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1985 Tour de France

The 1985 Tour de France was the 72nd Tour de France, taking place between 28 June and 21 July, over 4,109 km (2,553 mi) in 22 stages and a prologue.

1985 Tour de France
Route of the 1985 Tour de France
Route of the 1985 Tour de France
Race details
Dates28 June – 21 July
Stages22 + Prologue, including one split stage
Distance4,109 km (2,553 mi)
Winning time113h 24' 23"
Winner  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
  Second  Greg LeMond (USA) (La Vie Claire)
  Third  Stephen Roche (IRE) (La Redoute)

Points  Sean Kelly (IRE) (Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko)
Mountains  Luis Herrera (COL) (Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic)
Youth  Fabio Parra (COL) (Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic)
Combination  Greg LeMond (USA) (La Vie Claire)
Sprints  Jozef Lieckens (BEL) (Lotto)
  Combativity  Maarten Ducrot (NED) (Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko)
  Team La Vie Claire
  Team points La Vie Claire
← 1984
1986 →

Bernard Hinault would attempt to equal the records of Jacques Anquetil and Eddy Merckx who had each won the Tour de France five times. Hinault was unable to compete due to tendinitis in 1983. In 1984 Hinault had finished second to Laurent Fignon, and was threatened by Greg LeMond who ended in third position on the final podium. In order to ensure the best support, Hinault's La Vie Claire team recruited LeMond for the 1985 tour. In return for his support, Hinault promised on television that he would support LeMond the following year in the 1986 Tour de France.

Despite crashing on a fast descent and riding with black eyes due to his injuries, Hinault won and publicly again stated his promise to help LeMond the following year.


In June 1985, 21 teams had requested to start in the 1985 Tour.[1] Three Italian teams, (Gis, Alpilatte and Malvor) withdrew, so the 1985 Tour started with 18 teams. Each team had 10 cyclists, so the 1985 Tour started with 180 cyclists.[2]

The teams entering the race were:[2]

Pre-race favouritesEdit

Laurent Fignon, the winner of the 1984 Tour de France was injured, and could not defend his title. Riding for the La Vie Claire team, Bernard Hinault, who already had won the Tour de France four times, and finished second in the previous edition, was the main pre-race favourite.[3]

Greg LeMond had finished in third place in 1984 as a teammate of Fignon, and was also considered capable of winning the Tour. LeMond had however changed teams, and was now a teammate of Hinault. There was no clear team leader decided before the Tour; their team decided that they would ride for whoever was showing the best results.[3]

Route and stagesEdit

The 1985 Tour de France started on 28 June, and had one rest day, in Villard-de-Lans.[4]

Stage characteristics and winners[2][4][5]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 28 June Plumelec 6 km (3.7 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
1 29 June Vannes to Lanester 256 km (159 mi)   Plain stage   Rudy Matthijs (BEL)
2 30 June Lorient to Vitre 242 km (150 mi)   Plain stage   Rudy Matthijs (BEL)
3 1 July Vitre to Fougères 73 km (45 mi)   Team time trial  La Vie Claire
4 2 July Fougères to Pont-Audemer 239 km (149 mi)   Plain stage   Gerrit Solleveld (NED)
5 3 July Neufchâtel-en-Bray to Roubaix 224 km (139 mi)   Plain stage with cobblestones   Henri Manders (NED)
6 4 July Roubaix to Reims 222 km (138 mi)   Plain stage   Francis Castaing (FRA)
7 5 July Reims to Nancy 217 km (135 mi)   Plain stage   Ludwig Wijnants (BEL)
8 6 July Sarrebourg to Strasbourg 75 km (47 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
9 7 July Strasbourg to Épinal 174 km (108 mi)   Hilly stage   Maarten Ducrot (NED)
10 8 July Épinal to Pontarlier 204 km (127 mi)   Hilly stage   Jørgen V. Pedersen (DEN)
11 9 July Pontarlier to Morzine Avoriaz 195 km (121 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Luis Herrera (COL)
12 10 July Morzine Avoriaz to Lans-en-Vercors 269 km (167 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Fabio Parra (COL)
13 11 July Villard-de-Lans 32 km (20 mi)   Individual time trial   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)
12 July Villard-de-Lans Rest day
14 13 July Autrans to Saint-Étienne 179 km (111 mi)   Hilly stage   Luis Herrera (COL)
15 14 July Saint-Étienne to Aurillac 238 km (148 mi)   Plain stage   Eduardo Chozas (ESP)
16 15 July Aurillac to Toulouse 247 km (153 mi)   Plain stage   Frédéric Vichot (FRA)
17 16 July Toulouse to Luz Ardiden 209 km (130 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Pedro Delgado (ESP)
18a 17 July Luz-Saint-Sauveur to Aubisque 53 km (33 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Stephen Roche (IRE)
18b Laruns to Pau 83 km (52 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Régis Simon (FRA)
19 18 July Pau to Bordeaux 203 km (126 mi)   Plain stage   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)
20 19 July Montpon-Ménestérol to Limoges 225 km (140 mi)   Plain stage   Johan Lammerts (NED)
21 20 July Lac de Vassivière 46 km (29 mi)   Individual time trial   Greg LeMond (USA)
22 21 July Orléans to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 196 km (122 mi)   Plain stage   Rudy Matthijs (BEL)
Total 4,109 km (2,553 mi)[6]

Race overviewEdit

Bernard Hinault (pictured in 1982), winner of the general classification, his fifth

Hinault won the prologue, with LeMond in fifth place. Hinault lost the lead in the next stage to Eric Vanderaerden because of time bonuses, but the relative margin to LeMond stayed the same.[3] The La Vie Claire team showed that they were dominant by winning the team time trial in stage 3. Vanderaerden kept his lead, but places 2 to 9 in the general classification were taken by riders from the La Vie Claire team, with Hinault in second place and LeMond in fourth place. In the fourth stage, Kim Andersen from the La Vie Claire team was part of a successful breakaway, and became the new leader.[3] LeMond collected some time bonuses in the fifth and sixth stage, which put him two seconds ahead of Hinault in the general classification. In the sixth stage, he initially finished fourth, but initial winner Vanderaerden and second-placed Sean Kelly were relegated for not sprinting according to the rules, making Francis Castaing the stage winner.[3] Hinault was a time trial expert, which he showed in the individual time trial of stage 8. He beat all the other cyclists by more than two minutes, and became the new leader in the general classification. In that time trial, Dietrich Thurau was penalised for drafting to close to another cyclist. At the start of the next stage, Thurau was still angry and attacked a race official, and was removed from the race.[3]

The next challenge for the general classification was in the first mountain stage, stage eleven. Hinault attacked early in the stage, together with Luis Herrera. Herrera was already far behind in the general classification, but was interested in the mountains classification. Hinault and Herrera worked together: Hinault was only interested in the time gains, and Herrera was only interested in reaching the mountain tops first. Herrera won the stage, with Hinault seven seconds back. LeMond had to stay in the next group, because team tactics did not allow him to attack his teammate.[3] Stage thirteen was run as an individual time trial. Hinault was not so strong anymore, and did not win the stage, but still won time on LeMond, who was now in second place in the general classification, more than five minutes behind Hinault.[3] In stage fourteen, Herrera attacked early again to win points for the mountain classification. He was followed by a group of eight cyclists, including LeMond but not Hinault. Herrera won the stage, with the LeMond group reaching the finish one minute later. One minute after that, the group with Hinault reached the finish, but less than one kilometer from the finish, Hinault and five other cyclists crashed. The rules of the Tour says that time losses due to crashes in the last kilometer are not counted, but a cyclists has to reach the finish on his own strengths. Hinault, still on the ground, was checked by the Tour doctor for some minutes, but was able to get back on his bike and finish the stage, his face all covered with blood. His nose was broken, and breathing was more difficult than normal.[3]

Hinault survived the next two flat stages, but ran into problems in the seventeenth stage, with the Col d'Aspin, the Col du Tourmalet and Luz Ardiden. On the Tourmalet, Hinault had to let LeMond, Stephen Roche and Pedro Delgado go. Delgado then left on his own, with Roche chasing him, and LeMond staying close to Roche, who was the biggest threat in the general classification. LeMond felt that he was stronger, and asked his team director Paul Koechli permission to attack. Koechli refused that, and told LeMond to stay with Roche. LeMond stayed with Roche while some other cyclists caught up and Herrera and Fabio Parra went clear of the group. At the end of the stage, LeMond finished almost three minutes behind Delgado, with Hinault a further minute behind. In the general classification, Hinault remained in front, with LeMond 2 minutes 25 seconds behind.[3] LeMond was frustrated after the stage, because he felt that he could have won the stage, and could have led the general classification for a few days. Hinault, who knew that his Tour victory was now certain only because LeMond had been waiting for him, promised that in the next edition, he would help LeMond to win the Tour.[3] In the remaining stages, Hinaults lead was not seriously challenged. LeMond was able to win the individual time trial in stage 21, his first Tour stage victory.[7]

Classification leadershipEdit

The 1985 Tour de France combination classification jersey won by Greg LeMond

There were several classifications in the 1985 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders.[8] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[9]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[10] The system for the points classification was changed for the 1987 Tour: in previous years, more points were earned in flat stages than in mountain stages, which gave sprinters an advantage in this classification; in 1984 all stages gave 25 points for the winner.[11]

There was also a mountains classification. The points system for the classification was changed: mountains in the toughest categories gave more points, to reduce the influence of the minor hills on this classification.[11] The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[12]

The combination jersey for the combination classification was introduced in 1985.[11] This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications.[13]

Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[13]

The sixth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. Its leader wore a red jersey.[14]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps.[14] There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.[14]

In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after each mass-start stage to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner.[15] At the conclusion of the Tour, Maarten Ducrot won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists.[4] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass the summit of the Col du Tourmalet on stage 17. This prize was won by Pello Ruiz Cabestany.[16]

Classification leadership table[17][18]
Stage Stage winner General classification
Points classification
Mountains classification
Young rider classification
Combination classification
Intermediate sprints classification
Team classifications Combativity award
By time By points
P Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Steve Bauer Bernard Hinault no award La Vie Claire La Vie Claire no award
1 Rudy Matthijs Eric Vanderaerden Eric Vanderaerden Maarten Ducrot Eric Vanderaerden Maarten Ducrot La Redoute Theo de Rooij
2 Rudy Matthijs Eric Vanderaerden Joël Pelier
3 La Vie Claire no award
4 Gerrit Solleveld Kim Andersen Adri van der Poel Kim Andersen Sean Kelly Peugeot–Shell–Michelin Gerard Veldscholten
5 Henri Manders Eric Vanderaerden La Redoute Marc Gomez
6 Francis Castaing Kim Andersen Peugeot–Shell–Michelin Bernard Vallet
7 Ludwig Wijnants Eric Vanderaerden Panasonic–Raleigh Yves Godimus
8 Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Sean Kelly Sean Kelly La Vie Claire no award
9 Maarten Ducrot Luis Herrera Greg LeMond Niki Rüttimann
10 Jørgen V. Pedersen Alain Bondue
11 Luis Herrera Thierry Claveyrolat
12 Fabio Parra Jozef Lieckens Luis Herrera
13 Eric Vanderaerden no award
14 Luis Herrera
15 Eduardo Chozas Alain Vigneron
16 Frédéric Vichot Joël Pelier
17 Pedro Delgado Fabio Parra Niki Rüttimann
18a Stephen Roche Sean Kelly Phil Anderson
18b Régis Simon
19 Eric Vanderaerden Phil Anderson
20 Johan Lammerts
21 Greg LeMond Greg LeMond no award
22 Rudy Matthijs Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle
Final Bernard Hinault Sean Kelly Luis Herrera Fabio Parra Greg LeMond Jozef Lieckens La Vie Claire La Vie Claire Maarten Ducrot

Final standingsEdit

  Denotes the winner of the general classification   Denotes the winner of the points classification
  Denotes the winner of the mountains classification   Denotes the winner of the young rider classification
  Denotes the winner of the combination classification   Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[2][19][20]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 113h 24' 23"
2   Greg LeMond (USA)   La Vie Claire + 1' 42"
3   Stephen Roche (IRE) La Redoute + 4' 29"
4   Sean Kelly (IRE)   Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko + 6' 26"
5   Phil Anderson (AUS) Panasonic–Raleigh + 7' 44"
6   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Seat–Orbea + 11' 53"
7   Luis Herrera (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic + 12' 53"
8   Fabio Parra (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic + 13' 35"
9   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds + 13' 56"
10   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire + 14' 57"

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–10)[20][19][21]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Sean Kelly (IRE)   Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko 434
2   Greg LeMond (USA)   La Vie Claire 332
3   Stephen Roche (IRE) La Redoute 279
4   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 266
5   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL) Panasonic–Raleigh 258
6   Phil Anderson (AUS) Panasonic–Raleigh 244
7   Adri van der Poel (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 199
8   Luis Herrera (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 195
9   Benny Van Brabant (BEL) Tönissteiner–TW Rock–BASF 192
10   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Seat–Orbea 156

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[19][21]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Luis Herrera (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 440
2   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Seat–Orbea 274
3   Robert Millar (GBR) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 270
4   Greg LeMond (USA)   La Vie Claire 214
5   Reynel Montoya (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 190
6   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 165
7   Claudio Fasolo (ITA) Santini 136
8   Fabio Parra (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 133
9   Stephen Roche (IRE) La Redoute 130
10   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds 113

Young rider classificationEdit

Final young rider classification (1–10)[19][20][21][22]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Fabio Parra (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 113h 37' 58"
2   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds + 21"
3   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire + 1' 22"
4   Robert Forest (FRA) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 4' 10"
5   Álvaro Pino (ESP) Zor–Gemeaz Cusin + 8' 00"
6   Thierry Claveyrolat (FRA) La Redoute + 25' 41"
7   Jesús Rodríguez Magro (ESP) Zor–Gemeaz Cusin + 26' 03"
8   Charly Mottet (FRA) Renault–Elf + 29' 22"
9   Iñaki Gastón (ESP) Reynolds + 32' 18"
10   Faustino Rupérez (ESP) Zor–Gemeaz Cusin + 32' 37"

Combination classificationEdit

Final combination classification (1–10)[19][21]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Greg LeMond (USA)   La Vie Claire 91
2   Sean Kelly (IRE)   Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko 85
3   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 76
4   Stephen Roche (IRE) La Redoute 63
5   Luis Herrera (COL)   Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 62
6   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Seat–Orbea 60
7   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds 57
8   Kim Andersen (DEN) La Vie Claire 56
9   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire 51
10   Adrie van der Poel (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 47

Intermediate sprints classificationEdit

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[19][21][20][23]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Jozef Lieckens (BEL)   Lotto 162
2   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds 67
3   Sean Kelly (IRE)   Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko 59
4   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire 54
5   Greg LeMond (USA)   La Vie Claire 51
6   Frédéric Vichot (FRA) Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko 47
7   Denis Roux (FRA) Renault–Elf 38
8   Carlos Jaramillo (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic 32
9   Álvaro Pino (ESP) Zor–Gemeaz Cusin 32
10   Adri van der Poel (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 26

Team classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–10)[19][21]
Rank Team Time
1 La Vie Claire 340h 21' 09"
2 Panasonic–Raleigh + 27' 10"
3 Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 40' 54"
4 Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko + 46' 51"
5 La Redoute + 53' 57"
6 Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic + 1h 05' 24"
7 Reynolds + 1h 11' 28"
8 Zor–Gemeaz Cusin + 1h 25' 42"
9 Renault–Elf + 1h 26' 54"
10 Carrera–Inoxpran + 1h 30' 18"

Team points classificationEdit

Final team points classification (1–10)[19][21]
Rank Team Points
1 La Vie Claire 1095
2 Panasonic–Raleigh 1268
3 Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko 1475
4 Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 1579
5 La Redoute 1727
6 Lotto 1802
7 Hitachi–Splendor–Sunair 1832
8 Lotto 1858
9 Tönissteiner–TW Rock–BASF 2461
10 Renault–Elf 2471


In previous years, cyclists tied their shoes to their pedals with toe-clips, allowing them to not only push the pedals down but also pull them up. In 1985, Hinault had used clip-ins (clipless pedals), which allowed the shoes to snap into the pedal. His victory in this Tour made these clip-ins popular.[24]

There was some criticism that the time trials were too important. If the time trials would have not counted towards the general classification, the result would have been as follows:[25]

Rank Name Team Time gap
1   Luis Herrera (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic
2   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Seat–Orbea + 16"
3   Greg LeMond (USA) La Vie Claire + 2' 28"
4   Fabio Parra (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic + 2' 52"
5   Stephen Roche (IRE) La Redoute + 4' 22"
6   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Reynolds + 4' 27"
7   Sean Kelly (IRE) Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko + 4' 32"
8   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire + 4' 47"
9   Robert Millar (GBR) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 6' 21"
10   Peter Winnen (NED) Panasonic–Raleigh + 6' 55"

The total length of the time trials reduced from 223 kilometres (139 mi) in 1985 to 180 kilometres (110 mi) in 1986.[26] Tour director Levitan felt after the 1985 Tour de France that the race had been too easy, and made the course in 1986 extra difficult, including more mountain climbs than before.[27]

After every stage, around four cyclists had been selected for the doping controls. None of these cyclists tested positive for doping.[28]


  1. ^ "Record-aantal ploegen in Tour". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 15 June 1985. p. 23. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "72ème Tour de France 1985" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965–2007. Dog Ear Publishering. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Augendre 2016, p. 76.
  5. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC top ten". Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  6. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 110.
  7. ^ "1985 Tour de France". Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  8. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  9. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  10. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  11. ^ a b c "Ruim ton voor winnaar". Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 28 June 1985. p. 21. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  12. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  13. ^ a b Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  14. ^ a b c Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  15. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  16. ^ "Greg Lemond gevangen in keurslijf" [Greg Lemond caught in straitjacket]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 17 July 1985. p. 17 – via Delpher.
  17. ^ "Dag na dag" [Day to day]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 22 July 1985. p. 23. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019.
  18. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1985" [Information about the Tour de France from 1985]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Clasificaciones oficiales". Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 22 July 1985. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  20. ^ a b c d "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 22 July 1985. p. 10 – via Regionaal Archief Leiden.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "Tour de France". Het Parool (in Dutch). 22 July 1985. p. 14 – via Delpher.
  22. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het jongerenklassement – Etappe 22" [Standings in the youth classification – Stage 22]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  23. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Sprintdoorkomsten in de Tour de France 1985" [Sprint results in the Tour de France 1985]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  24. ^ Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill (2011). Historical Dictionary of Cycling. Historical dictionaries of sports. Scarecrow Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8108-7175-5.
  25. ^ Nelissen, Jean (22 July 1985). "Hinault populairder dan ooit". Leidsche Courant (in Dutch). Regionaal Archief Leiden. p. 9. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  26. ^ "73ème Tour de France 1986" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  27. ^ "Hinault boos op Tourbaas Levitan". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Regionaal archief Leiden. 9 October 1985. p. 15. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  28. ^ "Geen nieuws van het dopingfront". Leidsche Courant (in Dutch). Regionaal Archief Leiden. 22 July 1985. p. 11. Retrieved 29 April 2012.


External linksEdit

  Media related to 1985 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons