1984 Tour de France
The 1984 Tour de France was the 71st edition of the Tour de France, run over 4,021 km (2,499 mi) in 23 stages and a prologue, from 29 June to 22 July.
Route of the 1984 Tour de France
|Dates||29 June – 22 July|
|Stages||23 + Prologue|
|Distance||4,021 km (2,499 mi)|
|Winning time||112h 03' 40"|
The race was dominated by the Renault team, who won the team classification and ten stages: Renault's French rider Laurent Fignon won his second consecutive Tour, beating former teammate Bernard Hinault by over 10 minutes. Hinault was pursuing his fifth Tour victory after having sat out the 1983 Tour because of injuries. Also that year, Fignon's team-mate Greg LeMond became the first American rider to finish in the top three and stand on the podium, and he also took the young rider classification. Belgian cyclist Frank Hoste won the points classification, and British Robert Millar won the mountains classification. The race consisted of 23 stages, totaling 4,020 kilometers (2,500 mi).
There was room for 18 teams in the 1984 Tour de France; in early 1984, there were 17 candidate teams. Although the Tour organisation approached AVP–Viditel and Metauromobili, an 18th team was not added. The 1984 Tour started with 170 cyclists, divided into 17 teams of 10 cyclists.
The teams entering the race were:
Route and stagesEdit
The 1984 Tour de France started on 29 June, and had one rest day, in Grenoble.
|P||29 June||Montreuil to Noisy-le-Sec||5 km (3.1 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|1||30 June||Bondy to Saint-Denis||149 km (93 mi)||Plain stage||Frank Hoste (BEL)|
|2||1 July||Bobigny to Louvroil||249 km (155 mi)||Plain stage||Marc Madiot (FRA)|
|3||2 July||Louvroil to Valenciennes||51 km (32 mi)||Team time trial||Renault–Elf|
|4||2 July||Valenciennes to Béthune||83 km (52 mi)||Plain stage||Ferdi Van Den Haute (BEL)|
|5||3 July||Béthune to Cergy-Pontoise||207 km (129 mi)||Plain stage||Paulo Ferreira (POR)|
|6||4 July||Cergy-Pontoise to Alençon||202 km (126 mi)||Plain stage||Frank Hoste (BEL)|
|7||5 July||Alençon to Le Mans||67 km (42 mi)||Individual time trial||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|8||6 July||Le Mans to Nantes||192 km (119 mi)||Plain stage||Pascal Jules (FRA)|
|9||7 July||Nantes to Bordeaux||338 km (210 mi)||Plain stage||Jan Raas (NED)|
|10||8 July||Langon to Pau||198 km (123 mi)||Plain stage||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)|
|11||9 July||Pau to Guzet-Neige||227 km (141 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Robert Millar (GBR)|
|12||10 July||Saint-Girons to Blagnac||111 km (69 mi)||Plain stage||Pascal Poisson (FRA)|
|13||11 July||Blagnac to Rodez||220 km (140 mi)||Plain stage||Pierre-Henri Menthéour (FRA)|
|14||12 July||Rodez to Domaine du Rouret||228 km (142 mi)||Hilly stage||Fons De Wolf (BEL)|
|15||13 July||Domaine du Rouret to Grenoble||241 km (150 mi)||Hilly stage||Frédéric Vichot (FRA)|
|14 July||Grenoble||Rest day|
|16||15 July||Les Échelles to La Ruchère||22 km (14 mi)||Individual time trial||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|17||16 July||Grenoble to Alpe d'Huez||151 km (94 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Luis Herrera (COL)|
|18||17 July||Le Bourg-d'Oisans to La Plagne||185 km (115 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|19||18 July||La Plagne to Morzine||186 km (116 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Ángel Arroyo (ESP)|
|20||19 July||Morzine to Crans-Montana (Switzerland)||141 km (88 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|21||20 July||Crans-Montana (Switzerland) to Villefranche-sur-Saône||320 km (200 mi)||Hilly stage||Frank Hoste (BEL)|
|22||21 July||Villié-Morgon to Villefranche-sur-Saône||51 km (32 mi)||Individual time trial||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|23||22 July||Pantin to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||197 km (122 mi)||Hilly stage||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)|
|Total||4,021 km (2,499 mi)|
The 1984 Tour de France was a battle between reigning champion Fignon and his former team captain Hinault. Questions had been raised about the strength of Fignon's 1983 win due to Hinault's absence and Pascal Simon's withdrawal after breaking his shoulder whilst wearing the yellow jersey. Hinault won the prologue, but Fignon won back time when his team won the team time trial in stage three. After a large escape in the fifth stage, Fignon's team mate Vincent Barteau was leading the race. In the seventh stage, Fignon won the time trial, beating Hinault by 49 seconds. Barteau was still leading the race, and remained the leader after the Pyrenées.
In the sixteenth stage, Fignon again beat Hinault in a time trial, this time winning 33 seconds. In the seventeenth stage, Hinault attacked five times on the penultimate climb, but every time Fignon was able to get back. Then, Fignon left Hinault behind, and won almost three more minutes on Hinault. Barteau was so far behind in this stage, that Fignon became the new leader. Fignon won three more stages, for a total of five that year, and won the Tour with a ten-minute margin. With his air of indifference in interviews and his crushing dominance, he was hailed as France's newest superstar.
There were several classifications in the 1984 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.
Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
Before the 1984 Tour, the Intermediate sprints classification did not have a jersey. In the 1984 Tour, the organizers gave the leader of the classification a red jersey to wear. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps. There was also a team points classification. After each stage, the stage rankings of the best three cyclists per team were added, and the team with the least total lead this classification, and were identified by green caps.
- In stage 1, Laurent Fignon wore the green jersey, because Bernard Hinault already wore the yellow jersey.
- In stage 2, Harald Maier wore the polka dot jersey, because Ludo Peeters already wore the yellow jersey.
- In stage 4, Allan Peiper wore the white jersey, because Jacques Hanegraaf already wore the yellow jersey.
- In stages 6 - 11, Paulo Ferreira wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau already wore the yellow jersey.
- In stages 12 - 17, Greg LeMond wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau already wore the yellow jersey.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification|
|1||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||112h 03' 40"|
|2||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||+ 10' 32"|
|3||Greg LeMond (USA)||Renault–Elf||+ 11' 46"|
|4||Robert Millar (GBR)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 14' 42"|
|5||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic||+ 16' 35"|
|6||Ángel Arroyo (ESP)||Reynolds||+ 19' 22"|
|7||Pascal Simon (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 21' 17"|
|8||Pedro Muñoz (ESP)||Teka||+ 26' 17"|
|9||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Splendor–Mondial Moquettes–Marc||+ 29' 12"|
|10||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Panasonic–Raleigh||+ 29' 16"|
|1||Frank Hoste (BEL)||Europ Decor–Boule d'Or||322|
|2||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic||318|
|3||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)||Panasonic–Raleigh||247|
|4||Leo van Vliet (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||173|
|5||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||146|
|1||Robert Millar (GBR)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||284|
|2||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||212|
|3||Ángel Arroyo (ESP)||Reynolds||140|
|4||Luis Herrera (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia||108|
|5||José Patrocinio Jiménez (COL)||Teka||92|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Greg LeMond (USA)||Renault–Elf||112h 15' 26"|
|2||Pedro Muñoz (ESP)||Teka||+ 14' 31"|
|3||Niki Rüttimann (SUI)||La Vie Claire||+ 19' 12"|
|4||Rafaël Antonio Acevedo (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia||+ 21' 46"|
|5||José Antonio Agudelo (COL)||Varta–Café de Colombia||+ 37' 39"|
|1||Renault–Elf||336h 31' 16"|
|2||Skil–Reydel–Sem–Mavic||+ 46' 44"|
|3||Reynolds||+ 57' 58"|
|4||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 1h 01' 57"|
|5||La Vie Claire||+ 1h 15' 59"|
- Cossins, Peter (22 July 2014). "Renault: The best Tour de France team ever?". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Zeventien formaties kandidaat voor Tour". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 26 January 1984. p. 21. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- "71ème Tour de France 1984" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Augendre 2016, p. 75.
- Augendre 2016, p. 74.
- Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCCBike.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Augendre 2016, p. 110.
- McGann, p. 147
- McGann, p. 148
- McGann, p. 150
- McGann, p. 152
- Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other Classifications & Awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Intermediate Sprints Classification". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0-679-72936-4. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Clasificaciones oficiales". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 24 July 1984. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Regionaal Archief Leiden. 23 July 1984. p. 14. Retrieved 18 March 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Augendre, Jacques (2016). Guide historique [Historical guide] (PDF). Tour de France (in French). Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965–2007. Dog Ear Publishering. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
Media related to 1984 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons