1986 Tour de France
The 1986 Tour de France was the 73rd running of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Tour consisted of 23 stages, beginning with a prologue in Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, on 4 July, and concluded on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 27 July. This year had the first American cycling team, 7-Eleven, in Tour's history. The race was organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation, was shown on television in 72 countries, with the total viewers estimated at one billion.
Route of the 1986 Tour de France
|Stages||23 + Prologue|
|Distance||4,094 km (2,544 mi)|
|Winning time||110h 35' 19"|
Following the success of Bernard Hinault in the previous edition, the La Vie Claire team was heavily favored. Hinault promised to return Greg LeMond's support to win the 1985 Tour, however, continuing attacks cast doubt on Hinault's sincerity. He claimed that his tactics were simply to wear down LeMond's (and his) opponents and that he ultimately knew that LeMond would be the winner because of time losses earlier in the race. Regardless of his true motives, this tactic worked well, and rivals Laurent Fignon of Système U and Carrera Jeans–Vagabond's Urs Zimmermann were put on the defensive from the first day. Fignon quit the race due to injuries aggravated by stress.
The ascent of the legendary Alpe d'Huez gave spectators a spectacular stage in which Hinault made a risky solo attack to demoralize the opposition, to be matched only by LeMond at the top. In a gesture of respect, the two riders reached the top hand-in-hand, beaming smiles, and LeMond let Hinault finish first to claim the stage. However, within hours LeMond and Hinault were interviewed together on joint television, where Hinault stated that the race was not over, seemingly betraying his teammate LeMond. He went on to say that they would let the final time trial determine the winner.
The race was won by LeMond, the first from an English-speaking country, with a winning margin of three minutes and ten seconds over Hinault, and Zimmermann completed the podium, ten minutes and 54 seconds down on LeMond. In the race's other classifications, Hinault won the mountains classification, Panasonic–Merckx–Agu rider Eric Vanderaerden the points classification, La Vie Claire's Andrew Hampsten won the young rider classification, with La Vie Claire finishing at the head of the team classification by one hour 51 minutes, after placing four riders inside the final overall top ten placings.
- 1 Teams
- 2 Pre-race favourites
- 3 Route and stages
- 4 Race overview
- 5 Classification leadership
- 6 Final standings
- 7 Super Prestige Pernod ranking
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
In June, 23 teams had requested to start in the 1986 Tour. The Tour direction accepted 21 applications, so a total of 21 teams participated in the 1986 Tour de France. The two teams whose application was denied were Skala-Skil and Miko. Each team sent a squad of ten riders, which meant that the race would start with a peloton of 210 cyclists, a record setting total. From the 210 riders that began this edition, 132 made it to the finish in Paris.
7-Eleven became the Tour's first team from the United States, with a squad consisting of eight Americans, one Canadian and one Mexican. Jim Ochowicz, 7-Eleven's founder and manager, met with the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO) and persuaded them to invite his team. In the Spring, the team withdrew from competition in Europe (missing the opportunity to become the first American team in the history of the Vuelta a España) due to the United States conflict with Libya, losing out on much needed competitive racing unavailable in the United States.
The teams entering the race were:
- Café de Colombia–Varta
- Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
- Gis Gelati
- La Vie Claire
- RMO–Cycles Méral–Mavic
- Système U
Bernard Hinault, winner of the 1985 Tour de France, had promised to support his teammate Greg LeMond, who had finished second in 1985. After their domination in 1985, their La Vie Claire team was the clear favourite. Before the start of the event, Hinault announced it would be his last Tour de France of his career. Past winner Laurent Fignon was working on his comeback, for the Système U team. Juan Mora of El País believed that the race would be highlighted by a duel between Fignon and Hinault. He named LeMond and Frenchman Charly Mottet as potential contenders if their team captains – Hinault and Fignon, respectively – fail to perform to the level expected. Mora believed Pedro Delgado to be the best Spanish contender for the overall title citing that his PDM–Concorde should perform well in the team time trial. Gian Paolo Ormezzano of La Stampa believed that there was no Italian rider competing that could be a legitimate threat to win the race, despite the fact that three Italian based teams were invited – the most since the 1979 edition. Ormezzano also thought the favourites going into the race were Hinault and Fignon.
Route and stagesEdit
The race route for the 1986 edition of the Tour de France was unveiled on 8 October 1985 by both Jacques Goddet and Félix Lévitan. The race's holding was pushed back a week from its normal date in order to prevent overlap with the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Covering a total of 4,094 km (2,544 mi), it included four time trials (three individual and one for teams) and ten stages deemed as flat. The race included four stages that featured a summit finish: stage 13 to Superbagnères; stage 17 to Col du Granon; stage 18 to Alpe d'Huez; and stage 21 to Puy de Dôme.
Tour director Levitan felt after the 1985 Tour de France that the race had been too easy, and made the course in 1986 extra difficult, including more mountain climbs than before. This angered Hinault, who threatened to skip the 1986 Tour. Before the race started an avalanche caused a large amount of dirt and rock to be deposited on the slopes of the Col du Tourmalet, which caused Goddet to consider crossing the Col d'Aubisque instead.
The 1986 Tour de France started on 4 July; It had one rest day, after the finish on the Alpe d'Huez.
|P||4 July||Boulogne-Billancourt||4.6 km (2.9 mi)||Individual time trial||Thierry Marie (FRA)|
|1||5 July||Nanterre to Sceaux||85 km (52.8 mi)||Plain stage||Pol Verschuere (BEL)|
|2||5 July||Meudon to Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines||56 km (34.8 mi)||Team time trial||Système U|
|3||6 July||Levallois-Perret to Liévin||214 km (133.0 mi)||Plain stage||Davis Phinney (USA)|
|4||7 July||Liévin to Évreux||243 km (151.0 mi)||Plain stage||Pello Ruiz Cabestany (ESP)|
|5||8 July||Evreux to Villers-sur-Mer||124.5 km (77.4 mi)||Plain stage||Johan van der Velde (NED)|
|6||9 July||Villers-sur-Mer to Cherbourg||200 km (124.3 mi)||Plain stage||Guido Bontempi (ITA)|
|7||10 July||Cherbourg to Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët||201 km (124.9 mi)||Plain stage||Ludo Peeters (BEL)|
|8||11 July||Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët to Nantes||204 km (126.8 mi)||Plain stage||Eddy Planckaert (BEL)|
|9||12 July||Nantes||61.5 km (38.2 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|10||13 July||Nantes to Futuroscope||183 km (113.7 mi)||Plain stage||Jose-Angel Sarrapio (ESP)|
|11||14 July||Futuroscope to Bordeaux||258.3 km (160.5 mi)||Plain stage||Rudy Dhaenens (BEL)|
|12||15 July||Bayonne to Pau||217.5 km (135.1 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Pedro Delgado (ESP)|
|13||16 July||Pau to Superbagnères||186 km (115.6 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Greg LeMond (USA)|
|14||17 July||Superbagnères to Blagnac||154 km (95.7 mi)||Plain stage||Niki Rüttimann (SUI)|
|15||18 July||Carcassonne to Nîmes||225.5 km (140.1 mi)||Plain stage||Frank Hoste (BEL)|
|16||19 July||Nîmes to Gap||246.5 km (153.2 mi)||Plain stage||Jean-François Bernard (FRA)|
|17||20 July||Gap to Serre Chevalier||190 km (118.1 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)|
|18||21 July||Briançon to Alpe d'Huez||162.5 km (101.0 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|22 July||Alpe d'Huez||Rest day|
|19||23 July||Villard-de-Lans to Saint-Étienne||179.5 km (111.5 mi)||Plain stage||Julián Gorospe (ESP)|
|20||24 July||Saint-Étienne||58 km (36.0 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|21||25 July||Saint-Étienne to Puy de Dôme||190 km (118.1 mi)||Plain stage||Erich Mächler (SUI)|
|22||26 July||Clermont-Ferrand to Nevers||194 km (120.5 mi)||Plain stage||Guido Bontempi (ITA)|
|23||27 July||Cosne-sur-Loire to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||255 km (158.4 mi)||Plain stage||Guido Bontempi (ITA)|
|Total||4,094 km (2,544 mi)|
The prologue was won by Thierry Marie, with Hinault in second place, just two seconds slower. Marie lost the lead in the first stage to Alex Stieda, thanks to bonus time that Stieda won in intermediate sprints.
The following stages were flat. Although the lead changed several times (first to Dominique Gaigne, then to Johan van der Velde and later to Jørgen V. Pedersen), there were no significant time differences between the favourites. The first test for them was the ninth stage, an individual time trial. Won by Hinault, it put him in third place, 49 seconds in front of LeMond, who had suffered from a flat tire.
Stages 12 and 13 were in the Pyrenees. In the 12th stage, Hinault and his teammate Jean-François Bernard were in front together with Pedro Delgado. LeMond was part of the chasing group, but because he was part of the same team as Hinault and Bernard, he did not help with the chase. Only at the last part of the stage, LeMond escaped from that group, taking only Luis Herrera with him, but by then he was already four minutes behind on the stage. Hinault let Delgado win the stage, but Hinault became the new leader in the general classification, with LeMond in second place, five minutes behind.
In the thirteenth stage, Hinault attacked again, on the descent of the Tourmalet, the first of the four big climbs. LeMond was in the same situation as the day before: he had the power to do more, but did not want to chase his teammate. Hinault extended his lead to almost three minutes at the start of the Col de Peyresourde, the third climb of the day. But Hinault was getting tired, and was caught by a small group (including LeMond) on the descent. On the final climb of the day, to Superbagnères, Andrew Hampsten (from the same team as Hinault and LeMond) attacked. Hampsten was joined by LeMond, and Hampsten paced LeMond as far as he could, and then LeMond left on his own for the stage victory. On these final kilometres, Hinault lost several minutes to LeMond, and at the end of the stage, Hinault was still leading the general classification, but only 40 seconds in front of LeMond.
In stages 14 to 16, travelling from the Pyrenees to the Alps, there were no important changes in the general classification.
In stage 17, in the Alps, Hinault, was dropped on the climb of the Col d'Izoard. Urs Zimmermann (third in the general classification) attacked on the descent and LeMond followed him, leaving other rival climbers behind. The stage was won by Eduardo Chozas; LeMond kept following Zimmermann until the finishline, and Hinault lost three minutes to them. This made LeMond the new leader of the race, with Zimmermann in second place, and Hinault third.
In the 18th stage, Hinault attacked several times, but every time he was rejoined by LeMond and others. After an attack on the Col du Télégraphe, Zimmermann was unable to follow. LeMond and Hinault only had Steve Bauer and Pello Ruiz-Cabestany with them, but on the climb of the Croix de Fer, they could not follow so it was just LeMond and Hinault. They stayed together until the finish, where LeMond allowed Hinault to win. The margin with Zimmermann (third to finish on that stage) was more than 5 minutes, and it was clear that Zimmermann could no longer win the Tour.
Hinault still had a small chance of beating his teammate LeMond. One of those chances was in the individual time trial in stage 20. Halfway through his race, LeMond fell, and had to change bikes after the fall, losing time in that way. Hinault won the stage, beating LeMond by 25 seconds.
Stage 21 was the last mountainous stage of the Tour. On the final climb, LeMond was able to leave Hinault behind, and increased his lead to more than three minutes.
After that, the final classification was settled. On the last stage of the Tour, LeMond crashed and needed a new bike; his teammates (including Hinault) waited for him, and escorted him back to the other riders. Hinault joined the sprint for the final stage victory, but finished in fourth place, beaten by Guido Bontempi.
LeMond won the general classification ahead of Hinault.
Before the race, Hinault had promised to help LeMond win the Tour. After the race, when he was reminded of that promise, Hinault said that the many attacks that he made were not against LeMond, but against his competitors.
Hinault retired shortly after the Tour. LeMond could not defend his Tour victory in the 1987 Tour de France, because he was badly injured in a shooting accident in early 1987. He recovered for a few years, but came back to win the 1989 and 1990 tours.
This would be the final Tour for legendary Dutch rider Joop Zoetemelk. He started and finished 16 Tours, a record, of these Tours he finished in the top 5 eleven times and won the 1980 Tour de France. He rode his final Tour wearing the rainbow jersey as world champion.
There were several classifications in the 1986 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.
Another classification was the debutant classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
The sixth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. Its leader wore a red jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps. There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.
In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after each mass-start stage to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner. At the conclusion of the Tour, Bernard Hinault won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists. The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given to the first rider to pass the memorial to Tour founder Henri Desgrange near the summit of the Col du Galibier. This prize was won by Luis Herrera during stage 18.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|Denotes the winner of the combination classification||Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification|
|1||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||110h 35' 19"|
|2||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||+ 3' 10"|
|3||Urs Zimmermann (SUI)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||+ 10' 54"|
|4||Andrew Hampsten (USA)||La Vie Claire||+ 18' 44"|
|5||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||+ 24' 36"|
|6||Ronan Pensec (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell||+ 25' 59"|
|7||Niki Rüttimann (SUI)||La Vie Claire||+ 30' 52"|
|8||Álvaro Pino (ESP)||Zor–BH||+ 33' 00"|
|9||Steven Rooks (NED)||PDM–Concorde||+ 33' 22"|
|10||Yvon Madiot (FRA)||Système U||+ 33' 27"|
|1||Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)||Panasonic–Merckx–Agu||277|
|2||Jozef Lieckens (BEL)||Joker–Emerxil–Merckx||232|
|3||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||210|
|4||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||210|
|5||Guido Bontempi (ITA)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||166|
|6||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||156|
|7||Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||149|
|8||Frank Hoste (BEL)||Fagor||146|
|9||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||132|
|10||Urs Zimmermann (SUI)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||125|
|1||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||351|
|2||Luis Herrera (COL)||Café de Colombia–Varta||270|
|3||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||265|
|4||Urs Zimmermann (SUI)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||191|
|5||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Teka||172|
|6||Samuel Cabrera (COL)||Reynolds||162|
|7||Ronan Pensec (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell||139|
|8||Andrew Hampsten (USA)||La Vie Claire||133|
|9||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||123|
|10||Jean-François Bernard (FRA)||La Vie Claire||105|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Andrew Hampsten (USA)||La Vie Claire||110h 54' 03"|
|2||Ronan Pensec (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell||+7' 15"|
|3||Jean-François Bernard (FRA)||La Vie Claire||+ 17' 01"|
|4||Jesús Blanco (ESP)||Teka||+44' 32"|
|5||Peter Stevenhaagen (NED)||PDM–Concorde||+ 51' 56"|
|6||Primož Čerin (YUG)||Malvor–Bottecchia–Sidi||+ 55' 56"|
|7||Dag Otto Lauritzen (NOR)||Peugeot–Shell||+ 57' 03"|
|8||Silvano Contini (ITA)||Gis Gelati||+ 1h 03' 34"|
|9||Heriberto Urán (COL)||Postobón–Manzana–Ryalcao||+ 1h 17' 51"|
|10||Jean-Claude Leclercq (FRA)||Kas||+ 1h 21' 59"|
|1||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||87|
|2||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||La Vie Claire||87|
|3||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||68|
|4||Urs Zimmermann (SUI)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||61|
|5||Andrew Hampsten (USA)||La Vie Claire||59|
|6||Jean-François Bernard (FRA)||La Vie Claire||54|
|7||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Teka||49|
|8||Julián Gorospe (ESP)||Reynolds||45|
|9||Ronan Pensec (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell||41|
|10||Samuel Cabrera (COL)||Reynolds||38|
Intermediate sprints classificationEdit
|1||Gerrit Solleveld (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||305|
|2||Dirk De Wolf (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||170|
|3||Dominique Arnaud (FRA)||Reynolds||145|
|4||Johan van der Velde (NED)||Panasonic–Merckx–Agu||86|
|5||Julián Gorospe (ESP)||Reynolds||60|
|6||Régis Simon (FRA)||RMO–Cycles Méral–Mavic||57|
|7||Adri van der Poel (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||55|
|8||Guido Winterberg (SUI)||La Vie Claire||50|
|9||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||49|
|10||Eduardo Chozas (ESP)||Teka||45|
|1||La Vie Claire||331h 35' 48"|
|2||Peugeot–Shell||+ 1h 51' 50"|
|3||Système U||+ 2h 00' 50"|
|4||PDM–Concorde||+ 2h 23' 50"|
|5||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||+ 2h 26' 36"|
|6||Fagor||+ 2h 28' 52"|
|7||Panasonic–Merckx–Agu||+ 2h 31' 08"|
|8||Teka||+ 2h 43' 36"|
|9||Zor–BH||+ 2h 43' 36"|
|10||Café de Colombia–Varta||+ 2h 55' 45"|
Super Prestige Pernod rankingEdit
Riders in the Tour competed individually for points that contributed towards the Super Prestige Pernod ranking, an international season-long road cycling competition, with the winner seen as the best all-round rider. The 250 points accrued by Bernard Hinault moved him fourth to the top of the ranking, replacing Sean Kelly, who did not ride the Tour.
|1||Greg LeMond (USA)||La Vie Claire||600|
|2||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Kas||530|
|3||Claude Criquielion (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||465|
|4||Adri van der Poel (NED)||Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko||425|
|5||Urs Zimmermann (SUI)||Carrera Jeans–Vagabond||400|
|6||Francesco Moser (ITA)||Supermercati Brianzoli||290|
|7||Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL)||Hitachi–Robland||235|
|8||Álvaro Pino (ESP)||Zor–BH||235|
|9||Jean-François Bernard (FRA)||La Vie Claire||225|
|10||Steve Bauer (CAN)||La Vie Claire||215|
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- Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-300-2.
- Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill (2011). Historical Dictionary of Cycling. Historical dictionaries of sports. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7175-5. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Thompson, Christopher S. (2008). The Tour de France: A Cultural History. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93486-3.
- van den Akker, Pieter (2018). Tour de France Rules and Statistics: 1903–2018. Self-published. ISBN 978-1-79398-080-9.
- Woodland, Les (2007) [1st. pub. 2003]. The yellow jersey companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press. ISBN 978-0-224-08016-3. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Moore, Richard (2011). Slaying the Badger: LeMond, Hinault and the Greatest Ever Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press. ISBN 978-0-224-08290-7. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
Media related to 1986 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons