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Points classification in the Tour de France

The points classification (French: classement par points) is a secondary competition in the Tour de France, which started in 1953. Points are given for high finishes in a stage and for winning intermediate sprints, and these are recorded in a points classification. It is considered a sprinters' competition. The leader is indicated by a green jersey (French: maillot vert), which has become a metonym for the points classification competition.

Green jersey
Tour de France 2016, Stage 18 - Sallanches to Megève (28351572514).jpg
The 2016 green jersey, worn by Peter Sagan
SportRoad bicycle racing
CompetitionTour de France
Given forBest sprinter
Local nameMaillot vert  (French)
History
First award1953
Editions67 (as of 2019)
First winner Fritz Schär (SUI)
Most wins Peter Sagan (SVK)
7 wins
Most recent Peter Sagan (SVK)

The system has inspired many other cycling races; the other two Grand Tours have also installed points classifications: the Vuelta a España since 1955, also using a green jersey, and the Giro d'Italia since 1966.

Contents

HistoryEdit

After scandals in the 1904 Tour de France, the rules of the 1905 Tour de France were changed: the winner was no longer determined by the time system, but with the points system. The cyclists received points, equal to their ranking in the stage, and the cyclist with the fewest points was the leader of the race. After the 1912 Tour de France, the system was changed back to the time system that is still in use.

In the 1953 Tour de France, to celebrate the 50th birthday of the Tour de France, the points system was reintroduced, but this time as an additional classification. Because the leader in the general classification wears a yellow jersey, the leader in the points classification also received a special jersey, a green jersey. The color green was chosen because the sponsor was a lawn mower producer.

In the first years, the cyclist only received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey. From 1959 on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes (with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points), so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.

1968 is the only year the jersey was not green: for that edition of the race, the jersey was red to match a new sponsor.[1][2]

Whereas the yellow jersey is awarded for the lowest cumulative time in the race, the green jersey reflects points gained for high placings on each stage and intermediate "hot spots", especially during the flat stages of the Tour. The intermediate sprints were formerly for the intermediate sprints classification, with the points for the points classification a 'side-effect'; however, the intermediate sprints classification was later scrapped, but the intermediate sprints remained part of the points classification.

The points classification is widely thought of as the "sprinter's competition", since the most points are scored in flat stages, in which the riders generally remain together in one large peloton, leaving the best sprinters at the end to fight for the stage win.[3] However, to win the competition a rider will need a reasonable level of all-round skills as well as strong sprinting, since he will need to finish within the time limit on mountain stages to remain in contention, and ideally will be able to contest intermediate sprints during mountain stages as well. For example, Mario Cipollini was one of the best sprinters of his era but was never in contention for the points classification because he was unwilling to make it through the mountain stages and finish the race (however, he did finish the Giro d'Italia and won its points classification several times).

On four occasions, the winner of the points classification was also the winner of the general classification: three times by Eddy Merckx, and once by Bernard Hinault. In 1969, Eddy Merckx won the general classification, the points classification and the mountains classification (the polka dot jersey was born in 1975), a unique performance in the Tour de France, but as he was leading the race, he cannot conceivably wear all jerseys, so while he wore the yellow jersey, the green-jersey is worn by the person who is second in the standings.

Peter Sagan set the record for the most stages in the lead of a Tour de France classification, wearing the green-jersey for 100 days through stage 18 of the 2018 Tour de France.

Points systemEdit

CurrentEdit

As of 2019, the points classification is calculated by adding up the points collected in the stage and subtracting penalty points. Points are awarded for the first cyclists to cross the finish-line or the intermediate sprint line,[3] and for the cyclists with the fastest times in the prologue or individual time trials, under the following scheme:[4]

Current points classification
Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th
  "flat" stage finish 50 30 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
  "hilly finish/medium mountain" stage finish 30 25 22 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 4 3 2
  "high mountain" stage finish 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  individual time trial 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
intermediate sprint 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Riders can lose points for various infractions to the rules, which means some riders finish the Tour with a negative points tally.[5]

Before the start of the Tour de France, the organization declares which stages are considered "flat", "medium mountain" or "high mountain". Flat stages typically have few or no categorized climbs (several 4th category and an occasional 3rd category), medium mountain stages have numerous climbs, typically 2nd and 3rd category, and high mountain stages have numerous large climbs, often 1st category or hors categorie.

When the order in which cyclists crossed the line cannot be determined or when cyclists score exactly the same time in the prologue/individual time trial, the cyclists divide the points (rounded up to the nearest 1/2 point). A cyclist that does not finish a stage is removed from the points classification. After every stage, the leader in the points classification is given a green jersey. In the event of a tie in the ranking, the cyclist with the most stage victories is the leader. If that is also a tie, the number of intermediate sprint victories indicates the leader. If that is also a tie, the general classification determines the leader. At the end of the Tour de France, the cyclist leading the points classification is the winner of the green jersey.

HistoricalEdit

The rules have varied over the years. When the system started in 1953, the ranks of each cyclist in a stage were added, and the cyclist with the lowest number of points won. Later, points were given to the first few cyclists in each stage. Even later, the point system started to differentiate for stage type, typically assigning more points to flat stages. Intermediate sprints were also given points.

In 2009, the system had evolved to the following, with either two or three intermediate sprints per stage:[6]

Points classification in 2009
Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
  "flat" stage finish 35 30 26 24 22 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  "medium mountain" stage finish 25 22 20 18 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  "high mountain" stage finish 20 17 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  prologue/individual time trial 15 12 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1
intermediate sprint 6 4 2

Starting from the 2011 Tour de France, a system very similar to the current one was used:[7]

Points classification in 2011
Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th
  "flat" stage finish 45 35 30 26 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
  "hilly finish/medium mountain" stage finish 30 25 22 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 4 3 2
  "high mountain" stage finish 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  individual time trial 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
intermediate sprint 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

WinnersEdit

Year Winner Points Second place Points Third place Points
1953   Fritz Schär (SUI) 271   Fiorenzo Magni (ITA) 307   Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) 406
1954   Ferdinand Kübler (SUI) 215.5   Stan Ockers (BEL) 284.5   Fritz Schär (SUI) 286.5
1955   Stan Ockers (BEL) 322   Wout Wagtmans (NED) 399   Miguel Poblet (ESP) 409
1956   Stan Ockers (BEL) 280   Fernand Picot (FRA) 464   Gerrit Voorting (NED) 465
1957   Jean Forestier (FRA) 301   Wim van Est (NED) 317   Adolf Christian (SUI) 366
1958   Jean Graczyk (FRA) 347   Joseph Planckaert (BEL) 406   André Darrigade (FRA) 553
1959   André Darrigade (FRA) 613   Gérard Saint (FRA) 524   Jacques Anquetil (FRA) 503
1960   Jean Graczyk (FRA) 74   Graziano Battistini (ITA) 40   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) 35
1961   André Darrigade (FRA) 174   Jean Gainche (FRA) 169   Guido Carlesi (ITA) 148
1962   Rudi Altig (FRG) 173   Emile Daems (BEL) 144   Jean Graczyk (FRA) 140
1963   Rik Van Looy (BEL) 275   Jacques Anquetil (FRA) 138   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) 123
1964   Jan Janssen (NED) 208   Edward Sels (BEL) 199   Rudi Altig (FRG) 165
1965   Jan Janssen (NED) 144   Guido Reybrouck (BEL) 130   Felice Gimondi (ITA) 124
1966   Willy Planckaert (BEL) 211   Gerben Karstens (NED) 189   Edward Sels (BEL) 178
1967   Jan Janssen (NED) 154   Guido Reybrouck (BEL) 119   Georges Vandenberghe (BEL) 111
1968   Franco Bitossi (ITA) 241   Walter Godefroot (BEL) 219   Jan Janssen (NED) 200
1969   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 244   Jan Janssen (NED) 149   Marinus Wagtmans (NED) 136
1970   Walter Godefroot (BEL) 212   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 207   Marino Basso (ITA) 161
1971   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 202   Cyrille Guimard (FRA) 186   Gerben Karstens (NED) 107
1972   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 196   Rik Van Linden (BEL) 135   Joop Zoetemelk (NED) 132
1973   Herman Van Springel (BEL) 187   Joop Zoetemelk (NED) 168   Luis Ocaña (ESP) 145
1974   Patrick Sercu (BEL) 283   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 270   Barry Hoban (GBR) 170
1975   Rik Van Linden (BEL) 342   Eddy Merckx (BEL) 240   Francesco Moser (ITA) 199
1976   Freddy Maertens (BEL) 293   Pierino Gavazzi (ITA) 140   Jacques Esclassan (FRA) 128
1977   Jacques Esclassan (FRA) 236   Giacinto Santambrogio (ITA) 140   Dietrich Thurau (GER) 137
1978   Freddy Maertens (BEL) 242   Jacques Esclassan (FRA) 189   Bernard Hinault (FRA) 123
1979   Bernard Hinault (FRA) 253   Dietrich Thurau (GER) 157   Joop Zoetemelk (NED) 109
1980   Rudy Pevenage (BEL) 194   Sean Kelly (IRL) 153   Ludo Peeters (BEL) 148
1981   Freddy Maertens (BEL) 428   William Tackaert (BEL) 222   Bernard Hinault (FRA) 184
1982   Sean Kelly (IRL) 429   Bernard Hinault (FRA) 152   Phil Anderson (AUS) 149
1983   Sean Kelly (IRL) 360   Frits Pirard (NED) 144   Laurent Fignon (FRA) 126
1984   Frank Hoste (BEL) 322   Sean Kelly (IRL) 318   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL) 247
1985   Sean Kelly (IRL) 434   Greg LeMond (USA) 332   Stephen Roche (IRL) 279
1986   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL) 277   Jozef Lieckens (BEL) 232   Bernard Hinault (FRA) 210
1987   Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED) 263   Stephen Roche (IRL) 247   Pedro Delgado (ESP) 228
1988   Eddy Planckaert (BEL) 278   Davis Phinney (USA) 193   Sean Kelly (IRL) 183
1989   Sean Kelly (IRL) 277   Etienne De Wilde (BEL) 194   Steven Rooks (NED) 163
1990   Olaf Ludwig (GDR) 256   Johan Museeuw (BEL) 221   Erik Breukink (NED) 118
1991   Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (URS) 316   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) 263   Olaf Ludwig (GER) 175
1992   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) 293   Johan Museeuw (BEL) 262   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) 202
1993   Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB) 298   Johan Museeuw (BEL) 157   Maximillian Sciandri (ITA) 153
1994   Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB) 322   Silvio Martinello (ITA) 273   Ján Svorada (SVK) 230
1995   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) 333   Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB) 271   Miguel Indurain (ESP) 180
1996   Erik Zabel (GER) 335   Frederic Moncassin (FRA) 284   Fabio Baldato (ITA) 255
1997   Erik Zabel (GER) 350   Frederic Moncassin (FRA) 223   Mario Traversoni (ITA) 198
1998   Erik Zabel (GER) 327   Stuart O'Grady (AUS) 230   Tom Steels (BEL) 221
1999   Erik Zabel (GER) 323   Stuart O'Grady (AUS) 275   Christophe Capelle (FRA) 196
2000   Erik Zabel (GER) 321   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 203   Romans Vainšteins (LAT) 184
2001   Erik Zabel (GER) 252   Stuart O'Grady (AUS) 244   Damien Nazon (FRA) 169
2002   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 280   Erik Zabel (GER) 261   Stuart O'Grady (AUS) 208
2003   Baden Cooke (AUS) 216   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 214   Erik Zabel (GER) 188
2004   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 272   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 247   Erik Zabel (GER) 245
2005   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 194   Stuart O'Grady (AUS) 182   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 178
2006   Robbie McEwen (AUS) 288   Erik Zabel (GER) 199   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 195
2007   Tom Boonen (BEL) 256   Robert Hunter (RSA) 234   Erik Zabel (GER) 232
2008   Óscar Freire (ESP) 270   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 220   Erik Zabel (GER) 217
2009   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 280   Mark Cavendish (GBR) 270   Gerald Ciolek (GER) 172
2010   Alessandro Petacchi (ITA) 243   Mark Cavendish (GBR) 232   Thor Hushovd (NOR) 222
2011   Mark Cavendish (GBR) 334   José Joaquín Rojas (ESP) 272   Philippe Gilbert (BEL) 236
2012   Peter Sagan (SVK) 421   André Greipel (GER) 280   Matthew Goss (AUS) 260
2013   Peter Sagan (SVK) 409   Mark Cavendish (GBR) 312   André Greipel (GER) 267
2014   Peter Sagan (SVK) 431   Alexander Kristoff (NOR) 282   Bryan Coquard (FRA) 271
2015   Peter Sagan (SVK) 432   André Greipel (GER) 366   John Degenkolb (GER) 298
2016   Peter Sagan (SVK) 470   Marcel Kittel (GER) 228   Michael Matthews (AUS) 199
2017   Michael Matthews (AUS) 370   André Greipel (GER) 234   Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR) 220
2018   Peter Sagan (SVK) 477   Alexander Kristoff (NOR) 246   Arnaud Démare (FRA) 203
2019   Peter Sagan (SVK) 316   Caleb Ewan (AUS) 248   Elia Viviani (ITA) 224

Repeat winnersEdit

Wins Name Years
7   Peter Sagan (SVK) 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018, 2019
6   Erik Zabel (GER) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
4   Sean Kelly (IRL) 1982, 1983, 1985, 1989
3   Jan Janssen (NED) 1964, 1965, 1967
  Eddy Merckx (BEL) 1969, 1971, 1972
  Freddy Maertens (BEL) 1976, 1978, 1981
  Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB) 1991, 1993, 1994
  Robbie McEwen (AUS) 2002, 2004, 2006
2   Stan Ockers (BEL) 1955, 1956
  Jean Graczyk (FRA) 1958, 1960
  André Darrigade (FRA) 1959, 1961
  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) 1992, 1995
  Thor Hushovd (NOR) 2005, 2009

By nationalityEdit

Wins Country
19   Belgium
9   France
8   Germany
7   Slovakia
5   Australia
4   Ireland
  Netherlands
3   Uzbekistan
2   Italy
  Norway
   Switzerland
1   Spain
  United Kingdom

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Tour Xtra: Green Jersey". Cvccbike.com. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  2. ^ McGann, Bill (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965-2007, Volume 2. Dog Ear Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 1598586084.
  3. ^ a b Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  4. ^ "Sporting stakes / rules". Archived from the original on 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  5. ^ "Le Tour 101". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
  6. ^ "Regulations of the race" (PDF). ASO/letour.fr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-07-05. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  7. ^ "Regulations of the race" (PDF). ASO/letour.fr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 2011-06-29.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Points classification in the Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons