Open main menu

1986 Tour de France

The 1986 Tour de France was the 73rd running of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Tour consisted of 23 stages, beginning with a prologue in Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, on 4 July, and concluded on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 27 July. This year had the first American cycling team, 7-Eleven, in Tour's history. The race was organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation, was shown on television in 72 countries, with the total viewers estimated at one billion.[1]

1986 Tour de France
Route of the 1986 Tour de France
Route of the 1986 Tour de France
Race details
Dates4–27 July
Stages23 + Prologue
Distance4,094 km (2,544 mi)
Winning time110h 35' 19"
Winner  Greg LeMond (USA) (La Vie Claire)
  Second  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
  Third  Urs Zimmermann (SUI) (Carrera Jeans–Vagabond)

Points  Eric Vanderaerden (BEL) (Panasonic–Merckx–Agu)
Mountains  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
Youth  Andrew Hampsten (USA) (La Vie Claire)
Combination  Greg LeMond (USA) (La Vie Claire)
Sprints  Gerrit Solleveld (NED) (Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko)
  Combativity  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
  Team La Vie Claire
  Team points Panasonic–Merckx–Agu
← 1985
1987 →

Following the success of Bernard Hinault in the previous edition, the La Vie Claire team was heavily favored. Hinault promised to return Greg LeMond's support to win the 1985 Tour, however, continuing attacks cast doubt on Hinault's sincerity. He claimed that his tactics were simply to wear down LeMond's (and his) opponents and that he ultimately knew that LeMond would be the winner because of time losses earlier in the race. Regardless of his true motives, this tactic worked well, and rivals Laurent Fignon of Système U and Carrera Jeans–Vagabond's Urs Zimmermann were put on the defensive from the first day. Fignon quit the race due to injuries aggravated by stress.

The ascent of the legendary Alpe d'Huez gave spectators a spectacular stage in which Hinault made a risky solo attack to demoralize the opposition, to be matched only by LeMond at the top. In a gesture of respect, the two riders reached the top hand-in-hand, beaming smiles, and LeMond let Hinault finish first to claim the stage. However, within hours LeMond and Hinault were interviewed together on joint television, where Hinault stated that the race was not over, seemingly betraying his teammate LeMond. He went on to say that they would let the final time trial determine the winner.

The race was won by LeMond, the first from an English-speaking country, with a winning margin of three minutes and ten seconds over Hinault, and Zimmermann completed the podium, ten minutes and 54 seconds down on LeMond. In the race's other classifications, Hinault won the mountains classification, Panasonic–Merckx–Agu rider Eric Vanderaerden the points classification, La Vie Claire's Andrew Hampsten won the young rider classification, with La Vie Claire finishing at the head of the team classification by one hour 51 minutes, after placing four riders inside the final overall top ten placings.


In June, 23 teams had requested to start in the 1986 Tour.[2] The Tour direction accepted 21 applications, so a total of 21 teams participated in the 1986 Tour de France.[3][4][5] The two teams whose application was denied were Skala-Skil and Miko.[2] Each team sent a squad of ten riders, which meant that the race would start with a peloton of 210 cyclists,[3][4] a record setting total.[6][5] From the 210 riders that began this edition, 132 made it to the finish in Paris.[7]

7-Eleven became the Tour's first team from the United States, with a squad consisting of eight Americans, one Canadian and one Mexican.[8][3] Jim Ochowicz, 7-Eleven's founder and manager, met with the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO) and persuaded them to invite his team. In the Spring, the team withdrew from competition in Europe (missing the opportunity to become the first American team in the history of the Vuelta a España) due to the United States conflict with Libya, losing out on much needed competitive racing unavailable in the United States.[9]

The teams entering the race were:[3]

Pre-race favouritesEdit

La Vie Claire teammates, Bernard Hinault (left, pictured in 1982), the 1985 winner and the eventual runner-up, and Greg LeMond (right, pictured in 1989), the eventual winner, were considered among the favourites to win before the race.

Bernard Hinault, winner of the 1985 Tour de France, had promised to support his teammate Greg LeMond, who had finished second in 1985. After their domination in 1985, their La Vie Claire team was the clear favourite.[10] Before the start of the event, Hinault announced it would be his last Tour de France of his career.[11] Past winner Laurent Fignon was working on his comeback, for the Système U team.[12] Juan Mora of El País believed that the race would be highlighted by a duel between Fignon and Hinault.[5] He named LeMond and Frenchman Charly Mottet as potential contenders if their team captains – Hinault and Fignon, respectively – fail to perform to the level expected.[5] Mora believed Pedro Delgado to be the best Spanish contender for the overall title citing that his PDM–Concorde should perform well in the team time trial.[5] Gian Paolo Ormezzano of La Stampa believed that there was no Italian rider competing that could be a legitimate threat to win the race, despite the fact that three Italian based teams were invited – the most since the 1979 edition.[13] Ormezzano also thought the favourites going into the race were Hinault and Fignon.[13]

Route and stagesEdit

The race route for the 1986 edition of the Tour de France was unveiled on 8 October 1985 by both Jacques Goddet and Félix Lévitan.[14] The race's holding was pushed back a week from its normal date in order to prevent overlap with the 1986 FIFA World Cup.[14][15] Covering a total of 4,094 km (2,544 mi),[16] it included four time trials (three individual and one for teams) and ten stages deemed as flat.[14] The race included four stages that featured a summit finish:[11] stage 13 to Superbagnères; stage 17 to Col du Granon; stage 18 to Alpe d'Huez; and stage 21 to Puy de Dôme.[17]

Tour director Levitan felt after the 1985 Tour de France that the race had been too easy, and made the course in 1986 extra difficult, including more mountain climbs than before. This angered Hinault, who threatened to skip the 1986 Tour.[15] Before the race started an avalanche caused a large amount of dirt and rock to be deposited on the slopes of the Col du Tourmalet, which caused Goddet to consider crossing the Col d'Aubisque instead.[5]

The 1986 Tour de France started on 4 July; It had one rest day, after the finish on the Alpe d'Huez.[18]

Stage characteristics and winners[4][18][19]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 4 July Boulogne-Billancourt 4.6 km (2.9 mi)   Individual time trial   Thierry Marie (FRA)
1 5 July Nanterre to Sceaux 85 km (52.8 mi)   Plain stage   Pol Verschuere (BEL)
2 5 July Meudon to Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines 56 km (34.8 mi)   Team time trial  Système U
3 6 July Levallois-Perret to Liévin 214 km (133.0 mi)   Plain stage   Davis Phinney (USA)
4 7 July Liévin to Évreux 243 km (151.0 mi)   Plain stage   Pello Ruiz Cabestany (ESP)
5 8 July Evreux to Villers-sur-Mer 124.5 km (77.4 mi)   Plain stage   Johan van der Velde (NED)
6 9 July Villers-sur-Mer to Cherbourg 200 km (124.3 mi)   Plain stage   Guido Bontempi (ITA)
7 10 July Cherbourg to Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët 201 km (124.9 mi)   Plain stage   Ludo Peeters (BEL)
8 11 July Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët to Nantes 204 km (126.8 mi)   Plain stage   Eddy Planckaert (BEL)
9 12 July Nantes 61.5 km (38.2 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
10 13 July Nantes to Futuroscope 183 km (113.7 mi)   Plain stage   Jose-Angel Sarrapio (ESP)
11 14 July Futuroscope to Bordeaux 258.3 km (160.5 mi)   Plain stage   Rudy Dhaenens (BEL)
12 15 July Bayonne to Pau 217.5 km (135.1 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Pedro Delgado (ESP)
13 16 July Pau to Superbagnères 186 km (115.6 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Greg LeMond (USA)
14 17 July Superbagnères to Blagnac 154 km (95.7 mi)   Plain stage   Niki Rüttimann (SUI)
15 18 July Carcassonne to Nîmes 225.5 km (140.1 mi)   Plain stage   Frank Hoste (BEL)
16 19 July Nîmes to Gap 246.5 km (153.2 mi)   Plain stage   Jean-François Bernard (FRA)
17 20 July Gap to Serre Chevalier 190 km (118.1 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Eduardo Chozas (ESP)
18 21 July Briançon to Alpe d'Huez 162.5 km (101.0 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
22 July Alpe d'Huez Rest day
19 23 July Villard-de-Lans to Saint-Étienne 179.5 km (111.5 mi)   Plain stage   Julián Gorospe (ESP)
20 24 July Saint-Étienne 58 km (36.0 mi)   Individual time trial   Bernard Hinault (FRA)
21 25 July Saint-Étienne to Puy de Dôme 190 km (118.1 mi)   Plain stage   Erich Mächler (SUI)
22 26 July Clermont-Ferrand to Nevers 194 km (120.5 mi)   Plain stage   Guido Bontempi (ITA)
23 27 July Cosne-sur-Loire to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 255 km (158.4 mi)   Plain stage   Guido Bontempi (ITA)
Total 4,094 km (2,544 mi)[16]

Race overviewEdit

Système U rider Thierry Marie (pictured in 1993) won the opening prologue, taking the lead of the 1986 Tour.

The prologue was won by Thierry Marie, with Hinault in second place, just two seconds slower.[12] Marie lost the lead in the first stage to Alex Stieda, thanks to bonus time that Stieda won in intermediate sprints.[12]

Stieda tried to defend the lead in the second stage, a team time trial, but lost time when his teammate Eric Heiden crashed, and Marie was back in the lead.[12]

The following stages were flat. Although the lead changed several times (first to Dominique Gaigne, then to Johan van der Velde and later to Jørgen V. Pedersen), there were no significant time differences between the favourites. The first test for them was the ninth stage, an individual time trial. Won by Hinault, it put him in third place, 49 seconds in front of LeMond, who had suffered from a flat tire.[12]

Stages 12 and 13 were in the Pyrenees. In the 12th stage, Hinault and his teammate Jean-François Bernard were in front together with Pedro Delgado. LeMond was part of the chasing group, but because he was part of the same team as Hinault and Bernard, he did not help with the chase. Only at the last part of the stage, LeMond escaped from that group, taking only Luis Herrera with him, but by then he was already four minutes behind on the stage. Hinault let Delgado win the stage, but Hinault became the new leader in the general classification, with LeMond in second place, five minutes behind.[12]

In the thirteenth stage, Hinault attacked again, on the descent of the Tourmalet, the first of the four big climbs. LeMond was in the same situation as the day before: he had the power to do more, but did not want to chase his teammate. Hinault extended his lead to almost three minutes at the start of the Col de Peyresourde, the third climb of the day. But Hinault was getting tired, and was caught by a small group (including LeMond) on the descent. On the final climb of the day, to Superbagnères, Andrew Hampsten (from the same team as Hinault and LeMond) attacked. Hampsten was joined by LeMond, and Hampsten paced LeMond as far as he could, and then LeMond left on his own for the stage victory. On these final kilometres, Hinault lost several minutes to LeMond, and at the end of the stage, Hinault was still leading the general classification, but only 40 seconds in front of LeMond.[12]

In stages 14 to 16, travelling from the Pyrenees to the Alps, there were no important changes in the general classification.

La Vie Claire's Greg LeMond (pictured in 1990) lead the GC from stage 17 until the conclusion of the 23-stage race.

In stage 17, in the Alps, Hinault, was dropped on the climb of the Col d'Izoard. Urs Zimmermann (third in the general classification) attacked on the descent and LeMond followed him, leaving other rival climbers behind. The stage was won by Eduardo Chozas; LeMond kept following Zimmermann until the finishline, and Hinault lost three minutes to them. This made LeMond the new leader of the race, with Zimmermann in second place, and Hinault third.[12]

In the 18th stage, Hinault attacked several times, but every time he was rejoined by LeMond and others. After an attack on the Col du Télégraphe, Zimmermann was unable to follow. LeMond and Hinault only had Steve Bauer and Pello Ruiz-Cabestany with them, but on the climb of the Croix de Fer, they could not follow so it was just LeMond and Hinault. They stayed together until the finish, where LeMond allowed Hinault to win. The margin with Zimmermann (third to finish on that stage) was more than 5 minutes, and it was clear that Zimmermann could no longer win the Tour.[12]

Hinault still had a small chance of beating his teammate LeMond. One of those chances was in the individual time trial in stage 20. Halfway through his race, LeMond fell, and had to change bikes after the fall, losing time in that way. Hinault won the stage, beating LeMond by 25 seconds.[12]

Stage 21 was the last mountainous stage of the Tour. On the final climb, LeMond was able to leave Hinault behind, and increased his lead to more than three minutes.[12]

After that, the final classification was settled. On the last stage of the Tour, LeMond crashed and needed a new bike; his teammates (including Hinault) waited for him, and escorted him back to the other riders. Hinault joined the sprint for the final stage victory, but finished in fourth place, beaten by Guido Bontempi.

LeMond won the general classification ahead of Hinault.


Before the race, Hinault had promised to help LeMond win the Tour. After the race, when he was reminded of that promise, Hinault said that the many attacks that he made were not against LeMond, but against his competitors.[12]

Hinault retired shortly after the Tour. LeMond could not defend his Tour victory in the 1987 Tour de France, because he was badly injured in a shooting accident in early 1987. He recovered for a few years, but came back to win the 1989 and 1990 tours.

This would be the final Tour for legendary Dutch rider Joop Zoetemelk. He started and finished 16 Tours, a record, of these Tours he finished in the top 5 eleven times and won the 1980 Tour de France. He rode his final Tour wearing the rainbow jersey as world champion.

Classification leadershipEdit

There were several classifications in the 1986 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders.[20] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[21]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[22]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[23]

There was also a combination classification. This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications, its leader wore the combination jersey.[24]

Another classification was the debutant classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[24]

The sixth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. Its leader wore a red jersey.[25]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps.[25] There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.[25]

In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after each mass-start stage to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner.[26] At the conclusion of the Tour, Bernard Hinault won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists.[18] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given to the first rider to pass the memorial to Tour founder Henri Desgrange near the summit of the Col du Galibier. This prize was won by Luis Herrera during stage 18.[27][28][29]

Classification leadership by stage[30][31][32]
Stage Stage winner General classification
Points classification
Mountains classification
Young rider classification
Combination classification
Intermediate sprints classification
Team classifications Combativity award
By time By points
P Thierry Marie Thierry Marie Thierry Marie not awarded Jesús Blanco Villar Thierry Marie not awarded Système U Système U not awarded
1 Pol Verschuere Alex Stieda Eric Vanderaerden Alex Stieda Alex Stieda Alex Stieda Alex Stieda Alex Stieda
2 Système U Thierry Marie Eric Boyer not awarded
3 Davis Phinney Federico Echave
4 Pello Ruiz Cabestany Dominique Gaigne Eric Vanderaerden Gerrit Solleveld Kas Régis Simon
5 Johan van der Velde Johan van der Velde Johan van der Velde Panasonic–Merckx–Agu Joël Pelier
6 Guido Bontempi Régis Simon Kas Bruno Leali
7 Ludo Peeters Jørgen V. Pedersen Carrera Jeans–Vagabond Miguel Indurain
8 Eddy Planckaert Panasonic–Merckx–Agu Bernard Vallet
9 Bernard Hinault Bruno Cornillet Joël Pelier not awarded
10 Angel Sarrapio Jean-Claude Bagot
11 Rudy Dhaenens Sean Yates
12 Pedro Delgado Bernard Hinault Ronan Pensec Jean-François Bernard Bernard Hinault La Vie Claire Bernard Hinault
13 Greg LeMond Robert Millar Andrew Hampsten Dominique Arnaud
14 Niki Rüttimann Greg LeMond Christophe Lavainne
15 Frank Hoste Paul Haghedooren
16 Jean-François Bernard Julián Gorospe
17 Eduardo Chozas Greg LeMond Eduardo Chozas
18 Bernard Hinault Greg LeMond Bernard Hinault
19 Julián Gorospe Bernard Hinault Julián Gorospe
20 Bernard Hinault not awarded
21 Erich Maechler Dirk De Wolf
22 Guido Bontempi Éric Caritoux
23 Guido Bontempi not awarded
Final Greg LeMond Eric Vanderaerden Bernard Hinault Andrew Hampsten Greg LeMond Gerrit Solleveld La Vie Claire Panasonic–Merckx–Agu Bernard Hinault

Final standingsEdit

  Denotes the winner of the general classification   Denotes the winner of the points classification
  Denotes the winner of the mountains classification   Denotes the winner of the young rider classification
  Denotes the winner of the combination classification   Denotes the winner of the intermediate sprints classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[7]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Greg LeMond (USA)     La Vie Claire 110h 35' 19"
2   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire + 3' 10"
3   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 10' 54"
4   Andrew Hampsten (USA)   La Vie Claire + 18' 44"
5   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi–Robland + 24' 36"
6   Ronan Pensec (FRA) Peugeot–Shell + 25' 59"
7   Niki Rüttimann (SUI) La Vie Claire + 30' 52"
8   Álvaro Pino (ESP) Zor–BH + 33' 00"
9   Steven Rooks (NED) PDM–Concorde + 33' 22"
10   Yvon Madiot (FRA) Système U + 33' 27"

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–10)[33][34]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Eric Vanderaerden (BEL)   Panasonic–Merckx–Agu 277
2   Jozef Lieckens (BEL) Joker–Emerxil–Merckx 232
3   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 210
4   Greg LeMond (USA)     La Vie Claire 210
5   Guido Bontempi (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 166
6   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 156
7   Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 149
8   Frank Hoste (BEL) Fagor 146
9   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire 132
10   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 125

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[33][35]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 351
2   Luis Herrera (COL) Café de Colombia–Varta 270
3   Greg LeMond (USA)     La Vie Claire 265
4   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 191
5   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Teka 172
6   Samuel Cabrera (COL) Reynolds 162
7   Ronan Pensec (FRA) Peugeot–Shell 139
8   Andrew Hampsten (USA)   La Vie Claire 133
9   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 123
10   Jean-François Bernard (FRA) La Vie Claire 105

Young rider classificationEdit

Final young rider classification (1–10)[33][36]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Andrew Hampsten (USA)   La Vie Claire 110h 54' 03"
2   Ronan Pensec (FRA) Peugeot–Shell +7' 15"
3   Jean-François Bernard (FRA) La Vie Claire + 17' 01"
4   Jesús Blanco (ESP) Teka +44' 32"
5   Peter Stevenhaagen (NED) PDM–Concorde + 51' 56"
6   Primož Čerin (YUG) Malvor–Bottecchia–Sidi + 55' 56"
7   Dag Otto Lauritzen (NOR) Peugeot–Shell + 57' 03"
8   Silvano Contini (ITA) Gis Gelati + 1h 03' 34"
9   Heriberto Urán (COL) Postobón–Manzana–Ryalcao + 1h 17' 51"
10   Jean-Claude Leclercq (FRA) Kas + 1h 21' 59"

Combination classificationEdit

Final combination classification (1–10)[33][37]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Greg LeMond (USA)     La Vie Claire 87
2   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   La Vie Claire 87
3   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 68
4   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 61
5   Andrew Hampsten (USA)   La Vie Claire 59
6   Jean-François Bernard (FRA) La Vie Claire 54
7   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Teka 49
8   Julián Gorospe (ESP) Reynolds 45
9   Ronan Pensec (FRA) Peugeot–Shell 41
10   Samuel Cabrera (COL) Reynolds 38

Intermediate sprints classificationEdit

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[33]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Gerrit Solleveld (NED)   Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 305
2   Dirk De Wolf (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 170
3   Dominique Arnaud (FRA) Reynolds 145
4   Johan van der Velde (NED) Panasonic–Merckx–Agu 86
5   Julián Gorospe (ESP) Reynolds 60
6   Régis Simon (FRA) RMO–Cycles Méral–Mavic 57
7   Adri van der Poel (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 55
8   Guido Winterberg (SUI) La Vie Claire 50
9   Greg LeMond (USA)     La Vie Claire 49
10   Eduardo Chozas (ESP) Teka 45

Team classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–10)[33][38]
Rank Team Time
1 La Vie Claire 331h 35' 48"
2 Peugeot–Shell + 1h 51' 50"
3 Système U + 2h 00' 50"
4 PDM–Concorde + 2h 23' 50"
5 Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 2h 26' 36"
6 Fagor + 2h 28' 52"
7 Panasonic–Merckx–Agu + 2h 31' 08"
8 Teka + 2h 43' 36"
9 Zor–BH + 2h 43' 36"
10 Café de Colombia–Varta + 2h 55' 45"

Super Prestige Pernod rankingEdit

Riders in the Tour competed individually for points that contributed towards the Super Prestige Pernod ranking, an international season-long road cycling competition, with the winner seen as the best all-round rider.[39] The 250 points accrued by Bernard Hinault moved him fourth to the top of the ranking, replacing Sean Kelly, who did not ride the Tour.[40][41]

Super Prestige Pernod ranking on 27 July 1986 (1–10)[40]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Greg LeMond (USA) La Vie Claire 600
2   Sean Kelly (IRE) Kas 530
3   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 465
4   Adri van der Poel (NED) Kwantum–Decosol–Yoko 425
5   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 400
6   Francesco Moser (ITA) Supermercati Brianzoli 290
7   Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL) Hitachi–Robland 235
8   Álvaro Pino (ESP) Zor–BH 235
9   Jean-François Bernard (FRA) La Vie Claire 225
10   Steve Bauer (CAN) La Vie Claire 215

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Thompson 2008, p. 48.
  2. ^ a b Ceulen, Bennie (11 June 1986). "Levitan weigert ploeg Kuiper voor de Tour". Limburgsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. p. 27. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d "The starters". The history of the Tour de France. Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  4. ^ a b c "73ème Tour de France 1986" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Juan Mora (3 July 1986). "210 ciclistas, récord de participacion en el Tour" [210 cyclists, record participation in the Tour]. El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ Dauncey & Hare 2003, p. 214.
  7. ^ a b "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1986 – Stage 23 Cosne > Paris". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  8. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 163.
  9. ^ "American invasion of the Tour de France". Future plc. 13 July 2008. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  10. ^ Boyce, Barry (2005). "1986- LeMond Wins After Hinault's Betrayal". CyclingRevealed. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  11. ^ a b Juan Mora (4 July 1986). "El duelo Hinault-Fignon acapara la atención del Tour" [The Hinault-Fignon duel captures the attention of Tour]. El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McGann & McGann 2008.
  13. ^ a b Gian Paolo Ormezzano (4 July 1986). "Senza speranze i nostri Il Tour è affare francese" [Hopeless our Tour is French affair]. La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. p. 23. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  14. ^ a b c "1986: Un Tour... "de Force"" [1986: A Tour... "de Force"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo S.A. 9 October 1986. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Hinault boos op Tourbaas Levitan". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Regionaal archief Leiden. 9 October 1985. p. 15. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  16. ^ a b Augendre 2016, p. 110.
  17. ^ "El nuevo Tour" [The new Tour]. El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. 9 October 1985. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  18. ^ a b c Augendre 2016, p. 77.
  19. ^ "The stages". The history of the Tour de France. Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  20. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  21. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  22. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  23. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  24. ^ a b Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  25. ^ a b c Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  26. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  27. ^ "Slechts troostprijzen voor de Colombianen" [Only consolation prizes for the Colombians]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 22 July 1986. p. 13 – via Delpher.
  28. ^ "Zieke Herrera getroost met Desgrange" [Sick Herrera comforted with Desgrange]. De Stem (in Dutch). 22 July 1986. p. 7 – via Krantenbank Zeeland.
  29. ^ Augendre 2016, pp. 177–178.
  30. ^ "Terugblik Tour de France 1986" [Tour de France 1986 review]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 28 July 1986. p. 10 – via Delpher.
  31. ^ "1986 Tour de France results". Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 28 July 1986. p. 15. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019.
  32. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1986" [Information about the Tour de France from 1986]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Clasificaciones oficiales" [Official classifications] (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 28 July 1986. p. 31. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  34. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Puntenklassementsdingen in de Tour de France 1986" [Points classification standings in the Tour de France 1986]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  35. ^ "Wielrennen: Tour de France" [Cycling: Tour de France]. Leidse Courant (in Dutch). 28 July 1986. p. 14. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019 – via Regionaal Archief Leiden.
  36. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het jongerenklassement – Etappe 23" [Standings in the youth classification – Stage 23]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  37. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Combinatieklassement" [Combination classification]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  38. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het ploegenklassement – Etappe 23" [Standings in the team classification – Stage 23]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  39. ^ Moore, Richard (13 June 2017). "Remembering Super Prestige Pernod, the season-long battle for title of best rider in the world". CyclingTips. Wade Wallace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  40. ^ a b "Lemod leidt in Super Prestige" [Lemod leads in Super Prestige]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 28 July 1986. p. 10 – via Delpher.
  41. ^ "Verloren seizoen Bert Oosterbosch" [Lost season Bert Oosterbosch]. Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). 15 June 1986. p. 21 – via Delpher.


Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to 1986 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons