1996 Tour de France
The 1996 Tour de France was the 83rd edition of the Tour de France, starting on 29 June and ending on 21 July, featuring 19 regular stages, 2 individual time trials, a prologue and a rest day (10 July). It was won by Danish rider Bjarne Riis.
Route of the 1996 Tour de France
|Dates||29 June – 21 July|
|Stages||21 + Prologue|
|Distance||3,765 km (2,339 mi)|
|Winning time||95h 57' 16"|
This Tour was noted by the "fall" of favourite Miguel Indurain, ending his record run of five consecutive victories. The course included a stage through his home town Villava, however he suffered a bronchitis because of the poor weather in the first week, and was fined and penalised for accepting drinks illegally. Indurain started to lose time in stage 7, and finally ended 11th failing to win a single stage or spend one day in the yellow jersey.
Stage 9 was scheduled to be a 176 kilometer ride from Val-d'Isère to Sestriere. However, due to appalling weather conditions, including snow, the organisers cut the stage to just 46 km. Bjarne Riis won the stage and opened a crucial 44 second gap over Telekom teammate Jan Ullrich. Ullrich, only 22, really broke through in this Tour, and won the individual time trial of stage 20.
Over a decade after the race, several riders with Team Telekom confessed to doping offences around the period of the 1996 tour, including support riders Rolf Aldag, Udo Bölts, Christian Henn and Brian Holm and team masseur Jef d'Hont has admitted in his autobiography that there was organised use of EPO in the team. On 24 May 2007, Erik Zabel admitted to using EPO during the first week of the race. The winner of the Tour, Bjarne Riis, admitted on 25 May 2007 that he also used EPO during the Tour, as a result was asked by the International Cycling Union (UCI) to return the yellow jersey he received. So far, runner-up Jan Ullrich, who has been under suspicion of doping as a part of the Operación Puerto doping case, has not commented on allegations that he also used EPO. Third place Richard Virenque and fourth place Laurent Dufaux were implicated in the 1998 Festina scandal.
UCI lawyer Philippe Verbiest stated in 2007 that the statute of limitations for removing Riis as winner of the Tour de France had expired, "you cannot strip him of the title but it possible not to mention it anymore ... Because of what he admitted, he is not the winner of the Tour de France. Riis did not win." At the same time tour spokesman Philippe Sudres stated that: "We consider philosophically that he can no longer claim to have won." In 2007, Riis' victory was removed from the Tour de France, yet in 2008 they listed Riis as winner of Tour de France 1996, albeit with a remark about his confession.
The teams entering the race were:
Route and stagesEdit
|P||29 June||'s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)||9.4 km (5.8 mi)||Individual time trial||Alex Zülle (SUI)|
|1||30 June||'s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)||209.0 km (129.9 mi)||Plain stage||Frédéric Moncassin (FRA)|
|2||1 July||'s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands) to Wasquehal||247.5 km (153.8 mi)||Plain stage||Mario Cipollini (ITA)|
|3||2 July||Wasquehal to Nogent-sur-Oise||195.0 km (121.2 mi)||Plain stage||Erik Zabel (GER)|
|4||3 July||Soissons to Lac de Madine||232.0 km (144.2 mi)||Plain stage||Cyril Saugrain (FRA)|
|5||4 July||Lac de Madine to Besançon||242.0 km (150.4 mi)||Plain stage||Jeroen Blijlevens (NED)|
|6||5 July||Arc-et-Senans to Aix-les-Bains||207.0 km (128.6 mi)||Hilly stage||Michael Boogerd (NED)|
|7||6 July||Chambéry to Les Arcs||200.0 km (124.3 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Luc Leblanc (FRA)|
|8||7 July||Bourg-Saint-Maurice to Val d'Isère||30.5 km (19.0 mi)||Individual time trial||Evgueni Berzin (RUS)|
|9||8 July||Le Monêtier-les-Bains to Sestriere (Italy)||46.0 km (28.6 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Bjarne Riis (DEN)|
|10||9 July||Turin (Italy) to Gap||208.5 km (129.6 mi)||Hilly stage||Erik Zabel (GER)|
|10 July||Gap||Rest day|
|11||11 July||Gap to Valence||202.0 km (125.5 mi)||Hilly stage||José Jaime Gonzalez (COL)|
|12||12 July||Valence to Le Puy-en-Velay||143.5 km (89.2 mi)||Hilly stage||Pascal Richard (SUI)|
|13||13 July||Le Puy-en-Velay to Super Besse||177.0 km (110.0 mi)||Hilly stage||Rolf Sørensen (DEN)|
|14||14 July||Besse to Tulle||186.5 km (115.9 mi)||Hilly stage||Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB)|
|15||15 July||Brive-la-Gaillarde to Villeneuve-sur-Lot||176.0 km (109.4 mi)||Plain stage||Massimo Podenzana (ITA)|
|16||16 July||Agen to Hautacam||199.0 km (123.7 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Bjarne Riis (DEN)|
|17||17 July||Argelès-Gazost to Pamplona (Spain)||262.0 km (162.8 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Laurent Dufaux (SUI)|
|18||18 July||Pamplona (Spain) to Hendaye||154.5 km (96.0 mi)||Hilly stage||Bart Voskamp (NED)|
|19||19 July||Hendaye to Bordeaux||226.5 km (140.7 mi)||Plain stage||Frédéric Moncassin (FRA)|
|20||20 July||Bordeaux to Saint-Émilion||63.5 km (39.5 mi)||Individual time trial||Jan Ullrich (GER)|
|21||21 July||Palaiseau to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||147.5 km (91.7 mi)||Plain stage||Fabio Baldato (ITA)|
|Total||3,765 km (2,339 mi)|
The prologue was won by Alex Zülle two seconds ahead of specialist Chris Boardman as overall contenders Bjarne Riis and Miguel Indurain came in sixth and seventh respectively. Zulle held onto the yellow jersey through the first few flat stages but in stage 4 a half dozen riders not in overall contention escaped in a breakaway and stayed away finishing several minutes ahead of the main field putting Stephane Heulot in the yellow jersey for a few days.
Stage six was an intermediate stage run in terrible weather conditions and was won by Dutchman Michael Boogerd. The inclement weather caused well over a dozen riders to abandon the race including Lance Armstrong who merely thought he was sick from riding in the rainy, cold weather as most of the other riders who abandoned were, but within a few months he would be diagnosed with the cancer that nearly killed him.
As the Tour entered the Alps there was a mountain ITT in stage eight which was won by Evgeni Berzin, whom had seized the lead in the overall classification following stage seven. In the time trial he finished more than thirty seconds better than Riis and gained just over a minute on Indurain, Tony Rominger and debutant Jan Ullrich who was having an impressive start to his first Tour.
Stage nine was a mountain stage that was shortened due to foul weather and was won by Riis, who in the process took enough time to put himself into yellow. He would maintain a narrow lead over the next several stages and by the time the race reached the Pyrenees Abraham Olano was in second just under a minute behind with Berzin in third, Rominger in fourth, Riis’ teammate Ullrich in fifth and five-time defending champion Miguel Indurain struggling to stay in the top ten nearly 5:00 back.
During stage sixteen Riis made a number of false attacks, even falling back and feigning exhaustion to get a look at Indurain, Rominger, Luttenberger, Virenque, Dufaux, Leblanc and Alano to read their faces before finally launching an attack on the Hautacam. He put close to a minute into most of the elite riders and beyond that into everybody else effectively winning the Tour and putting it beyond doubt that Indurain would not win his sixth tour.
Stage seventeen was won by Laurent Dufaux who in the process moved into fourth place overall, but Riis finished in the same time. A group of eight riders dropped the rest of the field in this stage and as a result Riis distanced himself from all of his rivals with his own teammate Ullrich moving into second overall and Richard Virenque moving into third place overall.
Stage nineteen ITT was the last opportunity for major changes to be made in the general classification and the stage was won by Ullrich who finished nearly a minute ahead of second-placed Indurain who had completely dominated Individual Times Trials at the Tour De France for the previous several years. Riis had plenty of time to spare and was 1:41 ahead of his teammate Ullrich in the General Classification. Richard Virenque rounded out the podium also winning the mountains classification.
Even though rider admissions and investigations in the subsequent years showed that Tours during this time period were undoubtedly tainted by doping 1996 winner Riis, 1997 winner Ullrich and 1998 winner Pantani all officially retain their Tour victories. Pantani died just a few years after his Tour victory, as a result of mental health issues resulting from constant attacks from the press and Ullrich had some results voided later in his career, but his four 2nd place finishes to Lance Armstrong and his 1996 2nd place to Riis remain on his record.
Classification leadership and minor prizesEdit
There were several classifications in the 1996 Tour de France. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, which awarded a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.
The fourth individual classification was the young rider classification, which was not marked by a jersey. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders under 26 years were eligible.
In addition, there was a combativity award given after each mass-start stage to the cyclist considered most combative. The decision was made by a jury composed of journalists who gave points. The cyclist with the most points from votes in all stages led the combativity classification. Richard Virenque won this classification, and was given overall the super-combativity award. The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass the summit of the Col d'Aubisque on stage 17.[c] This prize was won by Neil Stephens.
- In stage 1, Chris Boardman wore the green jersey.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification|
|1||Bjarne Riis (DEN)||Team Telekom||95h 57' 16"|
|2||Jan Ullrich (GER)||Team Telekom||+ 1' 41"|
|3||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||+ 4' 37"|
|4||Laurent Dufaux (SUI)||Festina–Lotus||+ 5' 53"|
|5||Peter Luttenberger (AUT)||Carrera Jeans–Tassoni||+ 7' 07"|
|6||Luc Leblanc (FRA)||Team Polti||+ 10' 03"|
|7||Piotr Ugrumov (LAT)||Roslotto–ZG Mobili||+ 10' 04"|
|8||Fernando Escartín (ESP)||Kelme–Artiach||+ 10' 26"|
|9||Abraham Olano (ESP)||Mapei–GB||+ 11' 00"|
|10||Toni Rominger (SUI)||Mapei–GB||+ 11' 53"|
|1||Erik Zabel (GER)||Team Telekom||335|
|2||Frédéric Moncassin (FRA)||GAN||284|
|3||Fabio Baldato (ITA)||MG Maglificio–Technogym||255|
|4||Djamolidine Abduzhaparov (UZB)||Refin–Mobilvetta||204|
|5||Jeroen Blijlevens (NED)||TVM–Farm Frites||158|
|6||Andrei Tchmil (RUS)||Lotto||132|
|7||Bjarne Riis (DEN)||Team Telekom||129|
|8||Andrea Ferrigato (ITA)||Roslotto–ZG Mobili||126|
|9||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||124|
|10||Mariano Piccoli (ITA)||Brescialat||122|
|1||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||383|
|2||Bjarne Riis (DEN)||Team Telekom||274|
|3||Laurent Dufaux (SUI)||Festina–Lotus||176|
|4||Laurent Brochard (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||168|
|5||Luc Leblanc (FRA)||Team Polti||158|
|6||Tony Rominger (SUI)||Mapei–GB||148|
|7||Jan Ullrich (GER)||Team Telekom||131|
|8||Pascal Hervé (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||110|
|9||Peter Luttenberger (AUT)||Carrera Jeans–Tassoni||109|
|10||Piotr Ugrumov (LAT)||Roslotto–ZG Mobili||101|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Jan Ullrich (GER)||Team Telekom||95h 58' 57"|
|2||Peter Luttenberger (AUT)||Carrera Jeans–Tassoni||+ 5' 26"|
|3||Manuel Fernández Ginés (ESP)||Mapei–GB||+ 24' 47"|
|4||Leonardo Piepoli (ITA)||Refin–Mobilvetta||+ 25' 55"|
|5||Michael Boogerd (NED)||Rabobank||+ 1h 12' 04"|
|6||José Luis Arrieta (ESP)||Banesto||+ 1h 12' 07"|
|7||Paolo Savoldelli (ITA)||Roslotto–ZG Mobili||+ 1h 13' 39"|
|8||Oscar Camenzind (SUI)||Panaria–Vinavil||+ 1h 23' 36"|
|9||Laurent Roux (FRA)||TVM–Farm Frites||+ 1h 34' 30"|
|10||Valentino Fois (ITA)||Panaria–Vinavil||+ 1h 44' 17"|
|1||Festina–Lotus||287h 46' 20"|
|2||Team Telekom||+ 15' 14"|
|3||Mapei–GB||+ 51' 36"|
|4||Roslotto–ZG Mobili||+ 1h 22' 29"|
|5||ONCE||+ 1h 36' 10"|
|6||Rabobank||+ 1h 53' 14"|
|7||TVM–Farm Frites||+ 2h 09' 21"|
|8||MG Maglificio–Technogym||+ 2h 18' 11"|
|9||Team Polti||+ 2h 31' 13"|
|10||Banesto||+ 2h 31' 20"|
|1||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||49|
|2||Bjarne Riis (DEN)||Team Telekom||47|
|3||Michele Bartoli (ITA)||MG Maglificio–Technogym||44|
|4||Danny Nelissen (NED)||Rabobank||34|
|5||Laurent Roux (FRA)||TVM–Farm Frites||33|
|6||Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB)||Refin–Mobilvetta||31|
|7||Luc Leblanc (FRA)||Team Polti||28|
|8||Rolf Järmann (SUI)||MG Maglificio–Technogym||22|
|9||Neil Stephens (AUS)||ONCE||21|
|10||Rolf Sørensen (DEN)||Rabobank||20|
- In 2007, Bjarne Riis admitted to the use of doping during the 1996 Tour. Shortly after his confession, the organisers of the Tour de France have said that they did not consider him a winner, but under UCI regulations at the time, the statute of limitations (ten years) had passed, meaning they could not strip him of his results. The same applies for Erik Zabel, the winner of the points classification.
- Two higher planned climbs were both cancelled because of bad weather, the Col du Galibier at 2,642 m (8,668 ft), and the Col de l'Iseran at 2,770 m (9,088 ft).
- In the 1996 Tour de France, the two first-choice customary Souvenir Henri Desgrange summit passes of the Col du Galibier or the highest climb of the race, the Col de l'Iseran, respectively, were both cancelled because of bad weather.
- A white jersey was not awarded to the leader of the young rider classification between 1989 and 1999.
- "Riis overcame climatic chaos to end the reign of Indurain". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- "Zabel admits to doping at Telekom". BBC News. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- "flandersnews.be – Belgian book causes upset". Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
- "Riis told to return yellow jersey". BBC News. 25 May 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- "ESPN – Tour no longer lists Riis as champ after doping admission – Cycling". Sports.espn.go.com. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Tour Director Christian Prudhomme has erased Bjarne Riis' name from the Tour de France record books..." Autobus.cyclingnews.com. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Bjarne Riis Reinstated As Tour Winner". BikeRadar. 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "News for February 8: Teams Qualification Rules for Events". Cyclingnews. Future Publishing Limited. 8 February 1996. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1996 – The starters". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Tour de France stage shortened because of bad weather". Cyclingnews.com. 8 July 1996. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Augendre 2016, p. 181.
- "83ème Tour de France 1996" [83rd Tour de France 1996]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1996 – The stage winners". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Augendre 2016, p. 110.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
- van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
- Augendre 2016, p. 87.
- van den Akker 2018, p. 199.
- "Tour de France stage shortened because of bad weather". Cyclingnews.com. Immediate Media Company. 8 July 1996. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Riis unbeatable". Cyclingnews.com. Immediate Media Company. 17 July 1996. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Tour de France 1996 – Leaders overview". ProCyclingStats. Archived from the original on 16 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1996" [Information about the Tour de France from 1996]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1996 – Stage 21 Palaiseau > Paris". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Deblander, Bruno (22 July 1996). "Bjarne Riis est entre dans Paris". Le Soir (in French). Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
- Augendre, Jacques (2016). Guide historique [Historical guide] (PDF). Tour de France (in French). Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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