1985 Tour de France
The 1985 Tour de France was the 72nd Tour de France, taking place between 28 June and 21 July, over 4,109 km (2,553 mi) in 22 stages and a prologue.
Route of the 1985 Tour de France
|Dates||28 June – 21 July|
|Stages||22 + Prologue, including one split stage|
|Distance||4,109 km (2,553 mi)|
|Winning time||113h 24' 23"|
Bernard Hinault would attempt to equal the records of Jacques Anquetil and Eddy Merckx who had each won the Tour de France five times. Hinault was unable to compete due to tendinitis in 1983. In 1984 Hinault had finished second to Laurent Fignon, and was threatened by Greg LeMond who ended in third position on the final podium. In order to ensure the best support, Hinault's La Vie Claire team recruited LeMond for the 1985 tour. In return for his support, Hinault promised on television that he would support LeMond the following year in the 1986 Tour de France.
Despite crashing on a fast descent and riding with black eyes due to his injuries, Hinault won and publicly again stated his promise to help LeMond the following year.
- 1 Teams
- 2 Pre-race favourites
- 3 Route and stages
- 4 Race overview
- 5 Classification leadership
- 6 Final standings
- 7 Aftermath
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
In June 1985, 21 teams had requested to start in the 1985 Tour. Three Italian teams, (Gis, Alpilatte and Malvor) withdrew, so the 1985 Tour started with 18 teams. Each team had 10 cyclists, so the 1985 Tour started with 180 cyclists.
The teams entering the race were:
Laurent Fignon, the winner of the 1984 Tour de France was injured, and could not defend his title. Riding for the La Vie Claire team, Bernard Hinault, who already had won the Tour de France four times, and finished second in the previous edition, was the main pre-race favourite.
Greg LeMond had finished in third place in 1984 as a teammate of Fignon, and was also considered capable of winning the Tour. LeMond had however changed teams, and was now a teammate of Hinault. There was no clear team leader decided before the Tour; their team decided that they would ride for whoever was showing the best results.
Route and stagesEdit
|P||28 June||Plumelec||6 km (3.7 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|1||29 June||Vannes to Lanester||256 km (159 mi)||Plain stage||Rudy Matthijs (BEL)|
|2||30 June||Lorient to Vitre||242 km (150 mi)||Plain stage||Rudy Matthijs (BEL)|
|3||1 July||Vitre to Fougères||73 km (45 mi)||Team time trial||La Vie Claire|
|4||2 July||Fougères to Pont-Audemer||239 km (149 mi)||Plain stage||Gerrit Solleveld (NED)|
|5||3 July||Neufchâtel-en-Bray to Roubaix||224 km (139 mi)||Plain stage with cobblestones||Henri Manders (NED)|
|6||4 July||Roubaix to Reims||222 km (138 mi)||Plain stage||Francis Castaing (FRA)|
|7||5 July||Reims to Nancy||217 km (135 mi)||Plain stage||Ludwig Wijnants (BEL)|
|8||6 July||Sarrebourg to Strasbourg||75 km (47 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|9||7 July||Strasbourg to Épinal||174 km (108 mi)||Hilly stage||Maarten Ducrot (NED)|
|10||8 July||Épinal to Pontarlier||204 km (127 mi)||Hilly stage||Jørgen V. Pedersen (DEN)|
|11||9 July||Pontarlier to Morzine Avoriaz||195 km (121 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Luis Herrera (COL)|
|12||10 July||Morzine Avoriaz to Lans-en-Vercors||269 km (167 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Fabio Parra (COL)|
|13||11 July||Villard-de-Lans||32 km (20 mi)||Individual time trial||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)|
|12 July||Villard-de-Lans||Rest day|
|14||13 July||Autrans to Saint-Étienne||179 km (111 mi)||Hilly stage||Luis Herrera (COL)|
|15||14 July||Saint-Étienne to Aurillac||238 km (148 mi)||Plain stage||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)|
|16||15 July||Aurillac to Toulouse||247 km (153 mi)||Plain stage||Frédéric Vichot (FRA)|
|17||16 July||Toulouse to Luz Ardiden||209 km (130 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Pedro Delgado (ESP)|
|18a||17 July||Luz-Saint-Sauveur to Aubisque||53 km (33 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Stephen Roche (IRE)|
|18b||Laruns to Pau||83 km (52 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Régis Simon (FRA)|
|19||18 July||Pau to Bordeaux||203 km (126 mi)||Plain stage||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)|
|20||19 July||Montpon-Ménestérol to Limoges||225 km (140 mi)||Plain stage||Johan Lammerts (NED)|
|21||20 July||Lac de Vassivière||46 km (29 mi)||Individual time trial||Greg LeMond (USA)|
|22||21 July||Orléans to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||196 km (122 mi)||Plain stage||Rudy Matthijs (BEL)|
|Total||4,109 km (2,553 mi)|
Hinault won the prologue, with LeMond in fifth place. Hinault lost the lead in the next stage to Eric Vanderaerden because of time bonuses, but the relative margin to LeMond stayed the same. The La Vie Claire team showed that they were dominant by winning the team time trial in stage 3. Vanderaerden kept his lead, but places 2 to 9 in the general classification were taken by riders from the La Vie Claire team, with Hinault in second place and LeMond in fourth place. In the fourth stage, Kim Andersen from the La Vie Claire team was part of a successful breakaway, and became the new leader. LeMond collected some time bonuses in the fifth and sixth stage, which put him two seconds ahead of Hinault in the general classification. In the sixth stage, he initially finished fourth, but initial winner Vanderaerden and second-placed Sean Kelly were relegated for not sprinting according to the rules, making Francis Castaing the stage winner. Hinault was a time trial expert, which he showed in the individual time trial of stage 8. He beat all the other cyclists by more than two minutes, and became the new leader in the general classification. In that time trial, Dietrich Thurau was penalised for drafting to close to another cyclist. At the start of the next stage, Thurau was still angry and attacked a race official, and was removed from the race.
The next challenge for the general classification was in the first mountain stage, stage eleven. Hinault attacked early in the stage, together with Luis Herrera. Herrera was already far behind in the general classification, but was interested in the mountains classification. Hinault and Herrera worked together: Hinault was only interested in the time gains, and Herrera was only interested in reaching the mountain tops first. Herrera won the stage, with Hinault seven seconds back. LeMond had to stay in the next group, because team tactics did not allow him to attack his teammate. Stage thirteen was run as an individual time trial. Hinault was not so strong anymore, and did not win the stage, but still won time on LeMond, who was now in second place in the general classification, more than five minutes behind Hinault. In stage fourteen, Herrera attacked early again to win points for the mountain classification. He was followed by a group of eight cyclists, including LeMond but not Hinault. Herrera won the stage, with the LeMond group reaching the finish one minute later. One minute after that, the group with Hinault reached the finish, but less than one kilometer from the finish, Hinault and five other cyclists crashed. The rules of the Tour says that time losses due to crashes in the last kilometer are not counted, but a cyclists has to reach the finish on his own strengths. Hinault, still on the ground, was checked by the Tour doctor for some minutes, but was able to get back on his bike and finish the stage, his face all covered with blood. His nose was broken, and breathing was more difficult than normal.
Hinault survived the next two flat stages, but ran into problems in the seventeenth stage, with the Col d'Aspin, the Col du Tourmalet and Luz Ardiden. On the Tourmalet, Hinault had to let LeMond, Stephen Roche and Pedro Delgado go. Delgado then left on his own, with Roche chasing him, and LeMond staying close to Roche, who was the biggest threat in the general classification. LeMond felt that he was stronger, and asked his team director Paul Koechli permission to attack. Koechli refused that, and told LeMond to stay with Roche. LeMond stayed with Roche while some other cyclists caught up and Herrera and Fabio Parra went clear of the group. At the end of the stage, LeMond finished almost three minutes behind Delgado, with Hinault a further minute behind. In the general classification, Hinault remained in front, with LeMond 2 minutes 25 seconds behind. LeMond was frustrated after the stage, because he felt that he could have won the stage, and could have led the general classification for a few days. Hinault, who knew that his Tour victory was now certain only because LeMond had been waiting for him, promised that in the next edition, he would help LeMond to win the Tour. In the remaining stages, Hinaults lead was not seriously challenged. LeMond was able to win the individual time trial in stage 21, his first Tour stage victory.
There were several classifications in the 1985 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey. The system for the points classification was changed for the 1987 Tour: in previous years, more points were earned in flat stages than in mountain stages, which gave sprinters an advantage in this classification; in 1984 all stages gave 25 points for the winner.
There was also a mountains classification. The points system for the classification was changed: mountains in the toughest categories gave more points, to reduce the influence of the minor hills on this classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.
Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
The sixth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. Its leader wore a red jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps. There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.
In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after each mass-start stage to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner. At the conclusion of the Tour, Maarten Ducrot won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists. The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass the summit of the Col du Tourmalet on stage 17. This prize was won by Pello Ruiz Cabestany.
- In stage 21, Greg LeMond wore the technicolor jersey.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|Denotes the winner of the combination classification||Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification|
|1||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||113h 24' 23"|
|2||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||+ 1' 42"|
|3||Stephen Roche (IRE)||La Redoute||+ 4' 29"|
|4||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||+ 6' 26"|
|5||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Panasonic–Raleigh||+ 7' 44"|
|6||Pedro Delgado (ESP)||Seat–Orbea||+ 11' 53"|
|7||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||+ 12' 53"|
|8||Fabio Parra (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||+ 13' 35"|
|9||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||+ 13' 56"|
|10||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||+ 14' 57"|
|1||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||434|
|2||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||332|
|3||Stephen Roche (IRE)||La Redoute||279|
|4||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||266|
|5||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)||Panasonic–Raleigh||258|
|6||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Panasonic–Raleigh||244|
|7||Adri van der Poel (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||199|
|8||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||195|
|9||Benny Van Brabant (BEL)||Tönissteiner–TW Rock–BASF||192|
|10||Pedro Delgado (ESP)||Seat–Orbea||156|
|1||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||440|
|2||Pedro Delgado (ESP)||Seat–Orbea||274|
|3||Robert Millar (GBR)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||270|
|4||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||214|
|5||Reynel Montoya (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||190|
|6||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||165|
|7||Claudio Fasolo (ITA)||Santini||136|
|8||Fabio Parra (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||133|
|9||Stephen Roche (IRE)||La Redoute||130|
|10||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||113|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Fabio Parra (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||113h 37' 58"|
|2||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||+ 21"|
|3||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||+ 1' 22"|
|4||Robert Forest (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 4' 10"|
|5||Álvaro Pino (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||+ 8' 00"|
|6||Thierry Claveyrolat (FRA)||La Redoute||+ 25' 41"|
|7||Jesús Rodríguez Magro (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||+ 26' 03"|
|8||Charly Mottet (FRA)||Renault–Elf||+ 29' 22"|
|9||Iñaki Gastón (ESP)||Reynolds||+ 32' 18"|
|10||Faustino Rupérez (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||+ 32' 37"|
|1||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||91|
|2||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||85|
|3||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||76|
|4||Stephen Roche (IRE)||La Redoute||63|
|5||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||62|
|6||Pedro Delgado (ESP)||Seat–Orbea||60|
|7||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||57|
|8||Kim Andersen (DEN)||La Vie Claire||56|
|9||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||51|
|10||Adrie van der Poel (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||47|
Intermediate sprints classificationEdit
|1||Jozef Lieckens (BEL)||Lotto||162|
|2||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||67|
|3||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||59|
|4||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||54|
|5||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||51|
|6||Frédéric Vichot (FRA)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||47|
|7||Denis Roux (FRA)||Renault–Elf||38|
|8||Carlos Jaramillo (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||32|
|9||Álvaro Pino (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||32|
|10||Adri van der Poel (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||26|
|1||La Vie Claire||340h 21' 09"|
|2||Panasonic–Raleigh||+ 27' 10"|
|3||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 40' 54"|
|4||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||+ 46' 51"|
|5||La Redoute||+ 53' 57"|
|6||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||+ 1h 05' 24"|
|7||Reynolds||+ 1h 11' 28"|
|8||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||+ 1h 25' 42"|
|9||Renault–Elf||+ 1h 26' 54"|
|10||Carrera–Inoxpran||+ 1h 30' 18"|
Team points classificationEdit
|1||La Vie Claire||1095|
In previous years, cyclists tied their shoes to their pedals with toe-clips, allowing them to not only push the pedals down but also pull them up. In 1985, Hinault had used clip-ins (clipless pedals), which allowed the shoes to snap into the pedal. His victory in this Tour made these clip-ins popular.
There was some criticism that the time trials were too important. If the time trials would have not counted towards the general classification, the result would have been as follows:
|1||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic|
|2||Pedro Delgado (ESP)||Seat–Orbea||+ 16"|
|3||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||+ 2' 28"|
|4||Fabio Parra (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia–Mavic||+ 2' 52"|
|5||Stephen Roche (IRE)||La Redoute||+ 4' 22"|
|6||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Reynolds||+ 4' 27"|
|7||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko||+ 4' 32"|
|8||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||+ 4' 47"|
|9||Robert Millar (GBR)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 6' 21"|
|10||Peter Winnen (NED)||Panasonic–Raleigh||+ 6' 55"|
The total length of the time trials reduced from 223 kilometres (139 mi) in 1985 to 180 kilometres (110 mi) in 1986. Tour director Levitan felt after the 1985 Tour de France that the race had been too easy, and made the course in 1986 extra difficult, including more mountain climbs than before.
After every stage, around four cyclists had been selected for the doping controls. None of these cyclists tested positive for doping.
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