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Ciechanów [t͡ɕeˈxanuf] (About this soundlisten) (German: Zichenau) is a city in north-central Poland with 45,900 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999). It was previously (1975–98) the capital of Ciechanów Voivodeship.

Ciechanów
Ciechanów City Hall
Ciechanów City Hall
Coat of arms of Ciechanów
Coat of arms
Ciechanów is located in Poland
Ciechanów
Ciechanów
Coordinates: 52°52′N 20°38′E / 52.867°N 20.633°E / 52.867; 20.633
Country Poland
VoivodeshipMasovian
CountyCiechanów County
GminaCiechanów (urban gmina)
Established11th century
City rights1400
Government
 • MayorKrzysztof Kosiński
Area
 • Total32.51 km2 (12.55 sq mi)
Highest elevation
151 m (495 ft)
Lowest elevation
116 m (381 ft)
Population
 (2006)
 • Total45,902
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
06-400 to 06-413
Area code(s)+48 023
Car platesWCI
Websiteciechanow.pl

Contents

HistoryEdit

The settlement is first mentioned in a 1065 document by Bolesław II the Bold handing the land over to the church. The medieval gord in Ciechanów numbered approximately 3,000 armed men,[1] and together with the province of Mazovia, it probably became part of the Polish state in the late 10th century.

 
Castle of the Mazovian Dukes

In 1254, Ciechanów is mentioned as the seat of a castellany (Rethiborius Castellanus de Techanow (Racibor, Kasztelan Ciechanowa)). In 1400 Janusz I of Czersk granted Ciechanów town privileges.[2] The area eventually become a separate duchy with Casimir I of Warsaw using the title "dominus et heres lub dominus et princeps Ciechanoviensis."

In the Middle Ages, the defensive gord of Ciechanów protected northern Mazovia from raids of Lithuanians, Yotvingians, Old Prussians and later, the Teutonic Knights. It is not known when it was granted a town charter. This must have happened before 1475, as a document from that year, issued by Duke Janusz II of Warsaw, states that Ciechanów has a Chełmno town charter.

In the period between the 14th and 16th centuries, Ciechanów prospered with the population reaching 5,000. In the late 14th century, Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia, began construction of a castle, while his son Janusz I of Warsaw invited the Augustinians, who in the mid-15th century began construction of a church and an abbey. In 1526, together with all Mazovia, Ciechanów was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland. In the Masovian Voivodeship, Ciechanów was the seat of a separate administrative unit, the Land of Ciechanów.

The town was handed over to Bona Sforza, as her dowry. Ciechanów prospered until the Swedish invasion of Poland (1655-1660), when the town was burned and ransacked.

After the second partition of Poland (1793), Ciechanów briefly became seat of a newly created voivodeship. In 1795, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, and reduced to the status of a provincial town in Przasnysz county. In 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars, Ciechanów was ransacked and destroyed. Since 1815, the town belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland. Its residents actively supported Polish rebellions. In the late 19th century, Ciechanów emerged as a local trade and industry center. In 1864, a brewery was opened, in 1867 it became seat of a county, in 1877 a rail station of the Vistula River Railroad was completed, and in 1882 a sugar refinery was opened. The period of prosperity was short, as during World War I, Ciechanów was almost completely destroyed.

In the Second Polish Republic, Ciechanów remained seat of a county in Warsaw Voivodeship. In 1938, its population was 15,000, and the town was a military garrison, home to the 11th Uhlan Regiment of Marshall Edward Smigly-Rydz.

World War IIEdit

 
Pułtuska's Hall in Ciechanów

Ciechanów was captured by the Wehrmacht on the night of September 3/4, 1939. The town was annexed by Nazi Germany and was known as Zichenau in German. It was the capital of Regierungsbezirk Zichenau, a new subdivision of the Province of East Prussia.The vast majority of Polish and Jewish population was seen as racially inferior and Germany planned its eventuall anihiliation[3]The first stage of German plans aimed at exterminating Polish elites, with eventually destruction of the rest of the Polish population[4]. On January 17, 1945, Ciechanów was captured by the Red Army, and was restored to Poland after the war.

Before World War II, it was home to a large Jewish community but during the Nazi occupation, in the winter of 1942, the majority of the Jewish community were transported to the Red Forest (Czerwony Bór, Podlaskie Voivodeship) north-east of town and murdered by gunfire.[5] During the war many Polish Jews and resistance fighters were executed by the Germans in the castle.

MonumentsEdit

  • Castle of the Mazovian Dukes from the 14th century, alongside the Łydynia river
  • Farska Hill – fortified settlement from the 7th century with a Neo-Gothic belfry from the 19th century
  • St. Joseph's parish church in Ciechanów – Late Gothic building from the 16th century
  • Monastery Augustinian Church from the 16th and 18th centuries
  • City Hall from the 19th century
  • Parish cemetery which has functioned since 1828
  • Hyperboloid water tower, built in 1972

EducationEdit

  • Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa
  • Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu i Zarządzania

TransportEdit

Through the city are leading two national roads, numbered 50 and 60; and three voivodship roads, numbered 615, 616, 617. Just 25 km away to the West there is the national road number 7, a part of the E77 European route.

The Ciechanów railway station is on the Warsaw - Gdańsk railway. However, the Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia express train, colloquially referred as 'Pendolino', does not stop here. Other trains offer connection to Warsaw, Olsztyn, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Kołobrzeg, Kraków and Łódź.

Notable peopleEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Ciechanów is twinned with:[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bogusław Gierlach, Zapiski Ciechanowskie, vol. II p. 9-12, MOBN Ciechanów 1977; and Studia nad archeologią średniowiecznego Mazowsza, Warsaw 1975, p. 24)
  2. ^ W. Górczyk, Ciechanów- Lokacja i Geneza herbu, In Tempore, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika,s.3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Jan Grabowski; Zbigniew R. Grabowski (2004). Germans in the Eyes of the Gestapo: The Ciechanów District, 1939–1945. Cambridge University Press: Contemporary European History, No 13. pp. 21–43."The majority of the Poles and Jews of the Regierungsbezirk Zichenau were perceived by the Nazi authorities as undersirable elements, and were to be resettled and eventually annihilated."
  4. ^ Jan Grabowski; Zbigniew R. Grabowski (2004). Germans in the Eyes of the Gestapo: The Ciechanów District, 1939–1945. Cambridge University Press: Contemporary European History, No 13. pp. 21–43."The majority of the Poles and Jews of the Regierungsbezirk Zichenau were perceived by the Nazi authorities as undersirable elements, and were to be resettled and eventually annihilated."
  5. ^ D.P. (February 13, 2007). "Międzynarodowy Dzień Ofiar Holokaustu: Zagłada ciechanowskich Żydów". Historia. Tygodnik Ciechanowski. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Ciechanów Twin towns". Urząd Miasta Ciechanów. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  7. ^ "Ville de Meudon – Villes jumelles". Ville de Meudon. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2016.

External linksEdit