The 1981 Tour de France was the 68th edition of the Tour de France, taking place between 25 June and 19 July. The total race distance was 24 stages over 3,753 km (2,332 mi). It was dominated by Bernard Hinault, who led the race from the sixth stage on, increasing his lead almost every stage. Only Phil Anderson was able to stay close to him, until the 16th stage when he fell behind by about 7:00, and then on the 17th stage he would lose another 17 minutes. In the end only Lucien Van Impe, Robert Alban and Joop Zoetemelk were able to finish inside 20:00 of the now three time champ.

1981 Tour de France
Route of the 1981 Tour de France
Route of the 1981 Tour de France
Race details
Dates25 June – 19 July 1981
Stages22 + Prologue, including two split stages
Distance3,753 km (2,332 mi)
Winning time96h 19' 38"
Winner  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (Renault–Elf–Gitane)
  Second  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (Boston–Mavic)
  Third  Robert Alban (FRA) (La Redoute–Motobécane)

Points  Freddy Maertens (BEL) (Sunair–Sport 80–Colnago)
Mountains  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (Boston–Mavic)
Youth  Peter Winnen (NED) (Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata)
  Combination  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (Renault–Elf–Gitane)
  Sprints  Freddy Maertens (BEL) (Sunair–Sport 80–Colnago)
  Combativity  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (Renault–Elf–Gitane)
  Team Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
  Team points Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
← 1980
1982 →

The points classification was won by Freddy Maertens, who did so by winning five stages. The mountains classification was won by Lucien Van Impe, Peter Winnen won the young rider classification, and the Peugeot team won the team classification.

Teams edit

Late 1980, there were plans to make the tour "open", which meant that amateur teams would also be allowed to join. This would make it possible for teams from Eastern Europe to join.[1] The plan did not materialize, so only professional teams were invited. In January 1981, the organisation decided that there would be 15 teams with 10 cyclists, or 16 teams with 9 cyclists each. At that point, 16 teams had already submitted a request to join, and the organisation was in discussion with four additional Italian teams, and the American national team.[2] In the end, the American team did not apply, and the Italian teams decided to focus on the 1981 Giro d'Italia. The organisation selected 15 teams, who each selected 10 cyclists, for a total of 150 participants.[3]

The teams entering the race were:[3][4]

Pre-race favourites edit

Bernard Hinault, the winner of the 1978 and 1979 Tour de France and reigning world champion, was the main favourite. His knee problems, that caused him to leave the 1980 Tour de France, were solved, and he was in form: Hinault had won important races in the spring, and he had skipped the 1981 Giro d'Italia to focus on the Tour.[5][6] His main rivals were 1980 Tour de France winner Joop Zoetemelk, 1976 Tour de France winner Lucien Van Impe and Joaquim Agostinho, although they had never been able to beat Hinault when he was in form, and of these rivals only Zoetemelk was ever able to keep Hinault within striking distance.[5]

Freddy Maertens, the winner of the points classification in the Tour de France in 1976 and 1978, had won only three minor races in 1979 and 1980, but in 1981 he was selected again for the Tour.[6]

Route and stages edit

The route for the 1981 Tour de France was revealed in December 1980.[7] Originally, the thirteenth stage was planned as a time trial, followed by a transfer of more than 500 km on the same day, with the fourteenth stage the next day as a mountain stage. A few months before the Tour, there were many teams interested in the Tour, and the Tour organisation was afraid that there would not be enough time on 9 July to have the time trial for that many cyclists, followed by the transfer. For this reason, the thirteenth stage was changed into a criterium, and the fourteenth stage became the time trial.[8] The 1981 Tour de France started on 25 June, and had two rest days, in Nantes and Morzine.[9] The highest point of elevation in the race was 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at the summit of the Col de la Madeleine mountain pass on stage 19.[10][11]

Stage characteristics and winners[12][9][13][14]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 25 June Nice 6 km (3.7 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
1a 26 June Nice 97 km (60 mi)   Hilly stage   Freddy Maertens (BEL)
1b Nice 40 km (25 mi)   Team time trial  TI–Raleigh–Creda[15]
2 27 June Nice to Martigues 254 km (158 mi)   Plain stage   Johan van der Velde (NED)
3 28 June Martigues to Narbonne 232 km (144 mi)   Plain stage   Freddy Maertens (BEL)
4 29 June Narbonne to Carcassonne 77 km (48 mi)   Team time trial  TI–Raleigh–Creda
5 30 June Saint-Gaudens to Pla d'Adet 117 km (73 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Lucien Van Impe (BEL)
6 1 July Nay to Pau 27 km (17 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
7 2 July Pau to Bordeaux 227 km (141 mi)   Plain stage   Urs Freuler (SUI)
8 3 July Rochefort to Nantes 182 km (113 mi)   Plain stage   Ad Wijnands (NED)
4 July Nantes Rest day
9 5 July Nantes to Le Mans 197 km (122 mi)   Plain stage   René Martens (BEL)
10 6 July Le Mans to Aulnay-sous-Bois 264 km (164 mi)   Plain stage   Ad Wijnands (NED)
11 7 July Compiègne to Roubaix 246 km (153 mi)   Plain stage   Daniel Willems (BEL)
12a 8 July Roubaix to Brussels (Belgium) 107 km (66 mi)   Plain stage   Freddy Maertens (BEL)
12b Brussels (Belgium) to Circuit Zolder (Belgium) 138 km (86 mi)   Plain stage   Eddy Planckaert (BEL)
13 9 July Beringen (Belgium) to Hasselt (Belgium) 157 km (98 mi)   Plain stage   Freddy Maertens (BEL)
14 10 July Mulhouse 38 km (24 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
15 11 July Besançon to Thonon-les-Bains 231 km (144 mi)   Hilly stage   Sean Kelly (IRE)
16 12 July Thonon-les-Bains to Morzine 200 km (120 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Robert Alban (FRA)
13 July Morzine Rest day
17 14 July Morzine to Alpe d'Huez 230 km (140 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Peter Winnen (NED)
18 15 July Le Bourg-d'Oisans to Le Pleynet 134 km (83 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
19 16 July Veurey to Saint-Priest 118 km (73 mi)   Plain stage   Daniel Willems (BEL)
20 17 July Saint-Priest 46 km (29 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
21 18 July Auxerre to Fontenay-sous-Bois 207 km (129 mi)   Plain stage   Johan van der Velde (NED)
22 19 July Fontenay-sous-Bois to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 187 km (116 mi)   Plain stage   Freddy Maertens (BEL)
Total 3,753 km (2,332 mi)[16]

Race overview edit

Bernard Hinault (pictured in 1982), winner of the general classification

Hinault started out strong and won the prologue. Freddy Maertens showed he was still able to win sprints by winning the first part of the first stage. The second part was a team time trial, won by TI–Raleigh, which put Gerrie Knetemann in the lead of the race. TI–Raleigh also won the second team time trial in stage four.[5]

The Pyrenees were only briefly visited, in the fifth stage.[6] For the last mountain, Hinault was the lead group, together with Lucien Van Impe and Phil Anderson. Van Impe escaped in the last kilometers and won the stage, 27 seconds ahead of Hinault. Anderson, who finished in third place, became the new leader, the first Australian cyclist to wear the yellow jersey.[5] Anderson had started as domestique for Jean-René Bernaudeau, and nobody was expecting him to be able to follow Hinault.[17] In the time trial of stage six, Hinault won as expected, and became the race leader. Anderson surprised with a third place, and he now followed Hinault by 13 seconds in the general classification.

In the following stages, through Northern France and Belgium, Hinault slowly increased his margin over Anderson by winning amelioration sprints, until lead by 57 seconds after stage 13. In stage 14, Hinault won the time trial, and added two more minutes to the margin.

In the sixteenth stage in the Alps, Anderson was not able to follow anymore. He lost 4 minutes to Hinault, but stayed in second place. Anderson lost this second place in the 17th stage, where he lost 17 minutes, making Van Impe the new second placed cyclist, nine minutes behind. Hinault showed his dominance by winning the eighteenth stage.

The time trial in stage 20 was also won by Hinault, who increased the margin to Van Impe to more than 14 minutes.[12]

Doping edit

In the 16th stage, Claude Vincendeau was randomly selected to undergo a doping test. Vincendeau abandoned during that stage, and had already left to his hotel. One of the doctors then went to his hotel to obtain a urine sample, but Vincendeau was unable/unwanting to give it. This counted as a positive test.[18]

Classification leadership and minor prizes edit

There were several classifications in the 1981 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders.[19] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[20] The time bonus for stage winners had been absent in the years before, but it returned in 1981;[12] 30, 20 and 10 seconds for the first three cyclists in every stage.[21]

Additionally, there was a points classification, were cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[22]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[23]

Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only cyclists younger than 24 were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[24]

The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1981, this classification had no associated jersey.[25]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps.[25] There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.[25]

In addition, there was a combativity award given after each mass-start stage to the cyclist considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner. The decision was made by a jury composed of journalists who gave points. The cyclist with the most points from votes in all stages led the combativity classification.[26] Bernard Hinault won this classification, and was given overall the super-combativity award.[27] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass a point in the Landes forest 42 km (26 mi) before the end of stage 7 in Bordeaux.[28][29] This prize was won by Theo de Rooij.[30]

Classification leadership by stage[31][32][33]
Stage Stage winner General classification
Points classification
Mountains classification
Young rider classification
Combination classification Intermediate sprints classification Team classifications Combativity award
By time By points
P Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault no award Theo de Rooij Bernard Hinault no award Renault–Elf–Gitane TI–Raleigh–Creda not awarded
1a Freddy Maertens Rudy Pevenage Charly Bérard Phil Anderson Rudy Pevenage Renault–Elf–Gitane Jean-René Bernaudeau
1b TI–Raleigh–Creda Gerrie Knetemann Ad Wijnands TI–Raleigh–Creda not awarded
2 Johan van der Velde Bernard Hinault Miko–Mercier–Vivagel Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle
3 Freddy Maertens Freddy Maertens Phil Anderson Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata Willy Teirlinck
4 TI–Raleigh–Creda Daniel Willems not awarded
5 Lucien Van Impe Phil Anderson Phil Anderson Phil Anderson Freddy Maertens Renault–Elf–Gitane Bernard Hinault
6 Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane not awarded
7 Urs Freuler Jean-François Pescheux
8 Ad Wijnands Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata Eddy Verstraeten
9 René Martens Peugeot–Esso–Michelin Patrick Perret
10 Ad Wijnands Régis Ovion
11 Daniel Willems Serge Beucherie
12a Freddy Maertens Daniel Willems
12b Eddy Planckaert
13 Freddy Maertens Rudy Pevenage
14 Bernard Hinault not awarded
15 Sean Kelly Pierre Bazzo
16 Robert Alban Lucien Van Impe Peugeot–Esso–Michelin Hubert Linard
17 Peter Winnen Peter Winnen Dominique Arnaud
18 Bernard Hinault Juan Fernández Martín
19 Daniel Willems Phil Anderson
20 Bernard Hinault not awarded
21 Johan van der Velde Gerrie Knetemann
22 Freddy Maertens Dominique Arnaud
Final Bernard Hinault Freddy Maertens Lucien Van Impe Peter Winnen Bernard Hinault Freddy Maertens Peugeot–Esso–Michelin Peugeot–Esso–Michelin Bernard Hinault

Final standings edit

  Denotes the winner of the general classification   Denotes the winner of the points classification
  Denotes the winner of the mountains classification   Denotes the winner of the young rider classification

General classification edit

Final general classification (1–10)[34]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 96h 19' 38"
2   Lucien Van Impe (BEL)   Boston–Mavic + 14' 34"
3   Robert Alban (FRA) La Redoute–Motobécane + 17' 04"
4   Joop Zoetemelk (NED) TI–Raleigh–Creda + 18' 21"
5   Peter Winnen (NED)   Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata + 20' 26"
6   Jean-René Bernaudeau (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin + 23' 02"
7   Johan De Muynck (BEL) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor + 24' 25"
8   Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor + 24' 37"
9   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor + 26' 18"
10   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin + 27' 00"

Points classification edit

Final points classification (1–10)[35][27]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Freddy Maertens (BEL)   Sunair–Sport 80–Colnago 428
2   William Tackaert (BEL) DAF Trucks–Côte d'Or 222
3   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 184
4   Alfons De Wolf (BEL) Vermeer Thijs 152
5   Rudy Pevenage (BEL) Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata 147
6   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 146
7   Sean Kelly (IRE) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor 121
8   Johan van der Velde (NED) TI–Raleigh–Creda 120
9   Yvon Bertin (FRA) Renault–Elf–Gitane 110
10   Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 83

Mountains classification edit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[35][27][36]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Lucien Van Impe (BEL)   Boston–Mavic 284
2   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 222
3   Jean-René Bernaudeau (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 168
4   Robert Alban (FRA) La Redoute–Motobécane 134
5   Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor 95
6   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 79
7   Peter Winnen (NED)   Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata 70
8   Raymond Martin (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 63
  Alfons De Wolf (BEL) Vermeer Thijs
10   Alberto Fernández (ESP) Teka–Campagnolo 53

Young rider classification edit

Final young rider classification (1–10)[35][37]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Peter Winnen (NED)   Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata 96h 40' 04"
2   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor +5' 52"
3   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin +6' 26"
4   Jean-François Rodriguez (FRA) Renault–Elf–Gitane +18' 06"
5   Graham Jones (GBR) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin +20' 40"
6   Dominique Arnaud (FRA) Puch–Wolber–Campagnolo + 31' 49"
7   Marino Lejarreta (ESP) Teka–Campagnolo + 50' 11"
8   Theo de Rooij (NED) Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata + 55' 36"
9   Ronny Claes (BEL) Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata + 56' 03"
10   Juan Fernández (ESP) Kelme–Gios + 1h 10' 20"

Combination classification edit

Final combination classification (1–6)[38]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 6
2   Lucien Van Impe (BEL)   Boston–Mavic 20
3   Jean-René Bernaudeau (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 21
4   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 22
5   Alfons De Wolf (BEL) Vermeer Thijs 23
6   Robert Alban (FRA) La Redoute–Motobécane 25

Intermediate sprints classification edit

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[36][39]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Freddy Maertens (BEL)   Sunair–Sport 80–Colnago 131
2   William Tackaert (BEL) DAF Trucks–Côte d'Or 106
3   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 61
4   Yvon Bertin (FRA) Renault–Elf–Gitane 51
5   Pierre Bazzo (FRA) La Redoute–Motobécane 45
6   Rudy Pevenage (BEL) Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata 43
7   Willy Teirlinck (BEL) Boston–Mavic 38
8   Ludo Peeters (BEL) TI–Raleigh–Creda 36
9   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 34
10   Marcel Laurens (BEL) DAF Trucks–Côte d'Or 32

Team classification edit

Final team classification (1–10)[35][36]
Rank Team Time
1 Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 399h 30' 24"
2 Renault–Elf–Gitane + 11' 20"
3 Capri Sonne–Koga Miyata + 26' 46"
4 La Redoute–Motobécane + 42' 49"
5 Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo + 45' 53"
6 Splendor–Wickes Bouwmarkt–Europ Decor + 52' 17"
7 TI–Raleigh–Creda + 1h 55' 35"
8 Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 2h 15' 53"
9 DAF Trucks–Côte d'Or + 2h 23' 29"
10 Puch–Wolber–Campagnolo + 2h 29' 20"

Combativity classification edit

Final combativity classification (1–5)[27]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Renault–Elf–Gitane 25
2   Dominique Arnaud (FRA) Puch–Wolber–Campagnolo 16
3   Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 12
4   Willy Teirlinck (BEL) Boston–Mavic 11
5   Phil Anderson (AUS) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 10
  Pierre Bazzo (FRA) La Redoute–Motobécane

Aftermath edit

The 1981 Tour de France is seen as the year in which the globalization of the Tour became important. Before that most cyclists came from France, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg and the Netherlands, with only occasional successes by other European cyclists. Anderson was the first non-European cyclist to lead the Tour de France, and more would follow in the coming years.[40] The plans to make the Tour de France open to amateurs were not forgotten, and it happened in 1983.[41]

Anderson would again wear the yellow jersey in the next year, when he also won the young rider classification.

Hinault won five stages as reigning world champion. This had happened before, most recently in 1979 with Gerrie Knetemann and in 1980 with Jan Raas, but after 1981 it became a rare occurrence. The next time that this happened was in 2002 with Óscar Freire, and after that in 2011 with Thor Hushovd.[42]

Maertens who also won five stages would make his comeback year complete by winning the 1981 UCI Road World Championships later that year, but after that never reached his 1981 level again.

Jacques Boyer became the first American to ride in the Tour de France, acting as a domestique for Hinault.[43]

References edit

  1. ^ "Profwereld wijst 'open' rondes af". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). De Krant van Toen. 28 November 1980. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Amerikanen willen in Tour". Limburgs Dagblad (in Dutch). 22 January 1981. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  3. ^ a b "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1981 – The starters". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  4. ^ "Vijftien ploegen in Tour". Limburgs Dagblad (in Dutch). 11 June 1981. p. 19. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d McGann & McGann 2008, pp. 129–133.
  6. ^ a b c Boyce, Barry (2010). "The Badger's return to Form". Cycling Revealed. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  7. ^ "Félix Lévitan: niet blij met bemoeizucht UCI Meer tumult in de Ronde van Frankrijk". Amigoe (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 23 December 1980. p. 9. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  8. ^ "Bergetappe minder in de Tour" (in Dutch). De Telegraaf. 4 April 1981. p. 37. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  9. ^ a b Augendre 2016, p. 72.
  10. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 179.
  11. ^ "Ronde van Frankrijk" [Tour de France]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 23 June 1981. p. 13 – via Delpher.
  12. ^ a b c "68ème Tour de France 1981" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 13 August 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  13. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC top ten". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  14. ^ "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1981 – The stage winners". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  15. ^ ""Tour-81" Clasificaciones" [Tour 81 Classifications] (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 27 June 1981. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  16. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 109.
  17. ^ Aubrey, Jane (6 July 2011). "Tour de France: Remembering Phil Anderson's day in yellow". Cyclingnews. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  18. ^ "Vincendeau positief". Limburgsch dagblad (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 15 July 1981. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  19. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  20. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  21. ^ "Drie aankomsten op bergen van de eerste categorie". Het vrije volk (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 23 June 1981. p. 13. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  22. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  23. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  24. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  25. ^ a b c Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  26. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  27. ^ a b c d "Truien-Premies-Petjes" [Jerseys-Premiums-Caps]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 20 July 1981. p. 23. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019.
  28. ^ "Ronde '81: Kort" [Tour '81: Short]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 3 July 1981. p. 13. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019.
  29. ^ "Van kilometer tot kilometer" [From kilometer to kilometer]. Leidse Courant (in Dutch). 3 July 1981. p. 13 – via Historische Kranten, Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken.
  30. ^ "Theo de Rooy: niet neer dan groot talent" [Theo de Rooy: no less than great talent]. Trouw (in Dutch). 9 July 1981. p. 13 – via Delpher.
  31. ^ "Dag na dag" [Day to day]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 20 July 1981. p. 23. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019.
  32. ^ Martin & Penazzo 1981, p. 124.
  33. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1981" [Information about the Tour de France from 1981]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  34. ^ a b "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1981 – Stage 22 Fontenay-sous-Bois > Paris". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  35. ^ a b c d "Laatste Tour in cijfers" [Last Tour in numbers]. Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 20 July 1981. p. 10. Retrieved 10 February 2012 – via Regionaal Archief Leiden.
  36. ^ a b c "Clasificaciones" (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 20 July 1981. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  37. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het jongerenklassement – Etappe 22" [Standings in the youth classification – Stage 22]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  38. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Combinatieklassement" [Combination classification]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  39. ^ a b Martin & Penazzo 1981, p. 125.
  40. ^ Dauncey & Hare 2003, p. 219.
  41. ^ "70ème Tour de France 1983" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  42. ^ Wilcockson, John (15 July 2011). "Inside the Tour with John Wilcockson: Hushovd joins an elite band of world champion stage winners". Velonews. Competitor Group. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  43. ^ Eric Reed, Selling the Yellow Jersey: The Tour de France in the Global Era(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 178.

Bibliography edit

External links edit

  Media related to Tour de France 1981 at Wikimedia Commons