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1984 Tour de France

The 1984 Tour de France was the 71st edition of the Tour de France, run over 4,021 km (2,499 mi) in 23 stages and a prologue, from 29 June to 22 July.

1984 Tour de France
Route of the 1984 Tour de France
Route of the 1984 Tour de France
Race details
Dates29 June – 22 July
Stages23 + Prologue
Distance4,021 km (2,499 mi)
Winning time112h 03' 40"
Results
Winner  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (Renault–Elf)
  Second  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
  Third  Greg LeMond (USA) (Renault–Elf)

Points  Frank Hoste (BEL) (Europ Decor–Boule d'Or)
Mountains  Robert Millar (GBR) (Peugeot–Shell–Michelin)
Youth  Greg LeMond (USA) (Renault–Elf)
  Combination  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (Renault–Elf)
Sprints  Jacques Hanegraaf (NED) (Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko)
  Combativity  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
  Team Renault–Elf
  Team points Panasonic–Raleigh
← 1983
1985 →

The race was dominated by the Renault team, who won the team classification and ten stages:[1] Renault's French rider Laurent Fignon won his second consecutive Tour, beating former teammate Bernard Hinault by over 10 minutes. Hinault was pursuing his fifth Tour victory after having sat out the 1983 Tour because of injuries. Also that year, Fignon's team-mate Greg LeMond became the first American rider to finish in the top three and stand on the podium, and he also took the young rider classification. Belgian cyclist Frank Hoste won the points classification, and British Robert Millar won the mountains classification. The race consisted of 23 stages, totaling 4,020 kilometers (2,500 mi).

TeamsEdit

There was room for 18 teams in the 1984 Tour de France; in early 1984, there were 17 candidate teams. Although the Tour organisation approached AVP–Viditel and Metauromobili, an 18th team was not added.[2] The 1984 Tour started with 170 cyclists, divided into 17 teams of 10 cyclists.[3]

The teams entering the race were:[3]

Route and stagesEdit

The 1984 Tour de France started on 29 June, and had one rest day, in Grenoble.[4]

Stage characteristics and winners[3][5][6]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 29 June Montreuil to Noisy-le-Sec 5 km (3.1 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
1 30 June Bondy to Saint-Denis 149 km (93 mi)   Plain stage   Frank Hoste (BEL)
2 1 July Bobigny to Louvroil 249 km (155 mi)   Plain stage   Marc Madiot (FRA)
3 2 July Louvroil to Valenciennes 51 km (32 mi)   Team time trial  Renault–Elf
4 2 July Valenciennes to Béthune 83 km (52 mi)   Plain stage   Ferdi Van Den Haute (BEL)
5 3 July Béthune to Cergy-Pontoise 207 km (129 mi)   Plain stage   Paulo Ferreira (POR)
6 4 July Cergy-Pontoise to Alençon 202 km (126 mi)   Plain stage   Frank Hoste (BEL)
7 5 July Alençon to Le Mans 67 km (42 mi)   Individual time trial   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
8 6 July Le Mans to Nantes 192 km (119 mi)   Plain stage   Pascal Jules (FRA)
9 7 July Nantes to Bordeaux 338 km (210 mi)   Plain stage   Jan Raas (NED)
10 8 July Langon to Pau 198 km (123 mi)   Plain stage   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)
11 9 July Pau to Guzet-Neige 227 km (141 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Robert Millar (GBR)
12 10 July Saint-Girons to Blagnac 111 km (69 mi)   Plain stage   Pascal Poisson (FRA)
13 11 July Blagnac to Rodez 220 km (140 mi)   Plain stage   Pierre-Henri Menthéour (FRA)
14 12 July Rodez to Domaine du Rouret 228 km (142 mi)   Hilly stage   Fons De Wolf (BEL)
15 13 July Domaine du Rouret to Grenoble 241 km (150 mi)   Hilly stage   Frédéric Vichot (FRA)
14 July Grenoble Rest day
16 15 July Les Échelles to La Ruchère 22 km (14 mi)   Individual time trial   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
17 16 July Grenoble to Alpe d'Huez 151 km (94 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Luis Herrera (COL)
18 17 July Le Bourg-d'Oisans to La Plagne 185 km (115 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
19 18 July La Plagne to Morzine 186 km (116 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Ángel Arroyo (ESP)
20 19 July Morzine to Crans-Montana (Switzerland) 141 km (88 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
21 20 July Crans-Montana (Switzerland) to Villefranche-sur-Saône 320 km (200 mi)   Hilly stage   Frank Hoste (BEL)
22 21 July Villié-Morgon to Villefranche-sur-Saône 51 km (32 mi)   Individual time trial   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
23 22 July Pantin to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 197 km (122 mi)   Hilly stage   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)
Total 4,021 km (2,499 mi)[7]

Race overviewEdit

 
Laurent Fignon (pictured at the 1993 Tour), winner of the general classification

The 1984 Tour de France was a battle between reigning champion Fignon and his former team captain Hinault. Questions had been raised about the strength of Fignon's 1983 win due to Hinault's absence and Pascal Simon's withdrawal after breaking his shoulder whilst wearing the yellow jersey.[1] Hinault won the prologue, but Fignon won back time when his team won the team time trial in stage three.[8] After a large escape in the fifth stage, Fignon's teammate Vincent Barteau was leading the race. In the seventh stage, Fignon won the time trial, beating Hinault by 49 seconds.[9] Barteau was still leading the race, and remained the leader after the Pyrenées.

Stage 9 in this Tour was notable because it was 338 km long. This was the longest stage included in the race since the 1967 Tour de France and there has not been a stage longer than this since 1984. The last time a Tour stage was over 300 km was during the 1990 edition, the last time a stage was longer than 250 km was during the 2000 Tour and the last time a stage approached 250 km was in 2013 when there was a stage that was 243 km long which was not even a flat stage, but rather a stage that included Mont Ventoux. Stage 9 was won by Jan Raas and this would be the 10th and final stage win of his impressive career. The riders were on their bikes for nearly ten straight hours during this stage.

In the sixteenth stage, Fignon again beat Hinault in a time trial, this time winning 33 seconds.[10] In the seventeenth stage, Hinault attacked five times on the penultimate climb, but every time Fignon was able to get back. Then, Fignon left Hinault behind, and won almost three more minutes on Hinault. Barteau was so far behind in this stage, that Fignon became the new leader.[11] Fignon won three more stages, for a total of five that year, and won the Tour with a ten-minute margin. With his air of indifference in interviews and his crushing dominance, he was hailed as France's newest superstar.

Classification leadershipEdit

There were several classifications in the 1984 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders.[12] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[13]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[14]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[15]

There was also a combination classification. This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications.[16]

Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[16]

Before the 1984 Tour, the intermediate sprints classification did not have a jersey. In the 1984 Tour, the organisers gave the leader of the classification a red jersey to wear. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints.[17]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps.[17] There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.[17]

In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after certain stages to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner.[18] At the conclusion of the Tour, Bernard Hinault won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists.[4] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given to the first rider to pass the memorial to Tour founder Henri Desgrange near the summit of the Col du Galibier. This prize was won by Francisco Rodríguez Maldonado during stage 18.[19]

Classification leadership by stage[20][21]
Stage Stage winner General classification
 
Points classification
 
Mountains classification
 
Young rider classification
 
Combination classification Intermediate sprints classification
 
Team classifications Combativity award
By time By points
P Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault not awarded Allan Peiper Bernard Hinault not awarded Renault–Elf La Redoute not awarded
1 Frank Hoste Ludo Peeters Frank Hoste Ludo Peeters Frank Hoste Ludo Peeters Peugeot–Shell–Michelin Ludo Peeters
2 Marc Madiot Jacques Hanegraaf Jean-François Rault Jacques Hanegraaf Adri van der Poel Jacques Hanegraaf not awarded
3 Renault–Elf not awarded
4 Ferdi Van Den Haute Adri van der Poel Panasonic–Raleigh Ferdi Van Den Haute
5 Paulo Ferreira Vincent Barteau Frank Hoste Vincent Barteau Maurice Le Guilloux Paulo Ferreira
6 Frank Hoste Phil Anderson not awarded
7 Laurent Fignon not awarded
8 Pascal Jules Alain Bondue
9 Jan Raas Jacques Hanegraaf Régis Clère
10 Eric Vanderaerden Theo de Rooij
11 Robert Millar Jean-René Bernaudeau Vincent Barteau Jean-René Bernaudeau
12 Pascal Poisson Bernard Hinault
13 Pierre-Henri Menthéour Dominique Garde
14 Alfons De Wolf Alfons De Wolf
15 Frédéric Vichot Michel Laurent
16 Laurent Fignon not awarded
17 Luis Herrera Laurent Fignon Robert Millar Robert Millar Bernard Hinault
18 Laurent Fignon Greg LeMond Laurent Fignon Francisco Rodríguez Maldonado
19 Ángel Arroyo Jérôme Simon
20 Laurent Fignon Henk Lubberding
21 Frank Hoste
22 Laurent Fignon Sean Kelly not awarded
23 Eric Vanderaerden Frank Hoste
Final Laurent Fignon Frank Hoste Robert Millar Greg LeMond Laurent Fignon Jacques Hanegraaf Renault–Elf Panasonic–Raleigh Bernard Hinault
  • In stage 1, Laurent Fignon wore the green jersey, because Bernard Hinault already wore the yellow jersey.
  • In stage 2, Harald Maier wore the polka dot jersey, because Ludo Peeters already wore the yellow jersey.
  • In stage 4, Allan Peiper wore the white jersey, because Jacques Hanegraaf already wore the yellow jersey.
  • In stages 6 – 11, Paulo Ferreira wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau already wore the yellow jersey.
  • In stages 12 – 17, Greg LeMond wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau already wore the yellow jersey.

Final standingsEdit

Legend
  Denotes the winner of the general classification   Denotes the winner of the points classification
  Denotes the winner of the mountains classification   Denotes the winner of the young rider classification
  Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[3]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Renault–Elf 112h 03' 40"
2   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire + 10' 32"
3   Greg LeMond (USA)   Renault–Elf + 11' 46"
4   Robert Millar (GBR) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 14' 42"
5   Sean Kelly (IRE) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic + 16' 35"
6   Ángel Arroyo (ESP) Reynolds + 19' 22"
7   Pascal Simon (FRA) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 21' 17"
8   Pedro Muñoz (ESP) Teka + 26' 17"
9   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Splendor–Mondial Moquettes–Marc + 29' 12"
10   Phil Anderson (AUS) Panasonic–Raleigh + 29' 16"

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–10)[22][23]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Frank Hoste (BEL) Europ Decor–Boule d'Or 322
2   Sean Kelly (IRE) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic 318
3   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL) Panasonic–Raleigh 247
4   Leo van Vliet (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 173
5   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire 146
6   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Renault–Elf 143
7   Francis Castaing (FRA) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 137
8   Pascal Jules (FRA) Renault–Elf 123
9   Jean-François Rault (FRA) La Vie Claire 83
10   Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL) Splendor–Mondial Moquettes–Marc 80

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[22][24]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Robert Millar (GBR)   Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 284
2   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Renault–Elf 212
3   Ángel Arroyo (ESP) Reynolds 140
4   Luis Herrera (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia 108
5   José Patrocinio Jiménez (COL) Teka 92
6   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire 89
7   Pascal Simon (FRA) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 79
8   Theo de Rooij (NED) Panasonic–Raleigh 74
9   Greg LeMond (USA)   Renault–Elf 69
10   Sean Kelly (IRE) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic 65

Young rider classificationEdit

Final young rider classification (1–10)[25][26]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Greg LeMond (USA)   Renault–Elf 112h 15' 26"
2   Pedro Muñoz (ESP) Teka + 14' 31"
3   Niki Rüttimann (SUI) La Vie Claire + 19' 12"
4   Rafael Acevedo (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia + 21' 46"
5   José Antonio Agudelo Gómez (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia + 37' 39"
6   Frédéric Vichot (FRA) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic + 41' 32"
7   Luis Herrera (COL) Varta–Café de Colombia + 46' 44"
8   Vincent Barteau (FRA) Renault–Elf + 48' 16"
9   Gilles Mas (FRA) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic + 53' 52"
10   Jérôme Simon (FRA) La Redoute + 1h 04' 47"

Intermediate sprints classificationEdit

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[22][27]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Jacques Hanegraaf (NED)   Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 155
2   Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire 52
3   Laurent Fignon (FRA) Renault–Elf 51
4   Phil Anderson (AUS) Panasonic–Raleigh 47
5   Sean Kelly (IRE) Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic 47
6   Alain Bondue (FRA) La Redoute 42
7   Alfons De Wolf (BEL) Europ Decor–Boule d'Or 37
8   Pascal Jules (FRA) Renault–Elf 34
9   Dominique Garde (FRA) Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 34
10   Ludo Peeters (BEL) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 32

Team classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–10)[22][28]
Rank Team Time
1 Renault–Elf 336h 31' 16"
2 Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic + 46' 44"
3 Reynolds + 57' 58"
4 Peugeot–Shell–Michelin + 1h 01' 57"
5 La Vie Claire + 1h 15' 59"
6 Varta–Café de Colombia + 1h 25' 02"
7 Panasonic–Raleigh + 1h 31' 09"
8 Teka + 1h 39' 47"
9 Splendor–Mondial Moquettes–Marc + 2h 21' 37"
10 Cilo–Aufina–Crans–Montana + 2h 50' 56"

Team points classificationEdit

Final team points classification (1–6)[3][22]
Rank Team Points
1 Panasonic–Raleigh 1159
2 Renault–Elf 1318
3 Peugeot–Shell–Michelin 1322
4 Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic 1371
5 La Vie Claire 1506
6 Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 2048

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Cossins, Peter (22 July 2014). "Renault: The best Tour de France team ever?". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  2. ^ "Zeventien formaties kandidaat voor Tour". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 26 January 1984. p. 21. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e "71ème Tour de France 1984" [71st Tour de France 1984] (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  4. ^ a b Augendre 2016, p. 75.
  5. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 74.
  6. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC top ten". CVCCBike.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  7. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 110.
  8. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 147.
  9. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 148.
  10. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 150.
  11. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 152.
  12. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  13. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  14. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  15. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  16. ^ a b Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  17. ^ a b c Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  18. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  19. ^ "Fignon legt z'n wil op" [Fignon imposes his will]. De Waarheid (in Dutch). 19 July 1984. p. 4 – via Delpher.
  20. ^ "Dag na dag" [Day to day]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 23 July 1984. p. 21. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019.
  21. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1984" [Information about the Tour de France from 1984]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Clasificaciones oficiales" (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 24 July 1984. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  23. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Puntenklassementsdingen in de Tour de France 1984" [Points classification in the Tour de France 1984]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  24. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Bergdoorkomsten in de Tour de France 1984" [Mountain passages in the Tour de France 1984]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  25. ^ "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 23 July 1984. p. 14. Retrieved 18 March 2012 – via Regionaal Archief Leiden.
  26. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het jongerenklassement – Etappe 23" [Standings in the youth classification – Stage 23]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  27. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Sprintdoorkomsten in de Tour de France 1984" [Sprint results in the Tour de France 1984]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  28. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het ploegenklassement" [Standings in the team classification]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to 1984 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons