 26.4% Lost  N
Mario Aguerrondo Alberto Héber Usher 228,569 13.7%
al lema 211 0.0%
Total votes 668,822 40.2%
1984 Alberto Zumarán Gonzalo Aguirre 553,193 29.3 Lost  N
Dardo Ortiz 76,014 4.0
Juan Carlos Payssé Cristina Maeso 21,903 1.2
al lema 9,657 0.5
Total votes 660,767 35.0%
1989 Luis Alberto Lacalle 444,839 21,63% Elected  Y
Carlos Julio Pereyra 218,656 10,63% Lost  N
Alberto Zumarán 101,046 04,91%
Lema 1,449 00,07%
Total votes 765,990 37,25%
1994 Alberto Volonté 301,655 14.9% Lost  N
Juan Andrés Ramírez 264,255 13.0%
Carlos Julio Pereyra 65,650 3.2%
Total votes 633,384 31.2%
Elections under single presidential candidate per party
1999 Luis Alberto Lacalle 478,980 22.3% Lost  N
2004 Jorge Larrañaga 764,739 34.30% Lost  N
2009 Luis Alberto Lacalle Jorge Larrañaga 669,942 29.07% 994,510 45.37% Lost  N
2014 Luis Lacalle Pou 732,601 30.88% 939,074 41.17% Lost  N
2019 Beatriz Argimón 696,452 29.70% 1,189,313 50.79% Elected  Y

NoteEdit

Under the electoral system in place at the time called Ley de Lemas system, each political party could have as many as three presidential candidates. The combined result of the votes for a party's candidates determined which party would control the executive branch, and whichever of the winning party's candidates finished in first place would be declared President this system was used form the 1942 election until the 1994 election until in 1996, a referendum amended the constitution to restrict each party to a single presidential candidate, effective from the 1999 elections.

Parliamentary electionsEdit

Election Votes % Chamber seats +/– Position Senate seats +/- Position
1916 68,073 46.6%
105 / 218
  105   1st
1917 29,257 22.7% Unknown   3rd
1919 71,538 38.0%
56 / 123
  1st
1922 116,080 47.1%
58 / 123
  2   1st
1925 122,530 45.1%
56 / 123
  2   1st
1928 140,940 47.1%
60 / 123
  4   1st
1931 133,625 43.2%
55 / 123
  5   1st
1933 101,419 41.1%
117 / 284
  122   2nd
1934 92,903 37.3%
39 / 99
  138   2nd
15 / 30
  15   2nd
Senate 91,585 41.4%
1938 122,440 32.6%
29 / 99
  10   2nd
15 / 30
    2nd
Senate 114,571 31.7%
1942 199,265 34.6%
34 / 99
  5   2nd
7 / 30
  8   2nd
Senate 131,235 22.8%
1946 271,037 40.4%
40 / 99
  6   2nd
10 / 30
  3   2nd
Senate 208,085 31.1%
1950 254,788 30.8%
31 / 99
  9   2nd
10 / 30
    2nd
Senate 254,834 30.4%
1954 309,818 35.2%
35 / 99
  4   2nd
11 / 31
  1   2nd
1958 499,425 49.7%
51 / 99
  16   1st
17 / 31
  6   1st
1962 545,029 46.5%
47 / 99
  4   1st
15 / 31
  2   1st
1966 496,910 40.3%
41 / 99
  6   2nd
13 / 30
  2   2nd
1971 668,822 40.2%
40 / 99
  1   2nd
12 / 30
  1   2nd
1984 660,767 35.1%
35 / 99
  5   2nd
11 / 30
  1   2nd
1989 765,990 37.25%
39 / 99
  4   1st
12 / 30
  1   1st
1994 633,384 31.1%
31 / 99
  8   2nd
10 / 31
  2   2nd
1999 478,980 22.3%
22 / 99
  9   3rd
7 / 30
  3   3rd
2004 764,739 34.30%
36 / 99
  14   2nd
11 / 30
  4   2nd
2009 669,942 29.07%
30 / 99
  6   2nd
9 / 30
  2   2nd
2014 732,601 30.88%
32 / 99
  2   2nd
10 / 30
  1   2nd
2019 696,452 29.70%
30 / 99
  2   2nd
10 / 30
    2nd

National Council of Administration and National Council of Government electionsEdit

Election Votes % Council seats +/- Position
1925 119,255 49.3% Unknown   1st
1926 139,959 48.4% Unknown   1st
1928 141,055 48.2% Unknown   2nd
1930 149,339 47.2% Unknown   2nd
1932 41,908 26.1% Unknown   2nd
Abolished in 1933 re-established as National Council of Government
1954 309,818 35.2%
3 / 9
  3 2nd
1958 499,425 49.7%
6 / 9
  3   1st
1962 545,029 46.5%
6 / 9
    1st
National Council abolished in 1966, presidential system reestablished

NoteEdit

The National Council of Administration ruling alongside the President of the Republic between 1918 and 1933 and it was re-established as National Council of Government was the ruling body in Uruguay between 1952 and 1967

2004 electionsEdit

At the 2004 national elections, the National Party won 36 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Deputies and 11 seats out of 31 in the Senate. Its presidential candidate, Jorge Larrañaga, obtained the same day 35.1% of the valid, popular vote.

2009 electionsEdit

At the 2009 national elections, the National Party won 31 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Deputies and 9 seats out of 31 in the Senate. Its presidential candidate, Luis Alberto Lacalle, obtained on 25 October 29.07% of the valid, popular vote.

2014 electionsEdit

At the 2014 elections, its presidential candidate was Luis Lacalle Pou.

2019 electionsEdit

In 2019, the National Party returns to lead the government after thirty years, when Luis Lacalle Pou defeated leftist Daniel Martínez in the second round, with the nationalist as leader of the so-called Coalición Multicolor (Multicolor Alliance).[1] This will be the second occasion since the return of democracy and the first of the 21st century when the Party reaches the government.

Sectors and factionsEdit

National AllianceEdit

The leader of National Alliance was Jorge Larrañaga, until 2021, who ran for President of Uruguay in 2004. He was beaten by Tabaré Vázquez of the Broad Front. The new leader is still undefined until the next internal elections of the sector. The ideologies of the sector are centrism and christian democracy.

HerrerismoEdit

Herrerism is built on a foundation of economic liberalism and liberal conservatism, although earlier in its history it took on more anti-imperialist and traditionalist policies.

Wilsonist CurrentEdit

The Wilsonist Current is a social-liberal faction of the National Party of Uruguay. Founded in 2002 by Francisco Gallinal, its name comes from the Wilsonism, an important tendency of the Party, led by Wilson Ferreira Aldunate.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Martínez, Magdalena (25 November 2019). "Luis Lacalle Pou, el peso de un apellido". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Declaración de Princípios del Partido Nacional". Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  3. ^ "El perfil ideológico del Partido Blanco" (in Spanish). República.com. 15 June 2014.
  4. ^ "Uruguay: El presidente Lacalle Pou y su partido, fortalecidos tras las elecciones locales". 28 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Parties".
  6. ^ "Países y Partidos Miembros de la COPPPAL".
  7. ^ "Partidos | ODCA.cl".
  8. ^ "Nuestro Partido > Declaración de Principios". 6 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  9. ^ "El centroderecha acaricia el poder en Uruguay". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 25 November 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  10. ^ Observador, El. "El misterio de los blancos". El Observador. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Aparicio Saravia". www.partidonacional.org.uy (in European Spanish). Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  12. ^ ElPais. "Triunfo del Partido Nacional: después de 93 años volvió al poder". Diario EL PAIS Uruguay (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  13. ^ a b "Identidad e historia del Partido Nacional: para construir futuro, recordar quiénes somos y de dónde venimos" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Portal FACTUM | Uruguay". portal.factum.uy. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Uruguay ushers in first conservative government in 15 years".

External linksEdit