Souvenir Henri Desgrange

The Souvenir Henri Desgrange is an award and cash prize given in the yearly running of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tour races. It is won by the rider that crosses a particular point in the race, mostly the summits of the highest and iconic climbs in the Alps and Pyrenees. It is named in honour of the creator and first race director of the Tour, French sports journalist Henri Desgrange,[1] who was passionate about taking the Tour de France as high up in the mountains as possible using the most difficult routes.[2]

Souvenir Henri Desgrange
A cylindrical stone monument with the an inscription inside by an outline of France
The monument to Henri Desgrange near the summit of the Col du Galibier
SportRoad bicycle racing
CompetitionTour de France
Awarded forFirst across a particular point
LocationVarious
CountryFrance
History
First award1947
Editions74 (as of 2021)
First winner Raymond Impanis (BEL)
Most wins Richard Virenque (FRA)

 Nairo Quintana (COL)

3 wins
Most recent Nairo Quintana (COL)

HistoryEdit

Following the death of Desgrange in August 1940,[3] an award was given in his honour for the first time in the 1947 Tour, the first Tour since 1939, having been cancelled during World War II.[4] On stage 11, Raymond Impanis was the first of the field to pass a point by Desgrange's final residence, the "Villa Mia" in Beauvallon, Grimaud, on the French Riviera.[5][6] In the first stage of the 1948 Tour, the prize was earned by Roger Lambrecht in opening few kilometres at the summit of the Côte de Picardie climb in Versailles, Paris.[7][8][9] Beauvallon again hosted the award the following year,[10] before the 1950 and 1951 Tours saw the award marker point moved into the mountains atop the 2,058 m (6,752 ft)-high Col du Lautaret,[11][12][13] the pass that directly precedes the Galibier climb from the south.[14] In 1949, a monument to Desgrange was built 150 m (492 ft) from the southern entrance of the summit tunnel atop the Col du Galibier in the Alps, his favourite and one of the Tour's most iconic climbs.[15][16] A wreath is laid at the monument when the Tour passes.[17] Beginning in 1952,[18] the marking point for the prize took place by the monument for the subsequent times the Tour visited the Galibier.[18] Since the 1965 Tour, the Galibier has always been used when it was passed.[18]

The tunnel at the summit of the Galibier was closed for safety reasons in 1976 – eventually re-opening in 2002.[19][20] Bypassing the tunnel, the road was then extended a further kilometre up to the natural crest of the pass,[21] increasing the elevation of the summit by 86 meters to 2,642 m (8,668 ft).[22] This has been award's marking point on the Galibier ever since it was first traversed in the 1979 Tour, when Lucien Van Impe claimed the award.[16] The tunnel was passed through on stage 19 of the 2011 Tour, but in that edition the Galibier was climb twice in celebration the 100th anniversary of its appearance in the Tour.[23] The finish of the previous stage was atop the full Galibier climb, where Andy Schleck claimed memorable stage win as well as the award after his 60 km (37 mi) solo breakaway.[24] This was first ever Galibier summit stage finish and the highest ever Tour stage finish in history to that point.[23] Further notable stages featuring the award on the Galibier were in the 1952 and 1998 Tours, when Italians Fausto Coppi and Marco Pantani, respectively, took the award and then went on to win the stage, which proved decisive to both their overall general classification victories.[17][25]

Non-summit marking points have been sparsely used for the award.[18] Beauvallon was a host for a total of six times, with final appearance in the 1964 Tour.[18] The village of Cysoing in the far north hosted on the 1956 Tour, marking 200,000 kilometres travelled in Tour de France history.[26] Only twice have non-summit marking points happened since 1964.[18] Stage 11 of the 1978 race saw the award given to Christian Seznec at the legendary village of Sainte-Marie de Campan in the valley between the Col du Tourmalet and Col d'Aspin in the Pyrenees,[27] made famous when in the 1913 Tour, per the rules, Eugène Christophe was forced walk 14 km (9 mi) down the Tourmalet carrying his bicycle broken before repairing it at a forge in Campan.[28] The last time a non-summit point took place during the Grand Départ (opening stages) of the 1981 Tour, hosted by Nice, with the award at first planned to take place in the final kilometres of stage 1a beside the Carrefour supermarket on the Promenade des Anglais. This break from tradition was seen by the media as disrespectful to the race and the legacy of Desgrange.[29][30] For unknown reasons the marking point banner was stolen the night before.[30] The replacement banner was strung up in the Landes forest 42 km (26 mi) before the end of stage 7 in Bordeaux,[31][32] which was won unexpectedly by Theo de Rooij as a result of him being at the front of the leading breakaway group.[33]

From the 1965 Tour onwards, if the Galibier was not passed then the award was instead given atop a climb of similarly equal height, most commonly the Tourmalet, and beginning with the 1997 Tour, the highest climb of a Tour was mostly used when the Galibier was not included.[18][34] Since the 2013 Tour, the highest climb has always been used (as of 2019). On two occasions the Galibier climb been cancelled because of bad weather and the award locations were moved;[35] snow in 1996 saw it replaced by the 1,709 m (5,607 ft)-high Pyreenan Col d'Aubisque,[36][37][38] and landslides in 2015 moved the award to 2,250 m (7,382 ft)-high Alpine Col d'Allos.[39]

The amount of cash given as a prize for the award was higher in the early Tours.[18] Cash prizes have also been given to the second and third placed riders. Since 2003, the winner has received a €5000 prize.[18] Only in the 1963 Tour has the award not been given, although at the conclusion of that race there was a special "Desgrange prize" given to the general classification winner Jacques Anquetil who was adjudged to have had the best "head and legs" throughout the Tour.[18][40] The Souvenir Jacques Goddet, honouring the second Tour director Jacques Goddet, is a similar award in the race given since the 2001 Tour mostly atop the Tourmalet.[41][42]

Locations and winnersEdit

Key
* Col du Galibier was passed but not used for the award
^ Highest point of elevation reached on that year's Tour
  Winner of the award also won the overall general classification
  Winner of the award also won the stage finish
Winner (#) Multiple award winner and number of times they had won the award at that point
List of Souvenir Henri Desgrange locations and winners[a][34]
Year Stage Location Elevation Winner Nationality Team Cash prize Ref
1947 11 Beauvallon, Grimaud * 1.5 m (5 ft) Raymond Impanis   Belgium Belgium F 35,000 [5][43][44]
1948 1 Côte de Picardie * 178 m (584 ft) Roger Lambrecht   Belgium Internationals F 30,000 [7][8][9]
1949 15 Beauvallon, Grimaud 1.5 m (5 ft) Paul Giguet   France South-East F 60,000 [43][10]
1950 19 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Apo Lazaridès   France France F 75,000 [12]
1951 21 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Gino Sciardis   France Île-de-France/North-West F 30,000 [13]
1952 11 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Fausto Coppi      Italy Italy F 40,000 [45][46]
1953 16 Beauvallon, Grimaud 1.5 m (5 ft) Claude Colette   France South-West F 100,000 [43][47]
1954 19 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Federico Bahamontes   Spain Spain F 100,000 [48]
1955 10 Beauvallon, Grimaud * 1.5 m (5 ft) André Darrigade   France France F 100,000 [43][49][50]
1956 2 Cysoing[b] unknown Pierre Pardoën   France North-East/Centre F 100,000 [26][51]
1957 12 Beauvallon, Grimaud * 1.5 m (5 ft) Jean Stablinski     France France F 100,000 [43][52][53]
1958 21 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Piet van Est   Netherlands Netherlands/Luxembourg F 100,000 [54]
1959 18 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) Charly Gaul   Luxembourg Netherlands/Luxembourg F 100,000 [55]
1960 17 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Jean Graczyk     France France F 200,000 [56][57]
1961 6 Ballon d'Alsace 1,178 m (3,865 ft) Jef Planckaert     Belgium Belgium F 2,000 [58][59]
1962 19 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Juan Campillo   Spain Margnat–Paloma–D'Alessandro F 2,000 [60]
1963 Not awarded[c]
1964 10a Beauvallon, Grimaud * 1.5 m (5 ft) André Darrigade (2)   France Margnat–Paloma–Dunlop F 2,000 [43][61]
1965 17 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Francisco Gabica   Spain Kas–Kaskol F 2,000 [62][63]
1966 16 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Julio Jiménez     Spain Ford France–Hutchinson F 2,000 [64]
1967 10 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Julio Jiménez (2)   Spain Spain F 2,000 [65][66]
1968 19 Col des Aravis 1,498 m (4,915 ft) Barry Hoban     Great Britain Great Britain F 2,000 [67]
1969 10 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Eddy Merckx     Belgium Faema F 2,000 [68]
1970 19 Col du Soulor 1,474 m (4,836 ft) Raymond Delisle   France Peugeot–BP–Michelin F 2,000 [69]
1971 19 Côte de Dourdan 160 m (525 ft) Wilmo Francioni   Italy Ferretti F 2,000 [70][71]
1972 14a Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Joop Zoetemelk   Netherlands Beaulieu–Flandria F 2,000 [72]
1973 8 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Luis Ocaña      Spain Bic F 2,000 [73]
1974 11 Col du Galibier 2,556 m (8,386 ft) ^ Vicente López Carril     Spain Kas–Kaskol F 2,500 [74]
1975 17 Col du Télégraphe 1,566 m (5,138 ft) Luis Balague   Spain Super Ser F 2,500 [75][76]
1976 10 Col du Lautaret 2,058 m (6,752 ft) Luciano Conati   Italy Scic–Fiat F 2,000 [77][78]
1977 2 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Lucien Van Impe   Belgium Lejeune–BP ƒ 1,400 [79]
1978 11 Sainte-Marie de Campan 857 m (2,812 ft) Christian Seznec   France Miko–Mercier–Vivagel ƒ 2,000 [27][80]
1979 17 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Lucien Van Impe (2)   Belgium Kas–Campagnolo unknown [81]
1980 17 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Johan De Muynck   Belgium Splendor–Admiral F 10,000 [82]
1981 7 Landes forest[d] unknown Theo de Rooij   Netherlands Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata F 5,000 [32][33][83]
1982 12 Col d'Aubisque 1,709 m (5,607 ft) Beat Breu    Switzerland Cilo–Aufina F 5,000 [84][85]
1983 10 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ José Patrocinio Jiménez   Colombia Varta–Colombia F 8,500 [86][87]
1984 18 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Francisco Rodríguez Maldonado   Colombia Splendor–Mondial Moquettes–Marc ƒ 2,500 [88]
1985 17 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Pello Ruiz Cabestany   Spain Seat–Orbea F 10,000 [89]
1986 18 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Luis Herrera   Colombia Café de Colombia–Varta F 12,000 [90]
1987 21 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Federico Muñoz   Spain Fagor–MBK ƒ 7,000 [91][92]
1988 15 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Laudelino Cubino     Spain BH unknown [93][94]
1989 17 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Gert-Jan Theunisse     Netherlands PDM–Concorde unknown [95]
1990 16 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Miguel Ángel Martínez Torres   Spain ONCE unknown [96][97]
1991 13 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Claudio Chiappucci     Italy Carrera Jeans–Tassoni F 30,000 [98][99]
1992 14 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) Franco Chioccioli   Italy GB–MG Maglificio ƒ 7,000 [100][101]
1993 10 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) Tony Rominger      Switzerland CLAS–Cajastur unknown [102][103]
1994 12 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) Richard Virenque     France Festina–Lotus F 30,000 [104][105]
1995 15 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Richard Virenque  (2)   France Festina–Lotus unknown [106][107]
1996 17 Col d'Aubisque[e] 1,709 m (5,607 ft) Neil Stephens   Australia ONCE F 20,000 [37]
1997 10 Port d'Envalira 2,407 m (7,897 ft) ^ Richard Virenque (3)   France Festina–Lotus unknown [108][109]
1998 15 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Marco Pantani      Italy Mercatone Uno–Bianchi unknown [110]
1999 9 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ José Luis Arrieta   Spain Banesto F 20,000 [111][112]
2000 15 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Pascal Hervé   France Banesto F 20,000 [113][114]
2001 10 Col de la Madeleine 2,000 m (6,562 ft) Laurent Roux   France Jean Delatour F 20,000 [115][116]
2002 16 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Santiago Botero   Colombia Kelme–Costa Blanca €3,000 [117]
2003 8 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Stefano Garzelli   Italy Vini Caldirola–So.di €5,000 [118][119]
2004 17 Col de la Madeleine 2,000 m (6,562 ft) ^ Gilberto Simoni   Italy Saeco Macchine per Caffè €5,000 [120][121]
2005 11 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Alexander Vinokourov     Kazakhstan T-Mobile Team €5,000 [122][123]
2006 16 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Michael Rasmussen     Denmark Rabobank €5,000 [124][125]
2007 9 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) Mauricio Soler     Colombia Barloworld €5,000 [126][127]
2008 17 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) Stefan Schumacher   Germany Gerolsteiner €5,000 [128][129]
2009 16 Col du Grand-Saint-Bernard 2,470 m (8,104 ft) ^ Franco Pellizotti[f]   Italy Liquigas €5,000 [131][132]
2010 17 Col du Tourmalet 2,115 m (6,939 ft) ^ Andy Schleck  [g]    Luxembourg Team Saxo Bank €5,000 [134][135]
2011 18 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) Andy Schleck  (2)   Luxembourg Leopard Trek €5,000 [24][136]
2012 11 Col de la Croix de Fer 2,067 m (6,781 ft) Fredrik Kessiakoff   Sweden Astana €5,000 [137][138]
2013 8 Port de Pailhères 2,001 m (6,565 ft) ^ Nairo Quintana   Colombia Movistar Team €5,000 [139][140]
2014 14 Col d'Izoard 2,360 m (7,743 ft) ^ Joaquim Rodríguez   Spain Team Katusha €5,000 [141][142]
2015 20 Col d'Allos[h] 2,250 m (7,382 ft) ^ Simon Geschke   Germany Team Giant–Alpecin €5,000 [143][145]
2016 10 Port d'Envalira 2,407 m (7,897 ft) ^ Rui Costa   Portugal Lampre–Merida €5,000 [146][147]
2017 17 Col du Galibier 2,642 m (8,668 ft) ^ Primož Roglič     Slovenia LottoNL–Jumbo €5,000 [148][149]
2018 17 Col de Portet 2,215 m (7,267 ft) ^ Nairo Quintana  (2)   Colombia Movistar Team €5,000 [150][151]
2019 19 Col de l'Iseran * 2,770 m (9,088 ft) ^ Egan Bernal  [i]   Colombia Team Ineos €5,000 [152][153]
2020 17 Col de la Loze 2,304 m (7,559 ft) ^ Miguel Ángel López     Colombia Astana €5,000 [154]
2021 15 Port d'Envalira 2,407 m (7,897 ft) ^ Nairo Quintana (3)   Colombia Arkéa–Samsic €5,000 [155][156]

Multiple winnersEdit

The following riders have won the Souvenir Henri Desgrange on 2 or more occasions.

Multiple winners of the Souvenir Henri Desgrange
Cyclist Total Years
  Richard Virenque (FRA) 3 1994, 1995, 1997
  Nairo Quintana (COL) 3 2013, 2018, 2021
  André Darrigade (FRA) 2 1955, 1964
  Julio Jiménez (ESP) 2 1966, 1967
  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) 2 1977, 1979
  Andy Schleck (LUX) 2 2010, 2011

Winners by nationalityEdit

Riders from sixteen different countries have won the Souvenir Henri Desgrange.

Souvenir Henri Desgrange winners by nationality
Country No. of wins No. of winning cyclists
  France 16 13
  Spain 14 13
  Colombia 10 8
  Italy[f] 8 8
  Belgium 7 6
  Netherlands 4 4
  Luxembourg 3 2
  Germany 2 2
  Australia 1 1
  Denmark 1 1
  Great Britain 1 1
  Kazakhstan 1 1
  Portugal 1 1
  Slovenia 1 1
  Sweden 1 1
   Switzerland 1 1

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The award marking point location's of climbs were taken at the summit.
  2. ^ The award marking point at Cysoing, 13 km (8 mi) from the finish in Lille, marked 200,000 km (124,274 mi) travelled in Tour de France history.[26]
  3. ^ At the conclusion of the 1963 Tour de France, there was a special Desgrange prize given to the cyclist who rode the best "head and legs". Jacques Anquetil won this prize.[40]
  4. ^ The 1981 Tour de France award on stage 1a was cancelled following the theft of the marking point banner in Nice.[31] The location was moved to 185 km (115 mi) into the 227 km (141 mi)-long stage 7.[32]
  5. ^ In the 1996 Tour de France, the Col du Galibier and the highest climb of the race, the Col de l'Iseran, were both cancelled because of bad weather.[36]
  6. ^ a b In March 2011, all of Italian Franco Pellizotti's results since 7 May 2009 were disqualified after the Court of Arbitration for Sport found his biological passport indicated irregular values.[130]
  7. ^ The 2010 Tour de France was initially won by Alberto Contador, who was later revealed to have failed a doping test. The Court of Arbitration for Sport decided on 6 February 2012 that Contador lost his results from 2010, declaring Andy Schleck the new winner.[133]
  8. ^ The summit of the Col du Galibier was planned to be used as the marking point for the award on the 2015 Tour de France.[143] but landslides prior to the race forced its cancellation.[39] It would have also been the highest point of the race, and the second highest, the Col d'Allos,[144] was used in replacement.[39]
  9. ^ Stage 19 of the 2019 Tour de France was stopped atop the Col de l'Iseran after hailstorms and mudslides made the road impracticable near Val-d'Isère, before the planned final climb and finish at Tignes. The stage victory was not awarded.[152]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Clemitson 2017, p. 170.
  2. ^ Friebe & Goding 2017, p. 191.
  3. ^ Thompson 2008, p. 78.
  4. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 151.
  5. ^ a b "Fachleitner schudde allen van zijn wiel" [Fachleitner shook everyone's wheel]. De Volkskrant (in Dutch). 9 July 1947. p. 2 – via Delpher.
  6. ^ Seray & Lablaine 2006, p. 84.
  7. ^ a b "35ème Tour de France 1948 - 1ère étape" [35th Tour de France 1948 - 1st stage]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Tour de France begonnen" [Tour de France begins]. Het Parool (in Dutch). 30 June 1948. p. 3 – via Delpher.
  9. ^ a b "Versailles: les statues de La Fayette et Pershing inaugurées" [Versailles: La Fayette and Pershing statues inaugurated]. Le Parisien (in French). 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Apo Lazaridès verovert 12 minuten op Bartali en Coppi" [Apo Lazaridès conquers 12 minutes on Bartali and Coppi]. De Volkskrant (in Dutch). 18 July 1949. p. 3 – via Delpher.
  11. ^ Augendre 2019, p. 184.
  12. ^ a b "Bobet diep ontgoocheld na grootse vlucht" [Bobet deeply disappointed after a great flight]. De Telegraaf (in Dutch). 4 August 1950. p. 5 – via Delpher.
  13. ^ a b "Bernardo Ruiz nuevo Aníbal, asciende victoriosamente los Alpes y gana destacado la etapa Bríaçon-Aix-les-Bains" [Bernardo Ruiz new Aníbal, ascends victoriously the Alps and wins the Bríaçon-Aix-les-Bains stage] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 27 July 1951. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2019.
  14. ^ Friebe & Goding 2017, p. 193.
  15. ^ Friebe & Goding 2017, pp. 191–192.
  16. ^ a b "Le Galibier: The Sacred Monster". VeloNews. 13 July 2005. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  17. ^ a b Clemitson 2015, p. 52.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j van den Akker, Pieter. "Souvenir Henri Desgrange". TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  19. ^ Lowe, Felix (24 July 2019). "Re-Cycle: When Eddy Merckx descended the Galibier for victory in Valloire in 1972". Eurosport. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  20. ^ Pastonesi, Marco (20 September 2012). "Sulle orme di Pantani: Il Giro scala il Galibier" [In the footsteps of Pantani: The Giro climbs the Galibier]. La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  21. ^ Friebe & Goding, p. 192.
  22. ^ Augendre 2019, p. 183.
  23. ^ a b Wilcockson, John (28 June 2011). "2011 Tour de France stage descriptions, analysis and maps". VeloNews. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  24. ^ a b Edward, Pickering (14 July 2011). "Stage 18 analysis: Andy Schleck lands a heavy blow". Cycling Weekly. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  25. ^ Pickering, Edward (21 July 2011). "Iconic Places: Col du Galibier". Cycling Weekly. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  26. ^ a b c "Zwitserse ploeg verloor twee mantijdens 't matste deel van de strijd: Pardoen had een rijke buit" [Swiss team lost two men in the fattest part of the fight: Pardoen had a rich booty]. Leidse Courant (in Dutch). 7 July 1956. p. 7 – via Historische Kranten, Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken.
  27. ^ a b "65ème Tour de France 1978 - 11ème étape" [65th Tour de France 1978 - 11th stage]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  28. ^ Dauncey & Hare 2004, p. 71.
  29. ^ "Nice: meer monokini's dan blote rennersbenen" [Nice: more monokinis than bare riders legs]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 27 June 1981. p. 21 – via Delpher.
  30. ^ a b "Ronde '81: Vraag het maar" [Tour '81: Just ask]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 27 June 1981. p. 19. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019.
  31. ^ a b "Ronde '81: Kort" [Tour '81: Short]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 3 July 1981. p. 13. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019.
  32. ^ a b c "Van kilometer tot kilometer" [From kilometer to kilometer]. Leidse Courant (in Dutch). 3 July 1981. p. 13 – via Historische Kranten, Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken.
  33. ^ a b "Theo de Rooy: niet neer dan groot talent" [Theo de Rooy: no less than great talent]. Trouw (in Dutch). 9 July 1981. p. 13 – via Delpher.
  34. ^ a b Augendre 2019, pp. 181–197.
  35. ^ Bacon, Ellis (24 July 2019). "Classic Tour de France climbs: Col du Galibier". Cyclist. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Tour de France stage shortened because of bad weather". Cyclingnews.com. 8 July 1996. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Riis unbeatable". Cyclingnews.com. 17 July 1996. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  38. ^ Augendre 2019, p. 190.
  39. ^ a b c "Stage 20 : Modane – L'Alpe d'Huez... via the Croix de Fer – News Pre-race – Tour de France 2015". Tour de France. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Desgranges-prijs voor Anquetil" [Desgrange prize for Anquetil]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 15 July 1963. p. 13. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019.
  41. ^ van den Akker 2018, p. 201.
  42. ^ Vandenbergh, Philippe (19 July 2001). "Une stèle Jacques Goddet sur le Tourmalet" [A Jacques Goddet stele on the Tourmalet]. La Libre (in French). Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  43. ^ a b c d e f "51ème Tour de France 1964 - 10ème étape 1-2" [51st Tour de France 1964 - 10th stage 1-2]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  44. ^ "La VueIta a Francia: El francés Fachleitner gana destacado en Marsella" [The Tour of France: Frenchman Fachleitner wins outstanding in Marseille] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 9 July 1947. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2019.
  45. ^ "Coppi le plus fort" [Coppi the strongest] (PDF). L'Impartial (in French). 7 July 1952. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2019 – via RERO.
  46. ^ "Ronde-Klok" [Tour bell]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 8 July 1952. p. 9. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019.
  47. ^ "Opwindend eine van een rustige etappe" [Exciting end of a quiet stage]. De Tijd (in Dutch). 20 July 1953. p. 5 – via Delpher.
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BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to Monument Henri Desgrange at Wikimedia Commons