List of conspiracy theories
Many unproven conspiracy theories exist with varying degrees of popularity, frequently related to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II.
Numerous conspiracy theories pertain to air travel and aircraft. Incidents such as the 1955 bombing of the Kashmir Princess, the 1985 Arrow Air Flight 1285 crash, the 1986 Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 crash, the 1987 Helderberg Disaster, the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 and the 1994 Mull of Kintyre helicopter crash as well as various aircraft technologies and alleged sightings, have all spawned theories of foul play which deviate from official verdicts.
This conspiracy theory emerged in the U.S. in the 1960s. The John Birch Society, who asserted that a United Nations force would soon arrive in black helicopters to bring the U.S. under UN control, originally promoted it. The theory re-emerged in the 1990s, under the presidency of Bill Clinton, and has been promoted by talk show host Glenn Beck. A similar theory concerning so-called "phantom helicopters" appeared in the UK in the 1970s.
Also known as SLAP (Secret Large-scale Atmospheric Program), this theory alleges that water condensation trails ("contrails") from aircraft consist of chemical or biological agents, or contain a supposedly toxic mix of aluminum, strontium and barium, under secret government policies. An estimated 17% of people globally believe the theory to be true or partly true. In 2016, the Carnegie Institution for Science published the first-ever peer-reviewed study of the chemtrail theory; 76 out of 77 participating atmospheric chemists and geochemists stated that they had seen no evidence to support the chemtrail theory, or stated that chemtrail theorists rely on poor sampling.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
The destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by Soviet jets in 1983 has long drawn the interest of conspiracy theorists. The theories range from allegations of a planned espionage mission, to a US government cover-up, to the consumption of the passengers' remains by giant crabs.
Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370
The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in southeast Asia in March 2014 has prompted many theories. One theory suggests that this plane was hidden away and reintroduced as Flight MH17 later the same year in order to be shot down over Ukraine for political purposes. Prolific American conspiracy theorist James H. Fetzer has placed responsibility for the disappearance with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Theories have also related to allegations that a certain autopilot technology was secretly fitted to the aircraft.
Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down over Ukraine by Russia-backed rebels or by the Russian military in July 2014. This event has spawned numerous alternative theories. These variously include allegations that it was secretly Flight MH370, that the plane was actually shot down by the Ukrainian Air Force to frame Russia, that it was part of a conspiracy to conceal the "truth" about HIV (seven disease specialists were on board), or that the Illuminati or Israel was responsible.
Business and industry
Multiple conspiracy theories pertain to a fatal oil-rig industrial accident in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, alleging sabotage by those seeking to promote environmentalism, or a strike by North Korean or Russian submarines. Elements of such theories have been suggested or promoted by US radio host Rush Limbaugh.
A theory claims that The Coca-Cola Company intentionally changed to an inferior formula with New Coke, with the intent either of driving up demand for the original product or permitting the reintroduction of the original with a new formula using cheaper ingredients. Coca-Cola president Donald Keough rebutted this charge: "The truth is, we're not that dumb, and we're not that smart."
Deaths and disappearances
Conspiracy theories frequently emerge following the deaths of prominent leaders and public figures. In ancient times, widespread conspiracy theories were circulated pertaining to the death of the Roman emperor Nero, who committed suicide in 68 AD. Some of these theories claimed that Nero had actually faked his death and was secretly still alive, but in hiding, plotting to return and reestablish his reign. In most of these stories, he was said to have fled to the East, where he was still loved and admired. Other theories held that Nero really was dead, but that he would return from the dead to retake his throne. Many early Christians believed in these conspiracy theories and feared Nero's return because Nero had viciously persecuted them. The Book of Revelation alludes to the conspiracy theories surrounding Nero's alleged return in its description of the slaughtered head returned to life.
Today, there are many conspiracy theories concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. Vincent Bugliosi estimates that over 1,000 books have been written about the Kennedy assassination, at least ninety percent of which are works supporting the view that there was a conspiracy. As a result of this, the Kennedy assassination has been described as "the mother of all conspiracies". The countless individuals and organizations that have been accused of involvement in the Kennedy assassination include the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, the KGB, or even some combination thereof. It is also frequently asserted that the United States federal government intentionally covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination to prevent the conspiracy from being discovered.
The deaths of prominent figures of all types attract conspiracy theorists, including, for example, the deaths of US President Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Jr., Eric V, Dmitry Ivanovich, Sheikh Rahman, Yitzhak Rabin, Zachary Taylor, George S. Patton, Diana, Princess of Wales, Dag Hammarskjöld, and David Kelly.
Also popular are theories about the deaths of celebrities or politicians. Notable among such theories include the long-running "Paul is dead" theory, which alleges that Paul McCartney died in 1966 and was replaced by a look-alike.. Another is the conspiracy theory that widely circulated in Nigeria and alleges that Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari has died in 2017 and replaced by a lookalike Sudanese impostor. 
Inverted theories concerning deaths are also popular, prominent among which are claims that Elvis Presley's death was faked, and that Adolf Hitler survived the Second World War and fled to the Americas, to Antarctica, or to the moon. Theories that Adolf Hitler had survived were deliberately promoted by the government of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin as part of a disinformation campaign.
The disappearance, and often presumed death, of an individual may also become a cause for conspiracy theorists. Theories of a cover-up surrounding the 1974 disappearance of Lord Lucan following the murder of his family's nanny include, for example, allegations of a suicide plot whereby his body was fed to tigers at Howletts Zoo.
The murder of Democratic National Committee employee Seth Rich spawned several right-wing conspiracy theories, including the claim that Rich had been involved with the leaked DNC emails in 2016, which runs contrary to the U.S. intelligence's conclusion the leaked DNC emails were part of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Law enforcement as well as fact-checking websites like PolitiFact.com, Snopes.com, and FactCheck.org stated that these theories were false and unfounded. The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and The Washington Post called the fabrications fake news and falsehoods.
Economics and society
New World Order
The New World Order theory states that a group of international elites controls governments, industry, and media organizations, with the goal of establishing global hegemony. They are alleged to be implicated in most of the major wars of the last two centuries, to carry out secretly staged events, and to deliberately manipulate economies. Organizations alleged to be part of the plot include the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group, the European Union, the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Bohemian Grove, Le Cercle and Yale University society Skull and Bones.
The Discordian hoax has resulted in one of the world's foremost conspiracy theories, which claims that the "Illuminati" are secretly promoting the posited New World Order. Theorists believe that a wide range of musicians, including Beyoncé and Whitney Houston, have been associated with the "group". Prominent theorists include Mark Dice and David Icke.
Some theorists believe that Denver International Airport stands above an underground city which serves as a headquarters of the New World Order. Theorists cite the airport's unusually large size, its distance from Denver city center, as well as assorted alleged Masonic or Satanic symbols, and a set of murals which include depictions of war and death.
Hungarian-American investor George Soros has been the subject of conspiracy theories since the 1990s. Soros has used his wealth to promote various political, social, educational and scientific causes, grants totaling an estimated $11 billion up to 2016. However, theories tend to assert that Soros is in control of a large portion of the world's wealth and governments, and that he secretly funds a large range of persons and organizations for nefarious purposes, such as Antifa, which the conspiracies allege to be a single far-left militant group. Such ideas have been promoted by Donald Trump,Bill O'Reilly, Roy Moore, Alex Jones, Arizona Congressman Paul Gosar, Breitbart News and cartoonist Ben Garrison. Soros conspiracy theories are sometimes linked to antisemitic conspiracy theories.
Conspiracy theories concerning the Freemasons have proliferated since the 18th century. Theorists have alleged that Freemasons control large parts of the economies or judiciaries of a number of countries, and have alleged Masonic involvement in events surrounding the sinking of the Titanic and the crimes of Jack the Ripper. Notable among theorists has been American inventor Samuel Morse, who in 1835 published a book of his own conspiracy theories. Freemason conspiracy theories have also been linked to certain antisemitic conspiracy theories.
Conspiracy theories in Turkey started to dominate public discourse during the late reign of the Justice and Development Party and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. In 2014, Erdoğan coined the term üst akıl ("mastermind") to denote the alleged command and control institution, somewhat ambiguously placed with the government of the United States, in a comprehensive conspiracy to weaken or even dismember Turkey, by orchestrating every political actor and action perceived hostile by Turkey. Erdoğan as well as the Daily Sabah have on multiple occasions alleged that very different non-state actors—like the Salafi jihadist Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the libertarian socialist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and supporters of Fethullah Gülen—were attacking Turkey at the same time in a well-coordinated campaign.
One instance of promoting the "mastermind" conspiracy theory occurred in February 2017, when then-Ankara Mayor Melih Gökçek claimed that earthquakes in the western province of Çanakkale could have been organized by dark external powers aiming to destroy Turkey's economy with an "artificial earthquake" near Istanbul. In another example, in November 2017, the Islamist newspaper Yeni Akit claimed that the fashion trend of "ripped denim" jeans was in fact a means of communication, via specific forms of rips and holes, between agents of foreign states and their collaborators in Turkey.
Israel animal spying
Conspiracy theories exist alleging that Israel uses animals to conduct espionage or to attack people. These are often associated with conspiracy theories about Zionism. Matters of interest to theorists include a series of shark attacks in Egypt in 2010, Hezbollah's accusations of the use of "spying" eagles, and the 2011 capture of a griffon vulture carrying an Israeli-labeled satellite tracking device.
Numerous persons, including former MI5 officer Peter Wright and Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, have alleged that British Prime Minister Harold Wilson was secretly a KGB spy. Historian Christopher Andrew has lamented that a number of people have been "seduced by Golitsyn's fantasies".
Conspiracy theories concerning Malala Yousafzai are widespread in Pakistan, elements of which originate from a 2013 satirical piece in Dawn. These theories variously allege that she is a Western spy, or that her attempted murder by the Taliban in 2012 was a secret operation to further discredit the Taliban, and was organized by her father and the CIA and carried out by actor Robert de Niro disguised as an Uzbek homeopath.
Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal
Ethnicity, race and religion
Since at least the Middle Ages, antisemitism has featured elements of conspiracy theory. In medieval Europe it was widely believed that Jews poisoned wells, had been responsible for the death of Jesus, and ritually consumed the blood of Christians. The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence of notions that Jews and/or Freemasons were plotting to establish control over the world. Forged evidence has been presented to spread the notion that Jews were responsible for the propagation of Communism, the most notorious example being The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903). Such antisemitic conspiracy theories became central to the worldview of Adolf Hitler. Antisemitic theories persist today in notions concerning banking, Hollywood, the news media and a purported Zionist Occupation Government.
Holocaust denial is also considered an antisemitic conspiracy theory because of its position that the Holocaust is a hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews and justify the creation of the State of Israel. Notable Holocaust deniers include former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, the convicted chemist Germar Rudolf and the discredited author David Irving.
Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu has claimed that the Russian media is run by Armenians. American writer and disbarred lawyer Samuel Weems has claimed that the Armenian Genocide was a hoax designed to defraud Christian nations of billions of dollars, and that the Armenian Church instigates terrorist attacks. Filmmaker Davud Imanov has accused the Armenians of plotting against Azerbaijan and has claimed that the Karabakh movement was a plot by the CIA to destroy the Soviet Union.
Iran's Baha'i minority has been the target of conspiracy theories alleging involvement with hostile powers. Iranian government officials and others have claimed that Bahá'ís have been agents variously of Russian imperialism, British colonialism, American expansionism and Zionism. An apocryphal and historically-inaccurate book published in Iran, entitled The Memoirs of Count Dolgoruki, details a theory that the Bahá'ís intend to destroy Islam. Such anti-Bahá'í accusations have been dismissed as having no factual foundation.
Anti-Catholic paranoia has featured in the Protestant mind since the Reformation. Conspiracy theories have taken many forms, including the 17th-century Popish Plot allegations, claims by persons such as William Blackstone that Catholics posed a secret threat to Britain, and numerous writings by authors such as Samuel Morse, Rebecca Reed, Avro Manhattan, Jack Chick and Alberto Rivera. Theorists often claim that the pope is the Antichrist, or they accuse Catholics of suppressing evidence incompatible with Church teachings and engaging in secret evil rituals, crimes and other plots.
In 1853, the Scottish minister Alexander Hislop published his anti-Catholic pamphlet The Two Babylons, in which he claims that the Catholic Church is secretly a continuation of the pagan religion of ancient Babylon, the product of a millennia-old conspiracy founded by the Biblical king Nimrod and the Assyrian queen Semiramis. It also claims that modern Catholic holidays, including Christmas and Easter, are actually pagan festivals established by Semiramis and that the customs associated with them are pagan rituals. Modern scholars have unanimously rejected the book's arguments as erroneous and based on a flawed understanding of Babylonian religion,[self-published source] but variations of them are still accepted among some groups of evangelical Protestants. Jehovah's Witnesses periodical The Watchtower frequently published excerpts from it until the 1980s. The book's thesis has also featured prominently in the conspiracy theories of racist groups, such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord.
Fears of a Catholic takeover of the US have been especially persistent, prompted by phenomena such as Catholic immigration in the 19th century, and Ku Klux Klan propaganda. Such fears have attached to Catholic political candidates such as Al Smith and John F. Kennedy.
Pope John Paul I died in September 1978, only a month after his election to the papacy. The timing of his death and the Vatican's alleged difficulties with ceremonial and legal death procedures has fostered several conspiracy theories.
The elderly Pope Benedict XVI's resignation in February 2013, for given reasons of a "lack of strength of mind and body", prompted theories in Italian publications such as La Repubblica and Panorama that he resigned in order to avoid an alleged scandal involving an underground gay Catholic network.
Apocalyptic prophecies, particularly Christian claims about the End Times, have inspired a range of conspiracy theories. Many of these cite the Antichrist, a leader who will supposedly create an oppressive world empire. Countless figures have been called Antichrist, including Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Russian emperor Peter the Great, Saladin, Pope John XXII, Benito Mussolini, American President Barack Obama, French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, and German Dictator Adolf Hitler
Bible and Jesus
Bible conspiracy theories posit that significant parts of the New Testament are false, or have been omitted. Various groups both real (such as the Vatican) and fake (such as the Priory of Sion) are said to suppress relevant information concerning, for example, the dating of the Turin Shroud.
Much of this line of conspiracy theory has been stimulated by a debunked book titled The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (1982), which claimed that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were lovers and that their offspring and descendants were secretly hidden in Europe following the death of Jesus, from whom the then-living French draughtsman Pierre Plantard claimed descent. Interest in this hoax saw a resurgence following the publication of Dan Brown's 2003 novel, The Da Vinci Code.
"War against Islam" is a conspiracy theory in Islamist discourse which describes an alleged plot to either harm or annihilate the social system within Islam. The perpetrators of this conspiracy are alleged to be non-Muslims and "false Muslims", allegedly in collusion with political actors in the Western world. The "War against Islam" theory is often used in order to refer to modern social problems and changes, but the Crusades are often seen as its starting point.
Since the September 11 Attacks, many anti-Islamic conspiracy theories have emerged, concerning a variety of topics. Love Jihad, also called Romeo Jihad, refers to a conspiracy theory concerning Muslim males who are said to target non-Muslim girls for conversion to Islam by feigning love. The "Eurabia" theory alleges a massive Muslim plot to islamize Europe (and often the rest of the western world) through mass immigration and high birth rates.  In addition, before and during his presidency, US President Barack Obama was accused by opponents of secretly being a Muslim.
In the United States, black genocide conspiracy theory holds the view that African Americans are the victims of genocide instituted by white Americans. Lynchings and racial discrimination were formally described as genocide by the Civil Rights Congress in 1951. Malcolm X also talked about "black genocide" in the early 1960s. Public funding of the Pill was also described as "black genocide" at the first Black Power Conference, in 1967. In 1970, after abortion was more widely legalized, some black militants depicted abortion as being part of the conspiracy.
In some U.S. cities that are governed by African American majorities, such as Washington, D.C., a persistent conspiracy theory holds that white Americans are plotting to take over those cities.
White genocide conspiracy theory is a white nationalist notion that immigration, integration, low fertility rates and abortion are being promoted in predominantly white countries in order to turn white people into a minority or cause their extinction. A 2017 study in France by IFOP, for example, found that 48% of participants believed without evidence that political and media elites are conspiring to replace white people with immigrants.
Some Rastafari maintain the view that a white racist patriarchy ("Babylon") controls the world in order to oppress black people. They believe that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia did not die in 1975, instead believing that the allegedly racist media propagated false reports of his death in order to quash the Rastafari movement.
Among the foremost concerns of conspiracy theorists are questions of alien life; for example, allegations of government cover-ups of the supposed Roswell UFO incident or activity at Area 51. Also popular are theories concerning so-called 'men in black', who allegedly silence witnesses.
Many reports of dead cattle found with absent body parts and seemingly drained of blood have emerged worldwide since at least the 1960s. This phenomenon has spawned theories variously concerning aliens and secret government or military experiments. Prominent among such theorists is Linda Moulton Howe, author of Alien Harvest (1989).
Many conspiracy theories have drawn inspiration from the writings of ancient astronaut proponent Zecharia Sitchin, who declared that the Anunnaki from Sumerian mythology were actually a race of extraterrestrial beings who came to Earth around 500,000 years ago in order to mine gold. In his 1994 book Humanity's Extraterrestrial Origins: ET Influences on Humankind's Biological and Cultural Evolution, Arthur Horn proposed that the Anunnaki were a race of blood-drinking, shape-shifting alien reptiles. This theory was adapted and elaborated on by British conspiracy theorist David Icke, who maintains that the Bush family, Margaret Thatcher, Bob Hope, and the British Royal Family, among others, are or were such creatures, or have been under their control. Critics have suggested that 'reptilians' may be seen as an antisemitic code word; a charge denied by Icke.
Government, politics and conflict
In the modern era, political conspiracy theories are often spread using fake news on social media. A 2017 study of fake news published by the Shorenstein Center found that "misinformation is currently predominantly a pathology of the right".
Political conspiracy theories may take generalized and wide-ranging forms concerning wars and international bodies, but may also be seen at a localized level, such as the conspiracy theory pertaining to the 118th Battalion, a British regiment stationed in Kitchener, Ontario during World War I, which is believed by some in Kitchener to still be present and controlling local politics.
Conspiracy theories concerning the Illuminati, a short-lived 18th-century Enlightenment society, appear to have originated in the late 19th century, when some conservatives in Europe came to believe that the group had been responsible for the French Revolution of 1789–1799. Hoaxes about the Illuminati were later spread in the 1960s by a group of American practical jokers known as the Discordians, who, for example, wrote a series of fake letters about the Illuminati to Playboy.
False flag operations
False flag operations are covert operations designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other entities. Some allegations of false flag operations have been verified or have been subjects of legitimate historical dispute (such as the 1933 Reichstag arson attack). Discussions of unsubstantiated allegations of such operations feature strongly in conspiracy theory discourse.
The multiple attacks made on the US by terrorists using hijacked aircraft on 11 September 2001 have proved especially attractive to conspiracy theorists. Theories may include reference to missile or hologram technology. By far, the most popular theory is that the attacks were in fact controlled demolitions, a theory which has been rejected by the engineering profession and the 9/11 Commission.
A 2012 fatal mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, prompted numerous conspiracy theories, among which is the claim that it was a manufactured event with the aim of promoting gun control. Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke has theorized that 'Zionists' were responsible. Theorists such as Alex Jones have suggested that the event was staged with actors. Harassment of the bereaved families by conspiracy theorists has resulted in a number of prosecutions. Rush Limbaugh also stated that the event happened because the Mayan Calendar phenomenon made shooter Adam Lanza do it.
A discredited theory, parts of which have been advanced by Christopher Ruddy among others, asserts that former US President Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary Clinton have assassinated fifty or more of their associates. The Lakeland Ledger, the Chicago Tribune and Snopes.com have debunked this theory, pointing to detailed death records, the unusually large circle of associates that a President is likely to have, and the facts that many of the people listed had no known link to the Clintons, or had been misidentified, or were still alive.
The unsolved 2016 murder of DNC staff member Seth Rich has prompted conspiracy theorists to claim that his killing was instigated by Hillary Clinton following alleged collaboration with WikiLeaks during the 2016 United States presidential campaign. Elements of this story have been promoted by figures including Alex Jones, Newt Gingrich, and Sean Hannity as an alternative theory to Russian interference in the election.
Pizzagate is a debunked conspiracy theory that emerged during the 2016 United States presidential election, connecting a pizza restaurant and members of the Democratic Party with a non-existent child-sex ring. It has been comprehensively discredited by numerous bodies including the District of Columbia Police Department, Snopes.com, The New York Times, and Fox News.
Former US President Obama has been the subject of numerous conspiracy theories. His presidency was the subject of a 2009 film, The Obama Deception, by Alex Jones, which alleged that Obama's administration was a puppet government for a wealthy elite. Another theory which came to prominence in 2009 (known as "birtherism") denies the legitimacy of Obama's presidency by claiming that he was not born in the US. This theory has persisted despite the evidence of his Hawaiian birth certificate and of contemporary birth announcements in two Hawaiian newspapers in 1961. Notable promoters of the theory are dentist-lawyer Orly Taitz and President Donald Trump, who has since publicly acknowledged its falsity but is said to continue to advocate for it privately. Other theories claim that Obama, a Protestant Christian, is secretly a Muslim.
A pair of fatal attacks on US government facilities in Benghazi, Libya, by Islamist terrorists in 2012 has spawned numerous conspiracy theories, including allegations that Obama's administration arranged the attack for political reasons, and Senator Rand Paul's repeated assertion that the government's response to the incident was designed to distract from a secret CIA operation.
The United States' Federal Emergency Management Agency is the subject of many theories, including the allegation that the organization has been engaged in the building of concentration camps on US soil, in advance of the imposition of martial law and genocide.
African National Congress
Members of South Africa's African National Congress party have long propagated conspiracy theories, frequently concerning the CIA and alleged white supremacists. In 2014, Deputy Minister of Defence Kebby Maphatsoe joined others in accusing without evidence Public Protector Thuli Madonsela of being a US agent working to create a puppet government in South Africa.
The intellectual group known as the Frankfurt School which emerged in the 1930s has increasingly been the subject of conspiracy theories which have alleged the promotion of communism in capitalist societies. The term 'Cultural Marxism' has been notably employed by conservative American movements such as the Tea Party, and by Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Breivik.
Occasionally used as a neutral term to denote a nation's bureaucracy, the conspiratorial notion of a "deep state" is a concept originating principally in Middle Eastern and North African politics with some basis in truth, and has been known in the US since the 1960s. It has since come to prominence under the Trump presidency. "Deep state" in the latter sense refers to an unidentified "power elite" who act in co-ordinated manipulation of a nation's politics and government. Proponents of such theories have included Canadian author Peter Dale Scott, who has promoted the idea in the US since at least the 1990s, as well as Breitbart News, Infowars and US President Donald Trump. A 2017 poll by ABC News and The Washington Post indicated that 48% of Americans believe in the existence of a conspiratorial "deep state" in the US.
The 2017 Sutherland Springs church shooting has also been the subject of multiple conspiracy theories. The shooter has been linked to multiple conspiracies, such as identifying him as a Democrat, Hillary Clinton supporter, Bernie Sanders supporter, "alt-left" supporter, Antifa member, or radical Muslim; or claiming that he carried an Antifa flag and told churchgoers: "This is a communist revolution". Some reports also falsely claimed that he targeted the church because they were "white conservatives".
Alternative therapy suppression
A 2013 study approved by the University of Chicago suggested that almost half of Americans believe at least one medical conspiracy theory, with 37% believing that the Food and Drug Administration deliberately suppresses 'natural' cures due to influence from the pharmaceutical industry. A prominent proponent of comparable conspiracy theories has been convicted fraudster Kevin Trudeau.
Scientists have found evidence that HIV was transferred from monkeys to humans in the 1930s. Evidence exists, however, that the KGB deliberately disseminated a notion in the 1980s that it was invented by the CIA. This idea, and similar ideas concerning Ebola, have since been promoted by persons such as actor Steven Seagal, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and former South Africa President Thabo Mbeki. Similar conspiracy theories allege that pharmaceutical companies assist in the creation of conditions and diseases including ADHD, HSV and HPV.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. Although many dental-health organizations support such fluoridation, the practice is opposed by conspiracy theorists. Allegations may include claims that it has been a way to dispose of industrial waste, or that it exists to obscure a failure to provide dental care to the poor. A further theory promoted by the John Birch Society in the 1960s described fluoridation as a communist plot to weaken the American population.
A popular conspiracy theory states that the pharmaceutical industry has mounted a cover-up of a causal link between vaccines and autism. The theory took hold with the publication in 1998 of a fraudulent paper by discredited former doctor Andrew Wakefield. The resulting anti-vaccine movement has been promoted by a number of prominent persons including Rob Schneider, Jim Carrey and U.S. President Donald Trump, and has led to increased rates of infection and death from diseases such as measles in many countries, including the US, Italy, Germany, Romania and the UK.
Vaccine conspiracy theories have been widespread in Nigeria since at least 2003, as well as in Pakistan. Such theories may feature claims that vaccines are part of a secret anti-Islam plot, and have been linked to fatal mass shootings and bombings at vaccine clinics in both countries.
Science and technology
Global warming conspiracy theorists typically allege that the science behind global warming has been invented or distorted for ideological or financial reasons. Many have promoted such theories, including U.S. President Donald Trump, US Senator James Inhofe, British journalist Christopher Booker, and Viscount Christopher Monckton.
Weather and earthquake control projects
Numerous theories pertain to real or alleged weather-controlling projects. Theories include the debunked assertion that HAARP, a radio-technology research program funded by the US government, is a secret weather-controlling system. Some theorists have blamed 2005's Hurricane Katrina on HAARP. HAARP has also been suggested to have somehow caused earthquakes, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami or the 2013 Saravan earthquake. Theories concerning HAARP may also refer to mind-control technology.
Also of interest to conspiracy theorists are cloud-seeding technologies. These include a debunked allegation that the British military's Project Cumulus caused the fatal 1952 Lynmouth Flood in Devon, England, and claims concerning a secret project said to have caused the 2010 Pakistan floods.
Genuine American research in the 1950s and 1960s into chemical interrogation and mind-control techniques has prompted many subsequent conspiracy theories, especially following CIA Director Richard Helm's 1973 order to destroy all files related to the project. These theories include the allegation that the mass fatality at Jonestown in 1978 was connected to an MKUltra experiment.
Radio frequency identification chips (RFID), such as are implanted into pets as a means of tracking, have drawn the interest of conspiracy theorists who posit that this technology is secretly in widespread use on humans. Former Whitby town councilor Simon Parkes has promoted this theory, which may be related to conspiracy theories concerning vaccination, electronic banking and the Antichrist.
Flat Earth theory first emerged in 19th-century England, despite the Earth's spherical nature having been known since at least the time of Pythagoras. It has in recent years been promoted by American software consultant Mark Sargent through the use of YouTube videos. Flat-earther conspiracy theorists hold that planet Earth is not a sphere, and that evidence has been faked or suppressed to hide the fact that is instead a disc, or a single infinite plane. The conspiracy often implicates NASA. Other claims may include such allegations as that GPS devices are rigged to make aircraft pilots wrongly believe they are flying around a globe.
Numerous theories pertain to the alleged suppression of certain technologies and energies. Such theories may focus on the Vril Society Conspiracy, allegations of the suppression of the electric car by fossil-fuel companies (as detailed in the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?), and the Phoebus cartel, set up in 1924, which has been accused of suppressing longer-lasting light bulbs. Other long-standing allegations include the suppression of perpetual motion and cold fusion technology by government agencies, special interest groups, or fraudulent inventors.
Conspiracy theorists often attend to new military technologies, both real and imagined. Subjects of theories include: the alleged Philadelphia Experiment, a supposed attempt to turn a U.S. Navy warship invisible; the alleged Montauk Project, a supposed government program to learn about mind control and time travel; and the so-called "tsunami bomb", which is alleged to have caused the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Other theories include Peter Vogel's debunked claim that an accidental explosion of conventional munitions at Port Chicago was in fact a nuclear detonation, and a theory promoted by the Venezuelan state-run TV station ViVe that the 2010 Haiti earthquake was caused by a secret US "earthquake weapon".
Conspiracy theorists claim that government agents are utilizing directed energy weapons and electronic surveillance to harass members of the population. Theorists often cite research into psychotronic weapons, the Cuban Health Attacks, and the Microwave Auditory Effect as proof of their theory. There are over 10,000 people who identify as Targeted Individuals.
Some theories claim that the dates of historical events have been deliberately distorted. These include the phantom time hypothesis of German conspiracy theorist Heribert Illig, who in 1991 published an allegation that 297 years had been added to the calendar by establishment figures such as Pope Sylvester II in order to position themselves at the millennium.
A comparable theory, known as the New Chronology, is most closely associated with Russian theorist Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko holds that history is many centuries shorter than is widely believed and that numerous historical documents have been fabricated, and legitimate documents destroyed, for political ends. Adherents of such ideas have included chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
Scientific space programs are of particular interest to conspiracy theorists. The most prolific theories allege that the US moon landings were staged by NASA in a film studio, with some alleging the involvement of director Stanley Kubrick. The Soviet space program has also attracted theories that the government concealed evidence of failed flights. A more recent theory, emergent following the activities of hacker Gary McKinnon, suggests that a secret program of manned space fleets known as Solar Warden exists, supposedly acting under the United Nations.
Nibiru (Planet X)
Conspiracy theorists have long posited a plot by organizations such as NASA to conceal the existence of a large planet in the Solar System known as Nibiru or Planet X, which allegedly, will one day pass close enough to the Earth to destroy it. Predictions for the date of destruction have included 2003, 2012 and 2017. The theory began to develop following the publication of The 12th Planet (1976), by discredited Russian-American author Zecharia Sitchin, was given its full form by Nancy Lieder, and has since been promoted by American conspiracy theorist and End Times theorist David Meade. The notion has remained popular, and received renewed attention during the period prior to the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. Other conspiracy theorists in 2017 also predicted Nibiru would appear, including Terral Croft and YouTube pastor Paul Begley.
Rigged selection processes
The "frozen envelope theory" suggests that the National Basketball Association rigged its 1985 draft lottery so that Patrick Ewing would join the New York Knicks. Theorists claim that a lottery envelope was chilled so that it could be identified by touch. A similar "hot balls theory", promoted by Scottish football manager David Moyes, suggests that certain balls used in draws for UEFA competitions have been warmed to achieve specific outcomes.
1984 Pepsi 400
The 1984 Pepsi 400 at Daytona, Florida, was the first NASCAR race to be attended by a sitting US President, Ronald Reagan, and was driver Richard Petty's 200th victory. Rival driver Cale Yarborough's premature retirement to the pit road has prompted conspiracy theorists to allege that organizers fixed the race in order to receive good publicity for the event.
Ronaldo and the 1998 World Cup Final
On the day of the 1998 World Cup Final, Brazilian striker Ronaldo suffered a convulsive fit. Ronaldo was initially removed from the starting lineup 72 minutes before the match, with the teamsheet released to a stunned world media, before he was reinstated by the Brazil coach shortly before kick off. Ronaldo "sleepwalked" through the final, with France winning the game. The nature of the incident set off a trail of questions and allegations which persisted for years, with Alex Bellos writing in The Guardian, "When Ronaldo's health scare was revealed after the match, the situation's unique circumstances lent itself to fabulous conspiracy theories. Here was the world's most famous sportsman, about to take part in the most important match of his career, when he suddenly, inexplicably, fell ill. Was it stress, epilepsy, or had he been drugged?". Questions also circulated into who made Ronaldo play the game. The Brazil coach insisted he had the final say, but much speculation focused on sportswear company Nike, Brazil's multimillion-dollar sponsor—whom many Brazilians thought had too much control—putting pressure on the striker to play against medical advice.
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots have also been involved in numerous conspiracy theories. During their AFC Championship 24–20 victory over the Jacksonville Jaguars, several conspiracy theories spread stating that the referees helped the Patriots advance to Super Bowl LII. However, sports analyst Stephen A. Smith stated the Jaguars were not robbed, but that they had no one to blame but themselves for the loss. There were also conspiracy theories regarding the Super Bowl LI matchup between the Patriots and the Atlanta Falcons stating that the game was rigged while others said the Falcons made questionable play-calls at the end of the game.
- Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Issitt, Micah; Main, Carlyn (2014). Hidden Religion: The Greatest Mysteries and Symbols of the World's Religious Beliefs. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-478-0.
- "10 Controversial Air Crash Conspiracy Theories". Listverse. 23 July 2014.
- "Bring out the cranks and conspiracy theorists". The Financial Times. 7 August 2009.
- "Fox gives Glenn Beck's show the boot". The Los Angeles Times. 7 April 2011.
- "Ben Carson is ready for the coming American apocalypse". The Week. 2 October 2015.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- "My month with chemtrails conspiracy theorists". The Guardian. 22 May 2017.
- Shearer, Christine; West, Mick; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J (10 August 2016). "Quantifying expert consensus against the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program". Environmental Research Letters. IOP Science. 11 (8): 084011. Bibcode:2016ERL....11h4011S. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084011.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- "MH17: five of the most bizarre conspiracy theories". The Guardian. 22 July 2014.
- "CIA withholding information on flight MH370, says former Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamad". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down from pro-Russian rebel controlled territory, investigation finds". Sydney Morning Herald. 29 September 2016.
- Phillips, David (1 July 2010). "Conspiracy Theories Behind BP Oil Spill in Gulf – From Dick Cheney To UFOs". CBS News.
- "The conspiracy theories behind the BP oil spill". The Week. 14 July 2010.
- "New Coke Origins". Snopes.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Greenwald, John (12 April 2005). "Coca-Cola's Big Fizzle". Time.
- Blount, Brian K. (2009). Revelation: A Commentary. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster Knox Press. pp. 248–249. ISBN 978-0-664-22121-8.
- "Is 2017 a Bumper Year for Conspiracy Theories?". Yahoo News. 11 October 2017.
- Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. xiv, 1273. ISBN 0-393-04525-0.
- Broderick, James F.; Miller, Darren W. (2008). "Chapter 16: The JFK Assassination". Web of Conspiracy: A Guide to Conspiracy Theory Sites on the Internet. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today, Inc./CyberAge Books. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-910965-81-1.
- Perry, James D. (2003). Peter, Knight, ed. Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 383. ISBN 1-57607-812-4.
- Summers, Anthony (2013). "Six Options for History". Not in Your Lifetime. New York: Open Road. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4804-3548-3. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
- Kauffman, Michael W. (2004). American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies, p.185 (New York: Random House), ISBN 978-0-375-50785-4
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 7–8.
- Burston, Bradley (11 October 2010). "Rightist website marks anniversary of Rabin's murder – with a conspiracy theory contest". Haaretz.
- "Presidential conspiracy theories, from Zachary Taylor to JFK". The Washington Post. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Shipman, Tim (20 December 2008). "General George S. Patton was assassinated to silence his criticism of allied war leaders, claims new book". The Telegraph.
- "History’s greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- Borger, Julian (17 August 2011). "Dag Hammarskjöld: evidence suggests UN chief’s plane was shot down". The Guardian (UK).
- Collins, Nick (9 June 2011). "David Kelly – what is behind the conspiracy theories?". The Telegraph (London).
- "History’s greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- "'It's the real me': Nigerian president denies dying and being replaced by clone". theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Nigerian President Buhari denies death and body double rumours". bbc.com. BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- " ‘Elvis Presley is alive’ and 10 more conspiracy theories". The Week. 24 April 2017.
- "Adolf Hitler alive: weird conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 29 September 2009.
- Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias, eds. (2005). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler’s Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-58648-366-1.
- Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1037. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
- Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) . The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, The Evidence, The Truth. Brockhampton Press. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.
- "Lord Lucan: the strangest theories about his disappearance". The Week. 4 February 2016.
- "Lord Lucan was fed to tiger at Howletts zoo in Canterbury, it has been claimed". Kent Online. 30 January 2016.
- "Lord Lucan – The Mystery Unravelled". BBC. 7 March 2005.
- "Ten years since Maddie’s disappearance, the McCanns still face an onslaught of conspiracy theories". International Business Times. 3 May 2017.
- Kiely, Eugene (22 May 2017). "Gingrich Spreads Conspiracy Theory". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
At this point in the investigation, it is believed that Seth Rich was the victim of an attempted robbery. The assertions put forward by Mr. Wheeler are unfounded.
- Carroll, Lauren (23 May 2017). Sanders, Katie, ed. "The baseless claim that slain DNC staffer Seth Rich gave emails to WikiLeaks". PolitiFact.com. Tampa Bay Times.
There is no trustworthy evidence supporting the theory that Rich was WikiLeaks' source for thousands of DNC emails. The police believe his death was the result of a botched robbery, not a political assassination.
- "Cyber-spying: Bear on bear". The Economist. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Gillin, Joshua (26 May 2017). "Conspiracy theory that Comey hid Seth Rich’s ties to WikiLeaks based on retracted story". PolitiFact.com.
- "Fox News web site retracts debunked reporting on DNC staffer Seth Rich". Snopes.com. 23 May 2017.
- Rutenberg, Jim (24 May 2017). "Sean Hannity, a Murder and Why Fake News Endures". The New York Times.
- Shalby, Colleen (24 May 2017). "How Seth Rich’s death became an Internet conspiracy theory". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017.
Despite police statements and Rich's family concluding that his death was the result of an attempted robbery, the rumor spread within the same circles that churned out the bogus 'PizzaGate' story
- Weigel, David (20 May 2017). "The Seth Rich conspiracy shows how fake news still works". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- The Criminalization of the State Michel Chossudovsky 3 February 2004
- Jane Kay; Chronicle Environment Writer (6 July 2009). "San Francisco Bay Area". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Roberts, Andrew. "The Green-Ink Brigade". Literary Review. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "Beyonce and the Illuminati: Music's Most WTF Conspiracy Theories, Explained". Rolling Stone. 9 October 2017.
- Sykes, Leslie (17 May 2009). "Angels & Demons Causing Serious Controversy". KFSN-TV/ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Jared Jacang Maher (30 August 2007). "DIA Conspiracies Take Off". Denver Westword.
- "Trump says he 'wouldn't be surprised' if unfounded conspiracy theory about George Soros funding caravan is true". Washington Post. 1 Nov 2018.
- "Kavanaugh confirmation: What Trump's 'elevator screamers' tweet tells us". BBC News. 5 Oct 2018.
- "George Soros is a favorite target of the right — here's how that happened". Business Insider. 20 May 2017.
- "Roy Moore is fueling a crazy conspiracy theory about George Soros". HuffPost. 5 December 2017.
- "It's no surprise that the far right are mobilising against George Soros – he's the biggest threat to their global domination". The Independent. 15 November 2016.
- "Conspiracy about George Soros Makes It to Congress". Yahoo News. 6 October 2017.
- "Anti-semitism used in attack against National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster". ADL. 3 August 2017.
- "Why is the Alt-Right attacking H. R. McMaster?". Yahoo News. 3 August 2017.
- "Masonic Conspiracy Theories". HuffPost. 18 July 2012.
- "Was Titanic inquiry scuppered by the Freemasons?". The Daily Telegraph. 23 November 2015.
- "Conspiracy theories and secret handshakes: what do we know about Freemasons?". Daily Express. 24 November 2015.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. p. 82.
- Mustafa Akyol (12 September 2016). "The Tin-Foil Hats Are Out in Turkey". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (31 October 2014). "The Middle East 'mastermind' who worries Erdogan". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (19 March 2015). "Unraveling the AKP's 'Mastermind' conspiracy theory". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (9 January 2017). "Why Turkish government pushes 'global conspiracy' narrative". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "Foreign powers performing 'earthquake tests' near Istanbul to destroy economy: Ankara mayor". Hurriyet Daily News. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "Geheimbotschaften in der Jeanshose". tagesspiegel. 27 November 2017.
- Okbi, Yasser (16 October 2013). "Hezbollah: We have captured an Israeli 'spy eagle' in Lebanon". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- Morgan, Clive (13 October 2016). "Roswell and the world's other great conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Harold Wilson resignation 'linked to MI6, burglary and insider trading'". The Times. 22 August 2008.
- "MI5 put union leaders and protesters under surveillance during cold war". The Guardian. 6 October 2009.
- "Pakistani Islamist politician claims Malala was not injured". The Daily Telegraph. 5 November 2012.
- "Pakistan thrives on conspiracy theory". Financial Times. 24 October 2012.
- "The antagonism towards Malala in Pakistan". BBC. 10 October 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai is a hero to many, but has few fans in her homeland". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 August 2017.
- "Skripals - The Mystery Deepens - Craig Murray". craigmurray.org.uk. 6 September 2018.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- Levy, Richard (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice. p. 55. ISBN 1-85109-439-3.
- Baker, Lee D. (2010). Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture. Duke University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0822346982.
- Waltman, Michael; John Haas (2010). The Communication of Hate. Peter Lang. p. 52. ISBN 978-1433104473.
- "Who runs Hollywood? C'mon". Los Angeles Times.
- ""Denial": how to deal with a conspiracy theory in the era of 'post-truth'". Cambridge University Press. 16 February 2017.
- Doward, Jamie (22 January 2017). "New online generation takes up Holocaust denial". The Observer.
- "Holocaust Revisionism". Time. 2009.
- "A German court sentenced Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf to two and a half years in prison for inciting racial hatred in publications and Web sites which "systematically" called into question the Nazi genocide." "German Holocaust Denier Imprisoned for Inciting Racial Hatred", Deutsche Welle, 16 February 2007.
- Hare, Ivan; Weinstein, James (2010). Extreme Speech and Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 553. ISBN 0199601798.
- McLaughlin, Daniel (12 May 2012). "Baku pins hopes on Eurovision to boost image". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev at the conference on the results of the third year into the "State Program on the socioeconomic development of districts for 2009–2013"". Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev". Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan cached on archive.org on 3 May 2015. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Armenia pulls out of Azerbaijan-hosted Eurovision show". BBC. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Turkish minister says Russian media run by Armenians, German media not free". Hürriyet Daily News. 7 June 2016.
- "Arkansas Legal Ethics". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Weems, Samuel A. 2002. Armenia: secrets of a Christian terrorist state. The Armenian Great deception series, v. 1. Dallas: St. John Press.
- Waal, Thomas (2013). Black garden Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York London: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-6032-5.
- Geybulla, Arzu (8 January 2016). "Searching for the 'Armenian Lobby'". openDemocracy.
- Ghanea, Nazila (2003). Human Rights, the UN and the Bahá'ís in Iran. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 294. ISBN 90-411-1953-1
- Cooper, Roger (1993). Death Plus 10 years. HarperCollins. p. 200. ISBN 0-00-255045-8
- Simpson, John; Shubart, Tira (1995). Lifting the Veil. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. p. 223. ISBN 0-340-62814-6
- Tavakoli-Targhi, Mohamad (2008). "Anti-Baha'ism and Islamism in Iran". In Brookshaw, Dominic P.; Fazel, Seena B. The Baha'is of Iran: Socio-historical studies. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 200. ISBN 0-203-00280-6
- Henrietta Heald (1992). Chronicle of Britain: Incorporating a Chronicle of Ireland. Jacques Legrand. p. 605. ISBN 9781872031354.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (1997). Mein, Andrew; Camp, Claudia V., eds. Can a 'History of Israel' Be Written?. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0567043207.
- Mcllhenny, Albert M. (2011). This Is the Sun?: Zeitgeist and Religion (Volume I: Comparative Religion). Lulu.com. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-105-33967-7. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Lent and Ash Wednesday are NOT pagan relics".
- Barkun, Michael (1997). Religion and the Racist Right. UNC Press. pp. 192–193. ISBN 9780807846384.
- Jenkins, Philip (1 April 2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-515480-1.
- John Tracy Ellis, "American Catholicism", University Of Chicago Press 1956.
- Bilhartz, Terry D. (1986). Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8386-3227-7.
- Anbinder; Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the politics of the 1850s (1992). Online version; also online at ACLS History e-Book, the standard scholarly study
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91.
- "Warning Against the Roman Catholic Party," a 1928 speech by Sen. Thomas J. Heflin (hosted at History Matters)
- Randall Balmer. "Billy Graham Regrets Political Involvement, Again," Religion Dispatches.
- Gregory Campbell McDermott. "I am not the Catholic candidate": Local Issues and the Catholic Question in John F. Kennedy's 1960 Presidential Campaign.
- "Transcript: JFK's Speech on His Religion". NPR. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Pope Renounces Papal Throne". Vatican Information Service, 2 November 2013 Bulletin – English Edition.
- "Scandal threatens to overshadow pope's final days". CNN. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Did a Secret Vatican Report on Gay Sex and Blackmail Bring Down the Pope?". Yahoo News. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Antichrist". Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "One in four Americans think Obama may be the antichrist, survey says". The Guardian. 2 April 2013.
- "Obama the antichrist? Global warming a myth? Lizard people controlling the world? Conspiracy theory research reveals bizarre beliefs prevalent in US". The Independent. 4 April 2013.
- "The Book of Revelation does not describe the anti-Christ as someone with characteristics matching those of Barack Obama". Snopes. 25 May 2016.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 187–218, Chapter 6: Holy Blood, Holy Grail, Holy Shit.
- John L. Esposito, Emad El-Din Shahin (September 2013). "The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "'Love Jihad' and religious conversion polarise in Modi's India". Reuters. 4 September 2014.
- "Muzaffarnagar: 'Love jihad', beef bogey sparked riot flames". Hindustan Times. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Stephen Brown (16 October 2009). "The 'Love Jihad'". Front Page Mag. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Ananthakrishnan G (13 October 2009). "'Love Jihad' racket: VHP, Christian groups find common cause". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Mahanta, Siddhartha (5 September 2014). "India's Fake 'Love Jihad'". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Liz Fekete (15 December 2011). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Institute of Race Relations. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Kumeh, Titania (12 October 2010). "Conspiracy Watch: Is Abortion Black Genocide?". Mother Jones.
- "Rick Tyler: Gingrich Backer Airs 'Black Genocide' Theory on MSNBC". International Business Times. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Agins, Donna Brown (2006). Maya Angelou: Diversity Makes for a Rich Tapestry. Enslow Publishers. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0766024695.
- Smith, Mary (March 1968). "Birth Control and the Negro Woman". Ebony. Vol. 23 no. 5. p. 29.
- Wright, Nathan (December 1969). "Black Power vs. Black Genocide". The Black Scholar. Paradigm Publishers. 1 (2): 47–52. JSTOR 41202828.
- Scott, Laell (25 May 1970). "Legal Abortions, Ready or Not". New York Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 21. p. 68. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Kaplan, Jeffrey (2000). Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right. AltaMira Press. p. 539. ISBN 9780742503403. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Kivisto, Peter; Rundblad, Georganne (2000). Multiculturalism in the United States: Current Issues, Contemporary Voices. SAGE Knowledge. pp. 57–60. ISBN 9780761986485. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Capehart, Jonathan. "A petition to 'stop white genocide'?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Sexton, Jared (2008). Amalgamation Schemes: Antiblackness and the Critique of Multiracialism. Univ Of Minnesota Press. pp. 207–08. ISBN 0816651043. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Perry, Barbara. "'White Genocide': White Supremacists and the Politics of Reproduction." Home-grown hate: Gender and organized racism (2001): 75-85.
- Eager, Paige Whaley (2013). From Freedom Fighters to Terrorists: Women and Political Violence. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 90. ISBN 9781409498575.
- "8 in 10 French people believe a conspiracy theory: survey". Yahoo News. 8 January 2018.
- Rastafari, Jah (7 October 2005). "Questions about Rastafari". Rastafaritimes.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- "Haile Selassie: Who was the Rastafarian Messiah?". BBC News. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "US base leads poll's top conspiracy theories". The Guardian. 31 July 2008.
- "Colorado cow mutilations baffle ranchers, cops, UFO believer". The Denver Post. 8 December 2009.
- Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Michael Barkun (4 May 2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Robertson, David G. (2016). Cox, James; Sutcliffe, Steven; Sweetman, William, eds. UFOs, Conspiracy Theories and the New Age: Millennial Conspiracism. Bloomsbury Advances in Religious Studies. London, England: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-1474253208.
- Fritze, Ronald H. (2009). Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-Religions. London, England: Reaktion Books. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-86189-430-4.
- Fritze, Ronald H. (2016). Egyptomania: A History of Fascination, Obsession and Fantasy. London, England: Reaktion Books. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-78023-639-1.
- "The Reptilian Elite". Time. 2009.
- "Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action - Shorenstein Center". 2 May 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Lawrence Johnstone Burpee, "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Canadian History," Oxford University Press, 1926, pg 477.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. p. 20.
- "The Accidental Invention of the Illuminati Conspiracy". BBC. 9 August 2017.
- "Historians Find 'Proof' that Nazis Burnt Reichstag". The Telegraph. UK. 15 April 2001.
- "Agujeros Negros del 11-M".
- Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia, edited by Peter Knight, pp 689
- Peter Weber (2 September 2014). "America created the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria? Meet the ISIS 'truthers'". The Week.
- Hassan, Mehdi. "Inside jobs and Israeli stooges: why is the Muslim world in thrall to conspiracy theories?". New Statesman.
- African Shia Cleric: Boko Haram attrocity is a conspiracy against Islamic resurgence in Nigeria
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram Conceived to Destroy Islam - Prof. Bunza". Daily Trust. AllAfrica. 8 February 2012. (Subscription required (help)).
- Summers, Anthony; Swan, Robbyn (2011). The Eleventh Day: The Full Story of 9/11 and Osama bin Laden. New York: Ballantine. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4000-6659-9.
- Staff Editors (3 February 2005). "Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report – The World Trade Center". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication.
- Bažant, Z. K. P.; Verdure, M. (2007). "Mechanics of Progressive Collapse: Learning from World Trade Center and Building Demolitions" (PDF). Journal of Engineering Mechanics. American Society of Civil Engineers. 133 (3): 308–19. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2007)133:3(308).
- "Conspiracy Theorists Blame Jews For Sandy Hook Massacre". Anti-Defamation League. 18 December 2012.
- Dylan Baddour & W. Gardner Selby, Hillary Clinton correct that Austin's Alex Jones said no one died at Sandy Hook Elementary, PolitiFact (1 September 2016).
- David Mikkelson, FBI Admits Sandy Hook Hoax?: Rumor: The FBI revealed that no murders occurred in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012, proving the Sandy Hook massacre was an elaborate hoax, Snopes (7 February 2015).
- "Limbaugh: Maybe the Mayan apocalypse made Adam Lanza do it". 20 December 2012.
- "Clinton Body Count or Left-Wing Conspiracy? Three With Ties to DNC Mysteriously Die". Townhall. 9 August 2016.
- Nelson, Lars-Erik (4 January 1999). "Conspiracy Nuts Hit New Low With The Body Count". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "The Clinton BS Files: "Lock her up" isn't really about emails — the right's been accusing the Clintons of murder for decades". Salon. 29 August 2016.
- The Clinton Body Count Snopes.com. Retrieved 12 December 2013
- "Ron Brown Murder Plot Has Too Many Holes". Chicago Tribune. 11 January 1998.
- Sullivan, Margaret (1 August 2017). "You don't have to believe everything in that Seth Rich lawsuit. What's been confirmed is bad enough". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "FACT CHECK: Did DNC Staffer Seth Rich Send 'Thousands of E-Mails' to WikiLeaks Before He Was Murdered?". Snopes.com. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "The Seth Rich conspiracy shows how fake news still works". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "Behind Fox News' Baseless Seth Rich Story: The Untold Tale". NPR. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- * Ruth, Daniel (6 December 2016). "The lunacy of fake news". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Douglas, William; Washburn, Mark (6 December 2016). "Religious zeal drives N.C. man in 'Pizzagate'". The Courier-Tribune. The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Alam, Hannah (5 December 2016). "Conspiracy peddlers continue pushing debunked 'pizzagate' tale". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 287–91.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 285–90.
- "Trump Is Still Touting the Obama 'Birther' Conspiracy Theory Behind Closed Doors". Yahoo News. 29 November 2017.
- "Trump Still Believes 'Birther' Obama Conspiracy". Newsweek on MSN. 29 November 2017.
- "Trump, Grand Wizard of Birtherism". The New York Times. 17 September 2016.
- "Inside The Top Benghazi Conspiracy Theories That Refuse To Go Away". International Business Times. 11 May 2013.
- "Benghazi Conspiracy Theories Definitively Debunked. Again". HuffPost. 24 January 2015.
- "Rand Paul is a conspiracy theorist: Time for the world to call him what he is". Salon. 3 December 2014.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- Van Onselen, Gareth (25 May 2016). "The top 10 bogus ANC conspiracy theories". Business Live.
- Ndaba, Baldwin (8 September 2014). "Thuli a CIA spy, says deputy minister". IOL.
- Masoga, Elvis (3 October 2012). "Malema thrives on political conspiracy theories". South African Broadcasting Corporation.
- Berlet, Chip (July 2012). "Collectivists, Communists, Labor Bosses, and Treason: The Tea Parties as Right-Wing Populist Counter-Subversion Panic". Critical Sociology. 38 (4): 565–87. doi:10.1177/0896920511434750. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015.
- Berkowitz, Bill (2003), "Reframing the Enemy: 'Cultural Marxism', a Conspiracy Theory with an Anti-Semitic Twist, Is Being Pushed by Much of the American Right." Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center, Summer. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2004.
- "'Breivik manifesto' details chilling attack preparation". BBC. 24 July 2011.
- "What is the "deep state"?". The Economist. 9 March 2017.
- "What is the 'Deep State' and how does it influence Donald Trump?". The Independent. 6 March 2017.
- "What Is the Deep State?". The Nation. 17 February 2017.
- "Trump to Fight 'Deep State' With Secret, Private Spy Network Around the World?". Yahoo News. 6 December 2017.
- "Deep State: How a Conspiracy Theory Went From Political Fringe to Mainstream". Newsweek. 2 August 2017.
- "Deep State: Inside Donald Trump's Paranoid Conspiracy Theory". Rolling Stone. 9 March 2017.
- "Google shared conspiracy theories that sought to tie Texas shooter to antifa movement". Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Ansari, Talal (5 November 2017). "Here Is The Misinformation Going Around About The Texas Church Shooting". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Mikkelson, David (5 November 2017). "Was the Texas Church Shooter an Antifa Member Who Vowed to Start Civil War?". Snopes.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Griffin, Miriam T (2013). Nero: the end of a dynasty. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21464-3.
- "Half Of Americans Believe In Medical Conspiracy Theories". NPR. 19 March 2014.
- "'Paul McCartney is dead' and 10 more conspiracy theories". The Week. 21 August 2017.
- "Steven Seagal Gets a Shot at Stardom". The Lost Angeles Times. 14 February 1988. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- "Separating Fact from Fiction, The CIA and AIDS". Time. 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Kruszelnicki, Karl S (15 March 2007). "Dr Karl's Great Moments In Science. CIA did (not) make AIDS?". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Horowitz, Leonard G. (1996). Emerging Viruses : AIDS and Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional?. Medical Veritas International. ISBN 9780923550127.
- "Farrakhan claims Ebola invented to kill off blacks". Fox News Channel. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). "Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States". MMWR Recomm Rep. 50 (RR–14): 1–42. PMID 11521913. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Lay summary – CDC (2007-08-09).
- Armfield JM (2007). "When public action undermines public health: a critical examination of antifluoridationist literature". Aust New Zealand Health Policy. 4 (1): 25. doi:10.1186/1743-8462-4-25. PMC 2222595. PMID 18067684.
- Freeze RA, Lehr JH. The Fluoride Wars: How a Modest Public Health Measure Became America's Longest-Running Political Melodrama. John Wiley & Sons; 2009. ISBN 978-0-470-44833-5. Fluorophobia. p. 127–69.
- Murray N. Rothbard (January 1993). "Fluoridation Revisited". The Rothbard-Rockwell Report. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
- "Donald Trump Has Finally Erased the Line Between Conservatism and Conspiracy Theories". New York. 1 August 2017.
- Triggle, Nick (24 May 2010). "MMR doctor struck off register". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Rob Schneider Links Autism To Vaccines, Rails Against Big Government". HuffPost. 2 July 2012.
- "Jim Carrey, Please Shut Up About Vaccines". Time. 1 July 2015.
- "John Oliver blasts Trump as a 'human megaphone' for the anti-vaccine movement". The Washington Post. 26 June 2017.
- "Donald Trump says vaccinations are causing an autism 'epidemic'". The Independent. 17 September 2015.
- "Germany vaccination: Fines plan as measles cases rise". BBC. 26 May 2017.
- "Watch John Oliver Explore How Trump, Memes Fueled Anti-Vaccine Movement". Rolling Stone. 26 June 2017.
- "Should Vaccines Be Required? In Italy, Parents Can Now Be Fined for Skipping Kids' Shots". Newsweek. 19 June 2017.
- "Measles outbreak in maps and graphics". BBC. 2 May 2013.
- "Nigeria's polio campaign undermined by conspiracy theories". Al Arabiya News Channel. 26 February 2013.
- "Vaccines, the CIA, and how the War on Terror helped spread polio in Nigeria". The Guardian. 15 July 2011.
- "Pakistan bomb blast: why health workers keep getting attacked". The Christian Science Monitor. 7 October 2013.
- "After chilly forecast, Trump tweets U.S. 'could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming'". The Washington Post. 28 December 2017.
- "Yes, Donald Trump did call climate change a Chinese hoax". PolitiFact.com. 3 June 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Fiddling with global warming conspiracy theories while Rome burns". The Guardian. 11 February 2011.
- "The 5 most deranged conspiracy theories from GOP mega-donors' bizarro climate conference". Salon. 29 March 2017.
- "Illuminati, Mind Control and Hurricanes: Conspiracy Theories Follow HAARP". International Business Times. 30 July 2015.
- Pappas, Stephanie (22 May 2014). "Conspiracy Theories Abound as U.S. Military Closes HAARP". NBC News. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Walia, Arjun. "Was Hugo Chavez Right About HAARP & The Haiti Earthquake? Is Weather Even Natural Anymore?". Collective Evolution. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Hubbard, Zachary K. "HAARP Watch: Iran's Hanukah/Thanksgiving Earthquake and the Upsurge In Regional Earthquakes". Free to Find Truth. blog. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Tyler Durden" (alias). "Major 7.8 Earthquake Strikes Iran Leaves "Hundreds Dead"; Follows 6.1 Quake From Week Ago". ZeroHedge. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- Eden, Philip. "The day they made it rain". WeatherOnline.
- "RAF rainmakers 'caused 1952 flood'". The Guardian. 30 August 2001.
- Maqbool, Aleem (21 October 2010). "Is Pakistan in denial about tackling its problems?". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- "MARK OF THE BEAST: Secret plan to 'implant us all with ID chips by 2017'". Daily Express. 25 August 2016.
- "'Vladimir Putin is advised by ALIENS' Councillor blames space reptiles for Ukraine crisis". Daily Express. 23 February 2015.
- "Why bad ideas refuse to die". The Guardian. 28 June 2016.
- "Do they really think the earth is flat?". BBC. 4 August 2008.
- "Flat Earth Society Says Evidence Of Round Planet Part Of Vast Conspiracy Theory". HuffPost. 29 October 2012.
- Gaughen, Patrick. "Structural Inefficiency in the Early Twentieth Century: Studies in the Aluminum and Incadescent Lamp Markets" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Tutt, Keith (2003). The Scientist, The Madman, The Thief and Their Lightbulb: The Search for Free Energy. UK: Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 978-0684020907. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- B. King, Moray (2005). The Energy Machine of T. Henry Moray: Zero-Point Energy & Pulsed Plasma Physics. Adventures Unlimited Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1931882422. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Edwards, Tony (1 December 1996). "End of road for car that ran on Water". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 23 March 2013 – via Google Groups.
- Vallée, Jacques F (1994). "Anatomy of a Hoax: The Philadelphia Experiment Fifty Years Later" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. 8 (1): 47–71. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Allen, Robert; Vogel, Peter (June–July 1996). "America's Dark Secret: The Port Chicago Disaster". Nexus Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 4. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Hugo Chavez Says U.S. Hit Haiti With 'Earthquake Weapon'". Fox News Channel. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Yan, Laura (2018-03-04). "Mind Games: The Tortured Lives of 'Targeted Individuals'". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
- Brain Invaders, retrieved 2018-12-31
- Mind Control, retrieved 2018-12-31
- "King Arthur was really a Russian, say Slavs". The Daily Telegraph. 19 April 2001.
- "Stunts! Bumps! Fake Trumps! 25 pop-culture myths too weird to be true". The Guardian. 2 December 2017.
- "Profile: Gary McKinnon". BBC. 14 December 2012.
- "16 Batshit Space Conspiracy Theories That Will Freak You The Fuck Out". Buzzfeed News. 1 March 2017.
- "The man whose biblical doomsday claim has some nervously eyeing Sept. 23". The Washington Post. 20 September 2017.
- "Will 2017 solar eclipse cause secret planet 'Nibiru' to destroy Earth next month? (No, but conspiracy theorists think so)". The Daily Telegraph. 20 August 2017.
- "Astronomer 'exposes NASA cover up', claiming second sun, and Nibiru REAL during broadcast". Daily Express. 6 June 2016.
- "Please stop annoying this NASA scientist with your ridiculous Planet X doomsday theories". The Washington Post. 18 November 2017.
- MAX LONDBERG (2017). "Conspiracy theorists use the Bible to claim the eclipse is a sign of the apocalypse". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
Paul Begley says there is "overwhelming evidence that Planet X will destroy the Earth in 2017".
- Avi Selk (2017). "Armageddon via imaginary planet has been pushed back — yet again — to November". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Dan Carson. "10 Sports Conspiracy Theories That Are Totally True". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Dan Carson. "10 Sports Conspiracy Theories That Are Totally True". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008.
- Books.google.com. Books.google.com. 1 June 2008. ISBN 978-1-55652-707-4. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- "Moyes – UEFA hot balls cost us". SkySports. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The 13 most stunning sports conspiracy theories, ranked". Yahoo Sporting News. 12 May 2016.
- "The great World Cup Final mystery". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2 April 2002. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "World Cup moments: Mystery surrounds Ronaldo in 1998". Irish Times. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "World Cup: 25 stunning moments [... No15: Ronaldo falters as France win"]. The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2014
- "The mystery of Paris that refuses to go away". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Mike Freeman's 10-Point Stance: Pats Conspiracy Theories Are the NFL's UFOs". Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "Patriots had a few calls go their way vs. the Jaguars, and everyone is in conspiracy mode again". Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Super Bowl LII: Save your Patriots conspiracy theories". Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "3 reasons why the internet thinks the Super Bowl was totally rigged". Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Falcons' Quinn defends questionable play-calling late in Super Bowl loss". Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Tudge McConnachie, Robin James (2008) [2005, 2008]. The Rough Guide to Conspiracy Theories. Rough Guide. ISBN 1-85828-281-0.
- Hodapp, Christopher; Alice Von Kannon (2008). Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-18408-6.
- Gray, John (2000) . False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. New Press. ISBN 1-56584-592-7.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. ISBN 978-0099478966.