Meudon (French pronunciation: [mødɔ̃] (listen)) is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. It is located 9.1 km (5.7 mi) from the center of Paris.
Observatory of Meudon
Paris and inner ring départements
|• Mayor (2001–present)||Hervé Marseille (NC)|
|9.90 km2 (3.82 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
92048 /92190, 92360
|Elevation||28–179 m (92–587 ft) |
(avg. 103 m or 338 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Economy
- 4 Scientific facilities
- 5 Public transport
- 6 Education
- 7 International relations
- 8 Personalities
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The town of Meudon is built on the hills and valleys of the Seine. The wood of Meudon lies for the most part to the west of the town. The northwest part of Meudon, overlooking the Seine, is known as Bellevue ("beautiful view").
Archaeological sites show that Meudon has been populated since Neolithic times.
The Gauls called the area Mol-Dum (sand dune), and the Romans Latinized the name as Moldunum.
The handsome Galliera Institutions, on the hill of Fleury, were founded by the duchess of Galliera for the care of aged persons and orphans. The buildings were completed in 1885.
The old castle of Meudon was rebuilt in Renaissance style in the mid-sixteenth century. It was bought by Louis XIV as a residence for Louis, le Grand Dauphin, under whom Meudon became a center of aristocratic life. After the death of le Grand Dauphin in 1711 the château was neglected, emptied in the Revolutionary sales, and finally burned at the close of the Franco-Prussian War, 1871, while it was occupied by Prussian soldiers. A branch of the Paris Observatory was founded in 1877 on the ruins. The Meudon town hall is about 43 m (141.08 ft) in altitude above that of Paris and the climb from there to the observatory offers some rewarding views of Paris.
Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early heavier-than-air machines. A Corps d'Aérostatiers under the command of Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle was established in 1794, its balloons being used at the Battle of Fleurus. 'Hangar Y' (at ) was built in 1880 at the request of the military engineer Captain Charles Renard (1847–1905), for the construction of balloons and airships. The building is 70 m (230 ft) long, 24 m (79 ft) wide and around 26 m (85 ft) high. The airship La France, designed by Renard and Arthur Krebs, was built in Hangar Y in 1884 and was the first airship which was controllable during flight and which could return to its starting point.
Although a choice residential district, access to the railway (RER) and the Seine river have made Meudon a manufacturing center since the 1840s. Metal products and military explosives have been continuously produced there since then.
In addition to the Observatory, what is today ONERA, a national aerospace research institute and wind tunnel has been present since the military opened its aerostatic (lighter-than-air) field in the Chalais park in 1877. From 1921 to 1981 the Air Museum was located here until it moved to Le Bourget Airport.
CNRS has a campus in Bellevue.
Meudon is served by line C of the RER by Meudon – Val Fleury station.
Meudon is served by twelve lines of the RATP bus network, that have numerous stops in the city:
- Line 162 runs from Arceuil – Cachan RER station to Villejuif Louis Aragon.
- Line 169 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Georges Pompidou hospital.
- Line 179 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Robinson RER station.
- Line 190 runs from Petit Clamart to Mairie d'Issy.
- Line 289 runs from Porte de Saint-Cloud to Clamart – Cité de la Plaine.
- Line 290 runs from Le Plessis-Robinson to Issy-Val-de-Seine.
- Line 291 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Vélizy Europe Sud.
- Line 379 runs from Vélizy 2 to Antony – La Croix de Berny RER station.
- Line 389 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Meudon-la-Forêt.
- Line 390 runs from Vélizy Villacoublay to the Bourg-la-Reine RER station.
The area was once served by the Bellevue funicular, a model of which is in the local Museum of Art and History.
- Three groups of preschools and elementary schools
- Nine standalone preschools
- Six standalone public elementary schools
- Three junior high schools: Collège Armande Béjart, Collège Bel Air, Collège Rabelais
- Two senior high schools: Lycée Rabelais and Lycée des métiers Les Côtes de Villebon
- Mazkeret Batia, Israel
- Celle, Germany
- Borough of Rushmoor (Farnborough and Aldershot) England
- Brezno, Slovakia
- Ciechanów, Poland
Coat of arms at twin town Celle (Germany), granite artwork below signpost
- Émilie Ambre, the French opera singer, lived on an estate in Meudon bought for her by her then-lover William III of the Netherlands in 1877
- Madame de Pompadour lived in the Château de Bellevue, built for her by Louis XV in 1750; it was demolished in 1823.
- Sculptor Auguste Rodin's villa "des Brillants", now a museum of his art, is located here, as is his grave.
- Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia lived here in exile in Château Sans-Souci (in Bellevue), from 1920.
- Richard Wagner was a resident (No. 27 Av. du Château), and here composed The Flying Dutchman.
- Louis-Ferdinand Céline lived here until his death, and is buried in Bas Meudon.
- The 20th-century French lawyer and Islamologist Georges-Henri Bousquet (1900–1978) was born in Meudon.
- Painter May Alcott lived here until her death.
- Jean Robiquet, art historian and curator was born in Meudon 6 July 1874.
- The artist Jean Metzinger lived and worked in Meudon from around 1911, during some of the crucial years of Cubism.
- The painter Gwen John lived in Meudon from 1911 until just before her death in 1939.
- Artists Jean Arp and Sophie Taeuber-Arp were resident here from 1929 to 1940. Their neighbours were the artist and architect Theo van Doesburg and his wife Nelly.
- The town has a monument to Rabelais who died here as canon of Meudon, where he held the benefice from 1551 to 1552.
- Charle-Michel Marle, mathematician, born in 1934, has lived in Meudon since 1970.
- Jean-Luc Marion was born in 1946.
- Clémence Poésy, French actress best known for her portrayal of Fleur Delacour in the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire movie.
- Lionel Jospin, former France prime minister, was born here.
- André Kertész, photographer legend, took a famous photo of the train viaduct in Meudon.
- Marcel Dupré, perhaps the most famous French organist of the 20th century, lived and worked in Meudon. He transformed his home into a small concert hall; the current owners of the home still hold public concerts there.
- Nicolas Isimat-Mirin, footballer
- Gregoire Defrel, footballer
- Souleymane Doukara, footballer
- Adama Soumare, footballer
- Jean-Paul Sartre grew up at his maternal grandfather's house in Meudon, as recounted in his memoir The Words
- George Simeon Papadopoulos, OBE, Professor of History, Dep. Director of Education Department of OECD (1925–2012)
- "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- Ville de Meudon, Aviation, Archdeacon and Wright No 3 Archived 2009-03-01 at the Wayback Machine
- "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1–2. Retrieved on September 7, 2016.
- "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on September 7, 2016.
- "Écoles élémentaires." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on September 7, 2016.
- "Collèges et lycées." Meudon. Retrieved on September 7, 2016.
- "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 2. Retrieved on September 7, 2016.
- "Ville de Meudon – Villes jumelles". Ville de Meudon. Archived from the original on 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- "Stadt Celle". www.celle.de. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "Rushmoor – Our Twin Towns". Rushmoor Borough Council. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
- "Twinning Association of Rushmoor". The Farnborough Society. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- "Ciechanów Twin towns". Urząd Miasta Ciechanów. Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2013-07-29. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- l'Association pour la Sauvegarde de l'Orgue de Marcel Dupré Archived 2011-04-03 at the Wayback Machine