1999 Tour de France
The 1999 Tour de France was a multiple stage bicycle race held from 3 to 25 July, and the 86th edition of the Tour de France. It has no overall winner—although American cyclist Lance Armstrong originally won the event, the United States Anti-Doping Agency announced in August 2012 that they had disqualified Armstrong from all his results since 1998, including his seven consecutive Tour de France wins from 1999 to 2005 (which were, originally, the most wins in the event's history); the Union Cycliste Internationale confirmed the result. There were no French stage winners for the first time since the 1926 Tour de France. Additionally, Mario Cipollini won 4 stages in a row, setting the post-World War II record for consecutive stage wins (breaking the record of three, set by Gino Bartali in 1948.)
Route of the 1999 Tour de France
|Dates||3 July 1999–25 July 1999|
|Stages||20 + Prologue|
|Distance||3,870 km (2,405 mi)|
|Winning time||91h 32' 16"|
After the doping controversies in the 1998 Tour de France, the Tour organisation banned some riders from the race, including Richard Virenque, Laurent Roux and Philippe Gaumont, manager Manolo Saiz and the entire TVM–Farm Frites team. Virenque's team Polti then appealed at the UCI against this decision, and the UCI then forced the organisers of the Tour, Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), to allow Virenque and Saiz entry in the Tour. Initially, the Vini Caldirola team had been selected, but after their team leader Serhiy Honchar failed a blood test in the 1999 Tour de Suisse, the ASO removed Vini Caldirola from the starting list, and replaced them by Cantina Tollo–Alexia Alluminio, the first reserve team. Each team was allowed to field nine cyclists.
Route and stagesEdit
|P||3 July||Le Puy du Fou||6.8 km (4.2 mi)||Individual time trial||
|1||4 July||Montaigu to Challans||208.0 km (129.2 mi)||Plain stage||Jaan Kirsipuu (EST)|
|2||5 July||Challans to Saint-Nazaire||176.0 km (109.4 mi)||Plain stage||Tom Steels (BEL)|
|3||6 July||Nantes to Laval||194.5 km (120.9 mi)||Plain stage||Tom Steels (BEL)|
|4||7 July||Laval to Blois||194.5 km (120.9 mi)||Plain stage||Mario Cipollini (ITA)|
|5||8 July||Bonneval to Amiens||233.5 km (145.1 mi)||Plain stage||Mario Cipollini (ITA)|
|6||9 July||Amiens to Maubeuge||171.5 km (106.6 mi)||Plain stage||Mario Cipollini (ITA)|
|7||10 July||Avesnes-sur-Helpe to Thionville||227.0 km (141.1 mi)||Plain stage||Mario Cipollini (ITA)|
|8||11 July||Metz||56.5 km (35.1 mi)||Individual time trial||
|12 July||Le Grand-Bornand||Rest day|
|9||13 July||Le Grand-Bornand to Sestrières||213.5 km (132.7 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||
|10||14 July||Sestrières to Alpe d'Huez||220.5 km (137.0 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Giuseppe Guerini (ITA)|
|11||15 July||Le Bourg-d'Oisans to Saint-Étienne||198.5 km (123.3 mi)||Hilly stage||Ludo Dierckxsens (BEL)|
|12||16 July||Saint-Galmier to Saint-Flour||201.5 km (125.2 mi)||Hilly stage||David Etxebarria (ESP)|
|13||17 July||Saint-Flour to Albi||236.5 km (147.0 mi)||Hilly stage||Salvatore Commesso (ITA)|
|14||18 July||Castres to Saint-Gaudens||199.0 km (123.7 mi)||Plain stage||Dmitri Konychev (RUS)|
|19 July||Saint-Gaudens||Rest day|
|15||20 July||Saint-Gaudens to Piau-Engaly||173.0 km (107.5 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Fernando Escartín (ESP)|
|16||21 July||Lannemezan to Pau||192.0 km (119.3 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||David Etxebarria (ESP)|
|17||22 July||Mourenx to Bordeaux||200.0 km (124.3 mi)||Plain stage||Tom Steels (BEL)|
|18||23 July||Jonzac to Futuroscope||187.5 km (116.5 mi)||Plain stage||Giampaolo Mondini (ITA)|
|19||24 July||Futuroscope||57.0 km (35.4 mi)||Individual time trial||
|20||25 July||Arpajon to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||143.5 km (89.2 mi)||Plain stage||Robbie McEwen (AUS)|
|Total||3,870 km (2,405 mi)|
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016)
This tour also saw the mistreatment of Christophe Bassons by his fellow riders of the peloton (notably Armstrong) for speaking out against doping. The 1998 tour had been marred by the Festina doping scandal. Bassons later told Bicycling, "The 1999 Tour was supposed to be the "Tour of Renewal," but I was certain that doping had not disappeared." He quit the tour without finishing after "cracking" mentally due to his treatment by the peloton, especially in stage 10.
Subsequent to Armstrong's statement to withdraw his fight against United States Anti-Doping Agency's (USADA) charges, on 24 August 2012, the USADA said it would ban Armstrong for life and stripped him of his record seven Tour de France titles. Later that day it was confirmed in a USADA statement that Armstrong was banned for life and would be disqualified from any and all competitive results obtained on and subsequent to 1 August 1998, including forfeiture of any medals, titles, winnings, finishes, points and prizes. On 22 October 2012, the Union Cycliste Internationale endorsed the USADA sanctions, and decided not to award victories to any other rider or upgrade other placings in any of the affected events.
The 1999 edition of Tour de France had two bizarre moments. The first was on stage 2 when a 25 rider pile-up occurred at Passage du Gois. Passage du Gois is a two-mile causeway which depending on the tide can be under water. The second bizarre incident was on stage 10, one kilometre from the summit of Alpe d'Huez. Leading Italian rider Giuseppe Guerini was confronted by a spectator holding a camera in the middle of the road. Guerini hit the spectator but recovered and went on to win the stage.
There were several classifications in the 1999 Tour de France. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, which awarded a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points led the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.
The fourth individual classification was the young rider classification, which was not marked by a jersey. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders under 26 years were eligible.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification wore yellow caps.
For the combativity award classification, a jury gave points after each stage to the cyclists they considered most combative. The cyclist with the most votes in all stages lead the classification.
|Denotes the leader of the points classification||Denotes the leader of the mountains classification|
|Denotes the winner of the super-combativity award|
|2||Alex Zülle (SUI)||Banesto||+ 7' 37"|
|3||Fernando Escartín (ESP)||Kelme–Costa Blanca||+ 10' 26"|
|4||Laurent Dufaux (SUI)||Saeco Macchine per Caffè–Cannondale||+ 14' 43"|
|5||Ángel Casero (ESP)||Vitalicio Seguros||+ 15' 11"|
|6||Abraham Olano (ESP)||ONCE–Deutsche Bank||+ 16' 47"|
|7||Daniele Nardello (ITA)||Mapei–Quick-Step||+ 17' 02"|
|8||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Team Polti||+ 17' 28"|
|9||Wladimir Belli (ITA)||Festina–Lotus||+ 17' 37"|
|10||Andrea Peron (ITA)||ONCE–Deutsche Bank||+ 23' 10"|
|1||Erik Zabel (GER)||Team Telekom||327|
|2||Stuart O'Grady (AUS)||Crédit Agricole||275|
|3||Christophe Capelle (FRA)||BigMat–Auber 93||196|
|4||Tom Steels (BEL)||Mapei–Quick-Step||188|
|5||François Simon (FRA)||Crédit Agricole||186|
|6||George Hincapie (USA)||U.S. Postal Service||166|
|7||Robbie McEwen (AUS)||Rabobank||166|
|8||Giampaolo Mondini (ITA)||Cantina Tollo–Alexia Alluminio||141|
|9||Christophe Moreau (FRA)||Festina–Lotus||140|
|10||Silvio Martinello (ITA)||Team Polti||130|
|1||Richard Virenque (FRA)||Team Polti||279|
|2||Alberto Elli (ITA)||Team Telekom||226|
|3||Mariano Piccoli (ITA)||Lampre–Daikin||205|
|4||Fernando Escartín (ESP)||Kelme–Costa Blanca||194|
|6||Alex Zülle (SUI)||Banesto||152|
|7||José Luis Arrieta (ESP)||Banesto||141|
|8||Laurent Dufaux (SUI)||Saeco Macchine per Caffè–Cannondale||141|
|9||Andrea Peron (ITA)||ONCE–Deutsche Bank||138|
|10||Kurt Van De Wouwer (BEL)||Lotto–Mobistar||117|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Benoit Salmon (FRA)||Casino–Ag2r Prévoyance||92h 01' 15"|
|2||Mario Aerts (BEL)||Lotto–Mobistar||+ 10' 22"|
|3||Francisco Tomas García (ESP)||Vitalicio Seguros||+ 16' 32"|
|4||Francisco Mancebo (ESP)||Banesto||+ 21' 32"|
|5||Luis Perez (ESP)||ONCE–Deutsche Bank||+ 23' 54"|
|6||Salvatore Commesso (ITA)||Saeco Macchine per Caffè–Cannondale||+ 40' 16"|
|7||Steve De Wolf (BEL)||Cofidis||+ 42' 55"|
|8||José Javier Gomez (ESP)||Kelme–Costa Blanca||+ 1h 16' 51"|
|9||Rik Verbrugghe (BEL)||Lotto–Mobistar||+ 1h 35' 32"|
|10||Jorg Jaksche (GER)||Team Telekom||+ 1h 47' 45"|
|1||Banesto||275h 05' 21"|
|2||ONCE–Deutsche Bank||+ 8' 16"|
|3||Festina–Lotus||+ 16' 13"|
|4||Kelme–Costa Blanca||+ 23' 48"|
|5||Mapei–Quick-Step||+ 24' 13"|
|6||Team Telekom||+ 41' 00"|
|7||Vitalicio Seguros||+ 42' 44"|
|8||U.S. Postal Service||+ 57' 13"|
|9||Cofidis||+ 58' 02"|
|10||Lotto–Mobistar||+ 1h 09' 02"|
|1||Jacky Durand (FRA)||Lotto–Mobistar||61|
|2||Stéphane Heulot (FRA)||Française des Jeux||55|
|3||Thierry Gouvenou (FRA)||BigMat–Auber 93||51|
|4||Anthony Morin (FRA)||Française des Jeux||46|
|5||François Simon (FRA)||Crédit Agricole||42|
|6||Fernando Escartin (ESP)||Kelme–Costa Blanca||40|
|7||Lylian Lebreton (FRA)||BigMat–Auber 93||40|
|8||Frédéric Guesdon (FRA)||Française des Jeux||40|
|9||Alberto Elli (ITA)||Team Telekom||39|
|10||Mariano Piccoli (ITA)||Lampre–Daikin||36|
Notes and referencesEdit
- On 24 August 2012, the United States Anti-Doping Agency announced that they had disqualified Armstrong from all his results since 1998, including his victory in the 1999 Tour de France. The Union Cycliste Internationale, responsible for the international cycling, confirmed this verdict on 22 October 2012.
- The white jersey was not awarded between 1989 and 1999.
- "Lance Armstrong Receives Lifetime Ban And Disqualification Of Competitive Results For Doping Violations Stemming From His Involvement In The United States Postal Service Pro-Cycling Team Doping Conspiracy". United States Anti-Doping Agency. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Lance Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI". BBC News. BBC. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Richard Virenque banned from Tour de France". Cyclingnews.com. Future plc. 17 June 1999. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Virenque in the Tour". Cyclingnews. Future Publishing Limited. 30 June 1999. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Vini Caldirola now out of Tour". Cyclingnews.com. Future plc. 19 June 1999. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "86ème Tour de France 1999" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Augendre 2016, p. 90.
- Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Augendre 2016, p. 110.
- Bassons: ‘People Now See I Wasn’t Lying’ Archived 2013-11-04 at the National and University Library of Iceland, James Startt, Bicycling.com, October 15th, 2012
- Peddlers - Cycling's Dirty Truth, 54:00, Mark Chapman, including interviews with Tyler Hamilton, Bassons, and others. BBC Radio 5 live, 2012 10 15, retr 2012 10 16
- "Lance Armstrong will be banned from cycling by USADA after saying he won’t fight doping charges". The Washington Post. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "USADA to ban Armstrong for life, strip Tour titles". CBS News. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified — Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0679729364. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (9 September 2011). Historical Dictionary of Cycling. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-8108-7369-8.
- Race regulations 1999, p. 7.
- "Tour de France, Grand Tour, Other Classifications after Stage 20". Cyclingnews. Future Publishing Limited. 1999. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Augendre, Jacques (2016). Guide historique [Historical guide] (PDF). Tour de France (in French). Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Race regulations (PDF). Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2003. Retrieved 27 October 2016.