1992 Tour de France

The 1992 Tour de France was the 79th edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 4 to 26 July. The total race distance was 21 stages and a prologue over 3,978 km (2,472 mi). In honor of the Maastricht Treaty, which created the European Union, the Tour visited a record seven countries: France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg and Italy.

1992 Tour de France
Route of the 1992 Tour de France
Route of the 1992 Tour de France
Race details
Dates4–26 July
Stages21 + Prologue
Distance3,978 km (2,472 mi)
Winning time100h 49' 30"
Results
Winner  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (Banesto)
  Second  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (Carrera Jeans–Vagabond)
  Third  Gianni Bugno (ITA) (Gatorade–Chateau d'Ax)

Points  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (ONCE)
Mountains  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (Carrera Jeans–Vagabond)
  Youth  Eddy Bouwmans (NED) (Panasonic–Sportlife)
  Combativity  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (Carrera Jeans–Vagabond)
  Team Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
← 1991
1993 →

TeamsEdit

There were 22 teams in the 1992 Tour de France, each composed of 9 cyclists.[1] Sixteen teams qualified because they were the top 16 of the FICP ranking in May 1992;[2] six other teams were given wildcards in June 1992.[3]

The teams entering the race were:

Qualified teams

Invited teams

Pre-race favouritesEdit

Miguel Indurain, winner of the 1991 Tour de France, was the clear favourite, having won the 1992 Giro d'Italia with ease. His biggest rivals were expected to be Gianni Bugno (second in the 1991 Tour) and Claudio Chiappucci (second in the 1992 Giro).[4]

Route and stagesEdit

The highest point of elevation in the race was 2,770 m (9,090 ft) at the summit of the Col de l'Iseran mountain pass on stage 13.[5][6]

Stage characteristics and winners[7][8][9][10]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 4 July San Sebastián (Spain) 8.0 km (5.0 mi)   Individual time trial   Miguel Indurain (ESP)
1 5 July San Sebastián (Spain) 194.5 km (120.9 mi)   Hilly stage   Dominique Arnould (FRA)
2 6 July San Sebastián (Spain) to Pau 255.0 km (158.4 mi)   Hilly stage   Javier Murguialday (ESP)
3 7 July Pau to Bordeaux 210.0 km (130.5 mi)   Plain stage   Rob Harmeling (NED)
4 8 July Libourne 63.5 km (39.5 mi)   Team time trial  Panasonic–Sportlife
5 9 July Nogent-sur-Oise to Wasquehal 196.0 km (121.8 mi)   Plain stage   Guido Bontempi (ITA)
6 10 July Roubaix to Brussels (Belgium) 167.0 km (103.8 mi)   Plain stage   Laurent Jalabert (FRA)
7 11 July Brussels (Belgium) to Valkenburg (Netherlands) 196.5 km (122.1 mi)   Plain stage   Gilles Delion (FRA)
8 12 July Valkenburg (Netherlands) to Koblenz (Germany) 206.5 km (128.3 mi)   Plain stage   Jan Nevens (BEL)
9 13 July Luxembourg City (Luxembourg) 65.0 km (40.4 mi)   Individual time trial   Miguel Indurain (ESP)
10 14 July Luxembourg City (Luxembourg) to Strasbourg 217.0 km (134.8 mi)   Plain stage   Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
11 15 July Strasbourg to Mulhouse 249.5 km (155.0 mi)   Hilly stage   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
12 16 July Dole to St Gervais 267.5 km (166.2 mi)   Hilly stage   Rolf Järmann (SUI)
17 July Dole Rest day
13 18 July St Gervais to Sestriere (Italy) 254.5 km (158.1 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)
14 19 July Sestriere (Italy) to Alpe d'Huez 186.5 km (115.9 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Andrew Hampsten (USA)
15 20 July Le Bourg-d'Oisans to Saint-Étienne 198.0 km (123.0 mi)   Hilly stage   Franco Chioccioli (ITA)
16 21 July Saint-Étienne to La Bourboule 212.0 km (131.7 mi)   Hilly stage   Stephen Roche (IRE)
17 22 July La Bourboule to Montluçon 189.0 km (117.4 mi)   Plain stage   Jean-Claude Colotti (FRA)
18 23 July Montluçon to Tours 212.0 km (131.7 mi)   Plain stage   Thierry Marie (FRA)
19 24 July Tours to Blois 64.0 km (39.8 mi)   Individual time trial   Miguel Indurain (ESP)
20 25 July Blois to Nanterre 222.0 km (137.9 mi)   Plain stage   Peter De Clercq (BEL)
21 26 July La Défense to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 141.0 km (87.6 mi)   Plain stage   Olaf Ludwig (GER)
Total 3,978 km (2,472 mi)[11]

Race overviewEdit

 
Miguel Indurain (pictured in 2009), winner of the general classification

The prologue was in San Sebastián, close to Indurain's home.[12] Indurain won the prologue, with debutant Alex Zülle in second place. In the first stage, Zülle won a time bonus in an intermediate sprint, and became the new race leader.[4]

In the second stage, Richard Virenque, another debutant who was a late addition to his team, was part of a two-man escape that stayed away, and took over the lead.[4] The yellow jersey, worn by the leader in the general classification, changed owner again after the third stage, when a group of ten cyclists stayed away, and Pascal Lino, a teammate of Virenque at RMO–Onet, became the new leader.[4] In the team time trial of stage four, RMO–Onet lost time to the teams specialized in team time trials, but Lino's lead was large enough to remain leader.[4]

In the time trial in stage nine, Indurain took his chance to win back time on Lino and Virenque and his rivals: Indurain won the stage, three minutes faster than all other cyclists.[12] This time trial victory is sometimes seen as Indurain's career-defining moment.[13]

The major mountain stages were stages 13 and 14.[14] Chiappucci won stage 13, and won back some time on Indurain who finished in third place; Chiappucci climbed to the second place in the general classification. In the fourteenth stage, Chiappucci and Indurain finished together. After this stage, Indurain lead the race with only Chiappucci within two minutes; all other cyclists were more than eight minutes behind. With no big mountain stages remaining, the only stage that was likely to create time differences between the favourites was the time trial in stage nineteen. Indurain, being a time trial specialist, won that stage, and increased his margin to more than four minutes.[4]

Indurain thus won his second Tour de France.

Classification leadership and minor prizesEdit

There were several classifications in the 1992 Tour de France.[15] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[16]

Additionally, there was a points classification, which awarded a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[17]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[18]

The fourth individual classification was the young rider classification, which was not marked by a jersey in 1992. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders under 26 years were eligible.[19]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time.[20]

In addition, there was a combativity award given after each mass-start stage to the cyclist considered most combative. The decision was made by a jury composed of journalists who gave points. The cyclist with the most points from votes in all stages led the combativity classification.[21] Claudio Chiappucci won this classification, and was given overall the super-combativity award.[8] In 1992, there was an special classification because of the Maastricht Treaty, that created the European Union. In the 1992 Tour de France, a national border was crossed seven times, and every time there was a special sprint, where points could be earned. This classification was won by Viatcheslav Ekimov.[22] The "Association Française pour un Sport sans violence et pour le Fair-play" awarded the Fair Play award in the Tour for the first time. It was given to Stephen Roche.[8] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass the summit of the Col du Galibier on stage 14. This prize was won by Franco Chioccioli.[23][24]

Classification leadership by stage[25][26]
Stage Winner General classification
 
Points classification
 
Mountains classification
 
Young rider classification[a] Team classification Combativity
Award Classification
P Miguel Indurain Miguel Indurain Miguel Indurain no award Alex Zülle Banesto no award
1 Dominique Arnould Alex Zülle Dominique Arnould Franco Chioccioli Alex Zülle Alex Zülle
2 Javier Murguialday Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque RMO–Onet Richard Virenque Richard Virenque
3 Rob Harmeling Pascal Lino Noël Segers
4 Panasonic no award
5 Guido Bontempi Johan Museeuw Carrera Jeans–Vagabond Steve Bauer
6 Laurent Jalabert Thierry Marie Claudio Chiappucci
7 Gilles Delion Laurent Jalabert Frans Maassen Frans Maassen
8 Jan Nevens Yvon Ledanois Yvon Ledanois
9 Miguel Indurain no award
10 Jean-Paul van Poppel Johan Museeuw Claudio Chiappucci Rolf Järmann
11 Laurent Fignon Laurent Jalabert Rolf Gölz
12 Rolf Jaermann Johan Museeuw Rolf Järmann Rolf Järmann
13 Claudio Chiappucci Miguel Indurain Eddy Bouwmans Claudio Chiappucci Claudio Chiappucci
14 Andrew Hampsten Andrew Hampsten
15 Franco Chioccioli Laurent Jalabert Franco Chioccioli
16 Stephen Roche Stephen Roche
17 Jean-Claude Colotti Jean-Claude Colotti
18 Thierry Marie Herman Frison
19 Miguel Indurain no award
20 Peter De Clercq Rolf Järmann
21 Olaf Ludwig Frans Maassen
Final Miguel Indurain Laurent Jalabert Claudio Chiappucci Eddy Bouwmans Carrera Jeans–Vagabond Claudio Chiappucci

Final standingsEdit

Legend
  Denotes the winner of the general classification   Denotes the winner of the points classification
  Denotes the winner of the mountains classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[27]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Miguel Indurain (ESP)   Banesto 100h 49' 30"
2   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 4' 35"
3   Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade–Chateau d'Ax + 10' 49"
4   Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola + 13' 40"
5   Pascal Lino (FRA) RMO–Onet + 14' 37"
6   Pedro Delgado (ESP) Banesto + 15' 16"
7   Erik Breukink (NED) PDM–Concorde + 18' 51"
8   Giancarlo Perini (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 19' 16"
9   Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 20' 23"
10   Jens Heppner (GER) Team Telekom + 25' 30"

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–10)[28][29]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Laurent Jalabert (FRA)   ONCE 293
2   Johan Museeuw (BEL) Lotto–Mavic–MBK 262
3   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 202
4   Olaf Ludwig (GER) Panasonic–Sportlife 193
5   Massimo Ghirotto (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 177
6   Miguel Indurain (ESP)   Banesto 128
7   Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 111
8   Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade–Chateau d'Ax 109
9   Søren Lilholt (DEN) Tulip Computers 96
10   Jelle Nijdam (NED) Buckler–Colnago–Decca 84

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[28]
Rank Rider Team Points
1   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 410
2   Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO–Onet 245
3   Franco Chioccioli (ITA) GB–MG Maglificio 209
4   Miguel Indurain (ESP)   Banesto 152
5   Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola 140
6   Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade–Chateau d'Ax 131
7   Franco Vona (ITA) GB–MG Maglificio 122
8   Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 107
9   Javier Murguialday (ESP) Amaya Seguros 96
10   Eric Boyer (FRA) Z 93

Young rider classificationEdit

Final young rider classification (1–10)[30]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Eddy Bouwmans (NED) Panasonic–Sportlife 102h 28' 05"
2   Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO–Onet + 17' 26"
3   Jim Van De Laer (BEL) Tulip Computers + 31' 54"
4   Arunas Cepele (LIT) Postobón–Manzana–Ryalcao + 40' 25"
5   Laurent Jalabert (FRA)   ONCE + 41' 33"
6   Dimitri Zhdanov (RUS) Panasonic–Sportlife + 48' 29"
7   Yvon Ledanois (FRA) Castorama + 51' 08"
8   Jean-Cyril Robin (FRA) Castorama + 57' 47"
9   Fernando Escartín (ESP) CLAS–Cajastur + 1h 00' 40"
10   Dominik Krieger (GER) Helvetia–Commodore + 1h 09' 42"

Team classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–10)[28]
Rank Team Time
1 Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 302h 58' 12"
2 Banesto + 18' 16"
3 CLAS–Cajastur + 49' 27"
4 Gatorade–Chateau d'Ax + 1h 02' 46"
5 Z + 1h 07' 19"
6 RMO–Onet + 1h 22' 11"
7 TVM–Sanyo + 1h 29' 22"
8 Castorama + 1h 37' 18"
9 PDM–Concorde + 1h 41' 35"
10 Panasonic–Sportlife + 1h 46' 46"

European sprintsEdit

Final European sprints classification[31]
Rank Rider Team Time
1   Viatcheslav Ekimov (RUS) Panasonic–Sportlife 14
2   Herman Frison (BEL) Tulip Computers 6
3   Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO–Onet 5
4   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 4
4   Peter De Clercq (BEL) Lotto–Mavic–MBK 4
6   Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola 2
6   Javier Murguialday (ESP) Amaya Seguros 2
8   Franco Vona (ITA) GB–MG Maglificio 1
8   Olaf Ludwig (GER) Panasonic–Sportlife 1
8   Hendrik Redant (BEL) Lotto–Mavic–MBK 1

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A white jersey was not awarded to the leader of the young rider classification between 1989 and 1999.[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1992 – The starters". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Tour: Les 16 premières équipes" (in French). Le Soir. 20 May 1992. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  3. ^ Deblander, Bruno (17 June 1992). "Les six équipes invitées au Tour de France sont connués 22, v'la ce qui se fait de mieux" (in French). Le Soir. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f McGann & McGann 2008, pp. 203–210.
  5. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 178.
  6. ^ "Bergetappes" [Mountain stages]. de Volkskrant (in Dutch). 4 July 1992. p. 29 – via Delpher.
  7. ^ "79ème Tour de France 1992" [79th Tour de France 1992]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Augendre 2016, p. 83.
  9. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC top ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  10. ^ "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1992 – The stage winners". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  11. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 110.
  12. ^ a b Boyce, Barry (2012). "The Spaniard is More Than a Climber". Cycling revealed. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  13. ^ "Grand Tour Doubles – Miguel Indurain". Cycle sport magazine. IPC Media Sports & Leisure. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  14. ^ Richard Moore (30 June 2012). "Book Excerpt: Chiappucci's legendary victory at Sestriere". VeloNews. Competitor Group, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  15. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  16. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  17. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  18. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  19. ^ a b Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  20. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  21. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  22. ^ Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other classification and awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club.
  23. ^ "Tour de France". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 4 July 1992. p. 25 – via Historische Kranten, Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken.
  24. ^ Augendre 2016, pp. 177–178.
  25. ^ "Tour de France 1992 – Leaders overview". ProCyclingStats. Archived from the original on 16 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  26. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1992" [Information about the Tour de France from 1992]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  27. ^ a b "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1992 – Stage 21 La Défense > Paris". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  28. ^ a b c "Los Campos Elíseos rinden homenaje a Indurain" (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 27 July 1992. p. 50. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  29. ^ "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Regionaal archief Leiden. 27 July 1992. p. 17. Retrieved 14 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
  30. ^ "Tour de France 1992 – Youth classification". ProCyclingStats. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  31. ^ "ESF-sprint Klassement". Sports plaza. Retrieved 4 May 2013.[permanent dead link]

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to 1992 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons