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Combativity award in the Tour de France

The combativity award is a prize given in the Tour de France for the most combative rider overall during the race. Historically, it favored constant attackers as it was based on the distance spent in a breakaway, included winning checkpoints and outright stage wins. Since 2003 the award is awarded following jury decision, with the classification for most distance in breakaway groups only part of the decision. Besides the overall winner, the jury also awards a combativity award to the most aggressive rider at the end of each stage, with this rider allowed to wear a red bib the following race day.

Combativity award
Jersey red number.svg
SportRoad bicycle racing
CompetitionTour de France
Given forMost aggressive rider
Local nameLe Prix de la combativité  (French)
First award1952
Editions65 known (as of 2017)
First winner Wout Wagtmans (NED)
Most wins Eddy Merckx (BEL)
4 times
Most recent Dan Martin (IRE)

The 1981 Tour de France marked the last time the winner of the general classification also won the combativity award.



Since 1952,[1] after every stage the most combative cyclist was given an award, and an overall competition was recorded.[2] At the end of the 1956 Tour de France, André Darrigade was named the most attacking cyclist.[3] At this point, the award was given the same importance as the award for the cyclist with the most bad luck, Picot in 1956.

In 1961, the award was not given to an individual cyclist, but to an entire team, the regional team West-South-West.

The system of the award has changed during the years. Historically, riders accumulated points, and the cyclist with the most points at the end of the Tour was declared winner.[4] The cyclist did not have to finish the race, for example Cyrille Guimard in 1972 did not finish, but still was given the combativity award.

In 1979, the combativity award was initially given to Joop Zoetemelk;[5] he was later disqualified and Hennie Kuiper received the award.

Current systemEdit

In the current system that has been active since 2003, a jury of eight specialists in cycling selects the most combative cyclist of each stage (excluding time trials).[6] There is no jersey for the most combative rider of the previous stage, but he can be recognized by the race number worn on his back: it consists of a white number on a red background instead of the usual black on white (since 1998).[6][7]

At the end of the Tour de France, a "super-combativity award" is given to the most combative cyclist of the race. As of 2017, the total prize money for the super-combativity award winner is €20,000.[8]


Overall super-combativity award winners since 1953.[9]

Rider Team
1953[10]   Wout Wagtmans (NED) Netherlands
1954[11]   Lucien Lazaridès (FRA) (victory shared with François Mahé) France South-East
1954[11]   François Mahé (FRA) (victory shared with Lucien Lazaridès) France West
1955[12]   Charly Gaul (LUX) Luxembourg/Mixed
1956   André Darrigade (FRA) France
1957   Nicolas Barone (FRA) France Île-de-France
1958   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) Spain
1959   Gérard Saint (FRA) France West South-West
1960   Jean Graczyk (FRA) France
1961   Team award (FRA) France West South-West
1962   Eddy Pauwels (BEL) Wiel's–Groene Leeuw
1963   Rik Van Looy (BEL) G.B.C.–Libertas
1964   Henry Anglade (FRA) Pelforth–Sauvage–Lejeune
1965   Felice Gimondi (ITA) Salvarani
1966   Rudi Altig (FRG) Molteni
1967   Désiré Letort (FRA) France
1968   Roger Pingeon (FRA) France A
1969   Eddy Merckx (BEL) Faema
1970   Eddy Merckx (BEL) Faemino–Faema
1971   Luis Ocaña (ESP) Bic
1972   Cyrille Guimard (FRA) Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson
1973   Luis Ocaña (ESP) Bic
1974   Eddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni
1975   Eddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni–RYC
1976   Raymond Delisle (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
1977   Gerrie Knetemann (NED) TI–Raleigh
1978   Paul Wellens (BEL) TI–Raleigh–McGregor
1979   Hennie Kuiper (NED) TI–Raleigh–McGregor
1980   Christian Levavasseur (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel
1981   Bernard Hinault (FRA) Renault–Elf–Gitane
1982   Régis Clère (FRA) COOP–Mercier–Mavic
1983   Serge Demierre (SUI) Cilo–Aufina
1984   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire
1985   Maarten Ducrot (NED) Lotto
1986   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire
1987   Régis Clère (FRA) Teka
1988   Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z–Peugeot
1989   Laurent Fignon (FRA) Super U–Raleigh–Fiat
1990   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) ONCE
1991   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Tassoni
1992   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
1993   Massimo Ghirotto (ITA) ZG Mobili
1994   Eros Poli (ITA) Mercatone Uno–Medeghini
1995   Hernán Buenahora (COL) Kelme–Sureña
1996   Richard Virenque (FRA) Festina–Lotus
1997   Richard Virenque (FRA) Festina–Lotus
1998   Jacky Durand (FRA) Casino–Ag2r
1999   Jacky Durand (FRA) Lotto–Mobistar
2000   Erik Dekker (NED) Rabobank
2001   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) CSC–Tiscali
2002   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) CSC–Tiscali
2003   Alexander Vinokourov (KAZ) Team Telekom
2004   Richard Virenque (FRA) Quick-Step–Davitamon
2005   Óscar Pereiro (ESP) Phonak
2006   David de la Fuente (ESP) Saunier Duval–Prodir
2007   Amets Txurruka (ESP) Euskaltel–Euskadi
2008   Sylvain Chavanel (FRA) Cofidis
2009   Franco Pellizotti[n 1] (ITA) Liquigas
2010   Sylvain Chavanel (FRA) Quick-Step
2011   Jérémy Roy (FRA) FDJ
2012   Chris Anker Sørensen (DEN) Saxo Bank–Tinkoff Bank
2013   Christophe Riblon (FRA) Ag2r–La Mondiale
2014   Alessandro De Marchi (ITA) Cannondale
2015   Romain Bardet (FRA) AG2R La Mondiale
2016   Peter Sagan (SVK) Tinkoff
2017   Warren Barguil (FRA) Team Sunweb
2018   Dan Martin (IRE) UAE Team Emirates


  1. ^ In March 2011, Franco Pellizotti's results were removed after the Court of Arbitration for Sport found his biological passport indicated irregular values. The classification standings were not altered.[13]


  1. ^ "Tour de France: An alternative view of the ultimate road race". The Independent. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  2. ^ "Premies voor Van der Pluym en Stolker". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 14 July 1956. p. 11. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  3. ^ "Klassementen". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 30 July 1956. p. 5. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  4. ^ Eddy van der Mark. "Tour Xtra:Combativity Classification". CvccBike. Retrieved 24 April 2009.
  5. ^ "Zoetemelk strijdlustigste". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 23 July 1979. p. 13. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Règlement de l'Épreuve - Article 10: Maillots des leaders" (PDF) (in French). ASO. 17 July 2008. p. 61. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009. Par ailleurs, le coureur combatif sera identifié par deux dossards spécifiques avec chiffres blancs sur fond rouge.
  7. ^ Nick Brownlee (23 July 2013). Vive le Tour!: Wiggo, and the Amazing Tales of the Tour de France. Pavilion Books. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-909396-34-0.
  8. ^ Liste des Prix [Prize money] (PDF). Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. 2017. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  9. ^ "Le Tour en chiffres" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. p. 126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  10. ^ "Nederlandse ploeg won in totaal f 70.000 aan prijzen en premies". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 27 July 1953. p. 5. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Bobet onbetwist winnaar van Tour de France". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 2 August 1954. p. 3. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  12. ^ "Klassementen". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 1 August 1955. p. 3. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  13. ^ "Italian cyclist Franco Pellizotti found guilty of doping by Court of Arbitration for Sport". 9 March 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2012.