King of the Mountains

The King of the Mountains (KoM; Gran Premio della Montagna or GPM in Italian) is the title given to the best climber in a cycling road race; usually and officially known as the Mountains classification. For women's cycle racing, a similar term, Queen of the Mountains (QoM) is used.

While the title may be given to the rider who achieves the highest position over several designated climbs in a single-day road race, it is more usually applied to stage races (for example, the Grand Tours, Tour de France, Giro d'Italia, Vuelta a España, and smaller races like the Tour of California) where points are accumulated over the duration of the whole race.

In the Tour de France, at the top of each significant climb, points are awarded to the riders who are first over the top. The climbs are categorised from 1 (most difficult) to 4 (least difficult) based on their steepness and length. A fifth category, called Hors categorie (outside category) applies to mountains rated even more severe than first category. Similar ratings apply to climbs in the other major Tours.

In the Tour de France, the leader in the mountains competition wears a distinctive polka dot jersey (French: maillot à pois rouges). Although the King of the Mountains was first recognised in the 1933 Tour de France, the distinctive jersey was not introduced until 1975. In the Giro, the King of the Mountains leader wore a green jersey until 2011; in 2012, the jersey changed to blue at the behest of the corporate sponsor of the mountains classification. In the Vuelta several jersey designs have been used, but since 2010 it has been white with blue polka dots.

Additionally, King of the Mountains can also apply to the highest ranked user in certain activities tracked by applications such as Strava.[1]

Mountains classification winners of the Grand ToursEdit

Winners by yearEdit

Year[2]   Tour de France   Giro d'Italia   Vuelta a España
2021   Tadej Pogačar (SLO) (2/2)   Geoffrey Bouchard (FRA) (2/2)   Michael Storer (AUS)
2020   Tadej Pogačar (SLO) (1/2)   Ruben Guerreiro (POR)   Guillaume Martin (FRA)
2019   Romain Bardet (FRA)   Giulio Ciccone (ITA)   Geoffrey Bouchard (FRA) (1/2)
2018   Julian Alaphilippe (FRA)   Chris Froome (GBR) (2/2)   Thomas De Gendt (BEL)
2017   Warren Barguil (FRA)   Mikel Landa (ESP)   Davide Villella (ITA)
2016   Rafał Majka (POL) (2/2)   Mikel Nieve (ESP)   Omar Fraile (ESP) (2/2)
2015   Chris Froome (GBR) (1/2)   Giovanni Visconti (ITA)   Omar Fraile (ESP) (1/2)
2014   Rafał Majka (POL) (1/2)   Julián Arredondo (COL)   Luis León Sánchez (ESP)
2013   Nairo Quintana (COL)   Stefano Pirazzi (ITA)   Nicolas Edet (FRA)
2012   Thomas Voeckler (FRA)   Matteo Rabottini (ITA)   Simon Clarke (AUS)
2011   Samuel Sánchez (ESP)   Stefano Garzelli (ITA) (2/2)   David Moncoutié (FRA) (4/4)
2010   Anthony Charteau (FRA)   Matthew Lloyd (AUS)   David Moncoutié (FRA) (3/4)
2009   Egoi Martínez (ESP)[A] (2/2)   Stefano Garzelli (ITA) (1/2)   David Moncoutié (FRA) (2/4)
2008   Carlos Sastre (ESP)[B] (2/2)   Emanuele Sella (ITA)   David Moncoutié (FRA) (1/4)
2007   Mauricio Soler (COL)   Leonardo Piepoli (ITA)   Denis Menchov (RUS)
2006   Michael Rasmussen (DEN) (2/2)   Juan Manuel Gárate (ESP)   Egoi Martínez (ESP) (1/2)
2005   Michael Rasmussen (DEN) (1/2)   José Rujano Guillén (VEN)   Joaquim Rodríguez (ESP)
2004   Richard Virenque (FRA) (7/7)   Fabian Wegmann (GER)   Félix Cárdenas (COL) (2/2)
2003   Richard Virenque (FRA) (6/7)   Fredy González (COL) (2/2)   Félix Cárdenas (COL) (1/2)
2002   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (3/3)   Julio Perez Cuapio (MEX)   Aitor Osa (ESP)
2001   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (2/3)   Fredy González (COL) (1/2)   José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (4/4)
2000   Santiago Botero (COL)   Francesco Casagrande (ITA)   Carlos Sastre (ESP) (1/2)
1999   Richard Virenque (FRA) (5/7)   José Jaime González (COL) (2/2)   José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (3/4)
1998   Christophe Rinero (FRA)   Marco Pantani (ITA)   José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (2/4)
1997   Richard Virenque (FRA) (4/7)   José Jaime González (COL) (1/2)   José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (1/4)
1996   Richard Virenque (FRA) (3/7)   Mariano Piccoli (ITA) (2/2)   Tony Rominger (SUI) (3/3)
1995   Richard Virenque (FRA) (2/7)   Mariano Piccoli (ITA) (1/2)   Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (1/3)
1994   Richard Virenque (FRA) (1/7)   Pascal Richard (SUI)   Luc Leblanc (FRA)
1993   Tony Rominger (SUI) (2/3)   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (5/5)   Tony Rominger (SUI) (1/3)
1992   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (4/5)   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (3/5)   Carlos Hernández (ESP)
1991   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (2/5)   Iñaki Gaston (ESP)   Luis Herrera (COL) (5/5)
1990   Thierry Claveyrolat (FRA)   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (1/5)   José Martín Farfán (COL)
1989   Gert-Jan Theunisse (NED)   Luis Herrera (COL) (4/5)   Óscar Vargas (COL)
1988   Steven Rooks (NED)   Andrew Hampsten (USA)   Álvaro Pino (ESP)
1987   Luis Herrera (COL) (3/5)   Robert Millar (GBR) (2/2)   Luis Herrera (COL) (2/5)
1986   Bernard Hinault (FRA)   Pedro Muñoz Machín Rodríguez (ESP)   José Luis Laguía (ESP) (5/5)
1985   Luis Herrera (COL) (1/5)   José Luis Navarro (ESP)   José Luis Laguía (ESP) (4/5)
1984   Robert Millar (GBR) (1/2)   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Felipe Yanez (ESP) (2/2)
1983   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (8/8)   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (7/8)   José Luis Laguía (ESP) (3/5)
1982   Bernard Vallet (FRA)   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (6/8)   José Luis Laguía (ESP) (2/5)
1981   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (5/8)   Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (3/3)   José Luis Laguía (ESP) (1/5)
1980   Raymond Martin (FRA)   Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (2/3)   Juan Fernández (ESP)
1979   Giovanni Battaglin (ITA)   Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (1/3)   Felipe Yanez (ESP) (1/2)
1978   Mariano Martínez (FRA)   Ueli Sutter (SUI)   Andrés Oliva (ESP) (5/5)
1977   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (4/8)   Faustino Fernández Oviés (ESP)   Pedro Torres (ESP)
1976   Giancarlo Bellini (ITA)   Andrés Oliva (ESP) (4/5)   Andrés Oliva (ESP) (3/5)
1975   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (3/8)   Francisco Galdós (ESP)
  Andrés Oliva (ESP) (2/5)
  Andrés Oliva (ESP) (1/5)
1974   Domingo Perurena (ESP)   José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (4/4)   José Luis Abilleira (ESP) (2/2)
1973   Pedro Torres (ESP)   José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (3/4)   José Luis Abilleira (ESP) (1/2)
1972   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (2/8)   José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (2/4)   José Manuel Fuente (ESP)
1971   Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (1/8)   José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (1/4)   Joop Zoetemelk (NED)
1970   Eddy Merckx (BEL) (3/3)   Martin Vandenbossche (BEL)   Agustín Tamames (ESP)
1969   Eddy Merckx (BEL) (2/3)   Claudio Michelotto (ITA)   Luis Ocaña (ESP)
1968   Aurelio Gonzales (ESP) (2/2)   Eddy Merckx (BEL) (1/3)   Francisco Gabica (ESP)
1967   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (6/6)   Aurelio Gonzales (ESP) (1/2)   Mariano Díaz (ESP)
1966   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (5/6)   Franco Bitossi (ITA) (3/3)   Gregorio San Miguel (ESP)
1965   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (4/6)   Franco Bitossi (ITA) (2/3)   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (3/6)
1964   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (9/9)   Franco Bitossi (ITA) (1/3)   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (2/6)
1963   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (8/9)   Vito Taccone (ITA) (2/2)   Julio Jiménez (ESP) (1/6)
1962   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (7/9)   Angelino Soler (ESP)   Antonio Karmany (ESP) (3/3)
1961   Imerio Massignan (ITA) (2/2)   Vito Taccone (ITA) (1/2)   Antonio Karmany (ESP) (2/3)
1960   Imerio Massignan (ITA) (1/2)   Rik Van Looy (BEL)   Antonio Karmany (ESP) (1/3)
1959   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (6/9)   Charly Gaul (LUX) (4/4)   Antonio Suarez (ESP)
1958   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (5/9)   Jean Brankart (BEL)   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (4/9)
1957   Gastone Nencini (ITA) (2/2)   Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (3/3)   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (3/9)
1956   Charly Gaul (LUX) (3/4)   Charly Gaul (LUX) (2/4)
  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (2/9)
  Nino Defilippis (ITA)
1955   Charly Gaul (LUX) (1/4)   Gastone Nencini (ITA) (1/2)   Giuseppe Buratti (ITA)
1954   Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (1/9)   Fausto Coppi (ITA) (5/5) Race not held
1953   Jesús Loroño (ESP)   Pasquale Fornara (ITA)
1952   Fausto Coppi (ITA) (4/5)   Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (2/3)
1951   Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (1/3)   Louison Bobet (FRA) (2/2)
1950   Louison Bobet (FRA) (1/2)   Hugo Koblet (SUI)   Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (3/3)
1949   Fausto Coppi (ITA) (3/5)   Fausto Coppi (ITA) (2/5) Race not held
1948   Gino Bartali (ITA) (9/9)   Fausto Coppi (ITA) (1/5)   Bernardo Ruiz (ESP)
1947   Pierre Brambilla (ITA)   Gino Bartali (ITA) (8/9)   Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (2/3)
1946 Race not held   Gino Bartali (ITA) (7/9)   Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (1/3)
1945 Race not held   Julián Berrendero (ESP) (3/3)
1944 Race not held
1942   Julián Berrendero (ESP) (2/3)
1941   Fermín Trueba (ESP)
1940   Gino Bartali (ITA) (6/9) Race not held
1939   Sylvere Maes (BEL)   Gino Bartali (ITA) (5/9)
1938   Gino Bartali (ITA) (4/9)   Giovanni Valetti (ITA)
1937   Félicien Vervaecke (BEL) (2/2)   Gino Bartali (ITA) (3/9)
1936   Julián Berrendero (ESP) (1/3)   Gino Bartali (ITA) (2/9)   Salvador Molina (ESP)
1935   Félicien Vervaecke (BEL) (1/2)   Gino Bartali (ITA) (1/9)   Edoardo Molinar (ITA)
1934   René Vietto (FRA)   Remo Bertoni (ITA) Race not held
1933   Vicente Trueba (ESP)   Alfredo Binda (ITA)
Year   Tour de France   Giro d'Italia   Vuelta a España

A. a Franco Pellizotti was the Mountains leader but later had his results removed after his biological passport indicated irregular values, but the classification has not been remade yet. Egoi Martínez was ranked second and later declared winner.
B. b Bernhard Kohl was the Mountains leader but later had his results removed after a positive test for MIRCERA and admission to the use of doping. Carlos Sastre was ranked second and later declared winner.[3]

Career triplesEdit

No rider has won the "King of the Mountains" in all three Grand Tours in the same year. Only two riders, Federico Bahamontes and Luis Herrera, have won all three competitions in different years. Ten riders have achieved doubles.

Natural doublesEdit

The Tour/Giro double has been achieved by four riders:

The Giro/Vuelta double has been achieved by two riders:

The Tour/Vuelta double has also been achieved by four riders:

Most wins (Grand Tour)Edit

Two riders have won the "King of the Mountains" in the Tour de France six times: Federico Bahamontes (Spain) and Lucien Van Impe (Belgium), while Richard Virenque (France) holds the record with seven wins. Gino Bartali holds the record for the Giro d'Italia, also with seven wins, while José Luis Laguía has won the Vuelta equivalent five times.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Wynn 2017-01-16T15:00:42Z, Nigel (2017-01-16). "How to take a Strava KOM". Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  2. ^ Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España. Retrieved on 2013-08-13.
  3. ^ Official history of the Tour, see pages 117 and 123 Archived 2009-10-03 at WebCite