List of conspiracy theories
This is a list of conspiracy theories that are notable. Many conspiracy theories relate to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II.
In principle, conspiracy theories are not always false by default and their validity depends on evidence just as in any theory. However, they are often discredited a priori due to the cumbersome and improbable nature of many of them.
Numerous conspiracy theories pertain to air travel and aircraft. Incidents such as the 1955 bombing of the Kashmir Princess, the 1985 Arrow Air Flight 1285 crash, the 1986 Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 crash, the 1987 Helderberg Disaster, the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 and the 1994 Mull of Kintyre helicopter crash as well as various aircraft technologies and alleged sightings, have all spawned theories of foul play which deviate from official verdicts.
This conspiracy theory emerged in the U.S. in the 1960s. The John Birch Society originally promoted it, asserting that a United Nations force would soon arrive in black helicopters to bring the U.S. under UN control. The theory re-emerged in the 1990s during the presidency of Bill Clinton, and has been promoted by talk show host Glenn Beck. A similar theory concerning so-called "phantom helicopters" appeared in the UK in the 1970s.
Also known as SLAP (Secret Large-scale Atmospheric Program), this theory alleges that water condensation trails ("contrails") from aircraft consist of chemical or biological agents, or contain a supposedly toxic mix of aluminum, strontium and barium, under secret government policies. An estimated 17% of people globally believe the theory to be true or partly true. In 2016, the Carnegie Institution for Science published the first-ever peer-reviewed study of the chemtrail theory; 76 out of 77 participating atmospheric chemists and geochemists stated that they had seen no evidence to support the chemtrail theory, or stated that chemtrail theorists rely on poor sampling.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
The destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by Soviet jets in 1983 has long drawn the interest of conspiracy theorists. The theories range from allegations of a planned espionage mission, to a US government cover-up, to the consumption of the passengers' remains by giant crabs.
Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370
The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in southeast Asia in March 2014 has prompted many theories. One theory suggests that this plane was hidden away and reintroduced as Flight MH17 later the same year in order to be shot down over Ukraine for political purposes. Prolific American conspiracy theorist James H. Fetzer has placed responsibility for the disappearance with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Historian Norman Davies has promoted the conspiracy theory that hackers remotely took over a Boeing Honeywell Uninterruptible Autopilot, supposedly installed on board, remotely piloting the aircraft to Antarctica.
Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down over Ukraine in July 2014. This event has spawned numerous alternative theories. These variously include allegations that it was secretly Flight MH370, that the plane was actually shot down by the Ukrainian Air Force to frame Russia, that it was part of a conspiracy to conceal the "truth" about HIV (seven disease specialists were on board), or that the Illuminati or Israel was responsible.
Business and industry
Multiple conspiracy theories pertain to a fatal oil-rig industrial accident in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, alleging sabotage by those seeking to promote environmentalism, or a strike by North Korean or Russian submarines. Elements of such theories have been suggested or promoted by US radio host Rush Limbaugh.
A theory claims that The Coca-Cola Company intentionally changed to an inferior formula with New Coke, with the intent either of driving up demand for the original product or permitting the reintroduction of the original with a new formula using cheaper ingredients. Coca-Cola president Donald Keough rebutted this charge: "The truth is, we're not that dumb, and we're not that smart."
Deaths and disappearances
Conspiracy theories frequently emerge following the deaths of prominent leaders and public figures. In ancient times, widespread conspiracy theories were circulated pertaining to the death of the Roman emperor Nero, who committed suicide in 68 AD. Some of these theories claimed that Nero had actually faked his death and was secretly still alive, but in hiding, plotting to return and reestablish his reign. In most of these stories, he was said to have fled to the East, where he was still loved and admired. Other theories held that Nero really was dead, but that he would return from the dead to retake his throne. Many early Christians believed in these conspiracy theories and feared Nero's return because Nero had viciously persecuted them. The Book of Revelation alludes to the conspiracy theories surrounding Nero's alleged return in its description of the slaughtered head returned to life.
In modern times, multiple conspiracy theories concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 have emerged. Vincent Bugliosi estimated that over 1,000 books had been written about the Kennedy assassination, at least ninety percent of which are works supporting the view that there was a conspiracy. As a result of this, the Kennedy assassination has been described as "the mother of all conspiracies". The countless individuals and organizations that have been accused of involvement in the Kennedy assassination include the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, the KGB, or even some combination thereof. It is also frequently asserted that the United States federal government intentionally covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination to prevent the conspiracy from being discovered.
The deaths of prominent figures of all types attract conspiracy theorists, including, for example, the deaths of Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Jr., Eric V of Denmark, Dmitry Ivanovich, Sheikh Rahman, Yitzhak Rabin, Zachary Taylor, George S. Patton, Diana, Princess of Wales, Dag Hammarskjöld, biological warfare authority David Kelly, and Bollywood star Sushant Singh Rajput.
Also in existence are claims that deaths were covered up. Such theories include the "Paul is dead" claim alleging that Paul McCartney died in a car accident in 1966 and was replaced by a look-alike Scottish orphan named William Shears Cambell who also went by Billy Shears, and that The Beatles left clues in their songs, most noticeably "Revolution 9", "Strawberry Fields Forever", "Glass Onion", and "I Am the Walrus", as well on the covers of Abbey Road, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, and Magical Mystery Tour. Another is the conspiracy theory, widely circulated in Nigeria, which alleges that Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari died in 2017 and was replaced by a look-alike Sudanese impostor. Many fans of punk-pop star Avril Lavigne claim that she died at the height of her fame and was replaced by a look-alike named Melissa. The Melania Trump replacement theory proposes the same of the U.S. First Lady.
Inverted theories concerning deaths are also known, prominent among which are claims that Elvis Presley's death was faked and that Adolf Hitler survived the Second World War and fled to the Americas, to Antarctica, or to the Moon. Theories that Hitler had survived are known to have been deliberately promoted by the government of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin as part of a disinformation campaign.
The disappearance, and often presumed death, of an individual may also become a cause for conspiracy theorists. Theories of a cover-up surrounding the 1974 disappearance of Lord Lucan following the murder of his family's nanny include, for example, allegations of a suicide plot whereby his body was fed to tigers at Howletts Zoo. Numerous conspiracy theories have also attended the 2007 disappearance of English girl Madeleine McCann.
The murder of Democratic National Committee employee Seth Rich spawned several right-wing conspiracy theories, including the claim that Rich had been involved with the leaked DNC emails in 2016, which runs contrary to U.S. intelligence's conclusion that the leaked DNC emails were part of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Law enforcement as well as fact-checking websites like PolitiFact.com, Snopes.com, and FactCheck.org stated that these theories were false and unfounded. The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and The Washington Post called the fabrications fake news and falsehoods.
Economics and society
New World Order
The 'New World Order theory states that a group of international elites controls governments, industry, and media organizations, with the goal of establishing global hegemony. They are alleged to be implicated in most of the major wars of the last two centuries, to carry out secretly staged events, and to deliberately manipulate economies. Organizations alleged to be part of the plot include the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group, the European Union, the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Bohemian Grove, Le Cercle and Yale University society Skull and Bones.
The Discordian hoax has resulted in one of the world's foremost conspiracy theories, which claims that the "Illuminati" are secretly promoting the posited New World Order. Theorists believe that a wide range of musicians, including Beyoncé and Whitney Houston, have been associated with the "group". Prominent theorists include Mark Dice and David Icke.
Some theorists believe that Denver International Airport stands above an underground city which serves as a headquarters of the New World Order. Theorists cite the airport's unusually large size, its distance from Denver city center, Masonic and alleged Satanic symbols, as well as a set of murals which include depictions of war and death.
Hungarian-American investor George Soros has been the subject of conspiracy theories since the 1990s. Soros has used his wealth to promote many political, social, educational and scientific causes, disbursing grants totaling an estimated $11 billion up to 2016. However, theories tend to assert that Soros is in control of a large portion of the world's wealth and governments, and that he secretly funds a large range of persons and organizations for nefarious purposes, such as Antifa, which the conspiracy theorists claim is a single far-left militant group. Such ideas have been promoted by Viktor Orban, Donald Trump, Rudy Giuliani, Joseph diGenova, Bill O'Reilly, Roy Moore, Alex Jones, Paul Gosar, and Ben Garrison. Soros conspiracy theories are sometimes linked to antisemitic conspiracy theories.
Conspiracy theories concerning the Freemasons have proliferated since the 18th century. Theorists have alleged that Freemasons control large parts of the economies or judiciaries of a number of countries, and have alleged Masonic involvement in events surrounding the sinking of the Titanic and the crimes of Jack the Ripper. Notable among theorists has been American inventor Samuel Morse, who in 1835 published a book of his own conspiracy theories. Freemason conspiracy theories have also been linked to certain antisemitic conspiracy theories.
Conspiracy theories in Turkey started to dominate public discourse during the late reign of the Justice and Development Party and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. In 2014, Erdoğan coined the term üst akıl ("mastermind") to denote the alleged command and control institution, somewhat ambiguously placed with the government of the United States, in a comprehensive conspiracy to weaken or even dismember Turkey, by orchestrating every political actor and action perceived hostile by Turkey. Erdoğan as well as the Daily Sabah newspaper have on multiple occasions alleged that very different non-state actors—like the Salafi jihadist Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the libertarian socialist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and supporters of Fethullah Gülen—were attacking Turkey at the same time in a well-coordinated campaign.
One instance of promoting the "mastermind" conspiracy theory occurred in February 2017, when then-Ankara Mayor Melih Gökçek claimed that earthquakes in the western province of Çanakkale could have been organized by dark external powers aiming to destroy Turkey's economy with an "artificial earthquake" near Istanbul. In another example, in November 2017, the Islamist newspaper Yeni Akit claimed that the fashion trend of "ripped denim" jeans was in fact a means of communication, via specific forms of rips and holes, between agents of foreign states and their collaborators in Turkey.
Israel animal spying
Conspiracy theories exist alleging that Israel uses animals to conduct espionage or to attack people. These are often associated with conspiracy theories about Zionism. Matters of interest to theorists include a series of shark attacks in Egypt in 2010, Hezbollah's accusations of the use of "spying" eagles, and the 2011 capture of a griffon vulture carrying an Israeli-labeled satellite tracking device.
Numerous persons, including former MI5 officer Peter Wright and Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, have alleged that former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson was secretly a KGB spy. Historian Christopher Andrew has lamented that a number of people have been "seduced by Golitsyn's fantasies".
Conspiracy theories concerning Malala Yousafzai are widespread in Pakistan, elements of which originate from a 2013 satirical piece in Dawn. These theories variously allege that she is a Western spy, or that her attempted murder by the Taliban in 2012 was a secret operation to further discredit the Taliban, and was organized by her father and the CIA and carried out by actor Robert de Niro disguised as an Uzbek homeopath.
Ethnicity, race and religion
Since at least the Middle Ages, antisemitism has featured elements of conspiracy theory. In medieval Europe it was widely believed that Jews poisoned wells, had been responsible for the death of Jesus, and ritually consumed the blood of Christians. The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence of notions that Jews and/or Freemasons were plotting to establish control over the world, a similar conspiracy theory relates to cultural Marxism. Forged evidence has been presented to spread the notion that Jews were responsible for the propagation of Communism, or the hoax The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903) which outlines a supposed plot by Jews to control the world. Such antisemitic conspiracy theories became central to the worldview of Adolf Hitler. Antisemitic theories persist today in notions concerning banking, Hollywood, the news media and a purported Zionist Occupation Government. These theories have a tyrannical worldview in common.
Holocaust denial is also considered an antisemitic conspiracy theory because of its position that the Holocaust is a hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews and justify the creation of the State of Israel. Holocaust deniers include former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, the convicted chemist Germar Rudolf and the discredited author David Irving.
Conspiracy theories that allege that the Armenians wield secret political power are prevalent in Azerbaijan and have been promoted by the government, including President Ilham Aliyev.
Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu has claimed that the Russian media is run by Armenians. American writer and disbarred lawyer Samuel Weems has claimed that the Armenian Genocide was a hoax designed to defraud Christian nations of billions of dollars, and that the Armenian Church instigates terrorist attacks. Filmmaker Davud Imanov has accused the Armenians of plotting against Azerbaijan and has claimed that the Karabakh movement was a plot by the CIA to destroy the Soviet Union.
Iran's Baháʼí Faith minority has been the target of conspiracy theories alleging involvement with hostile powers. Iranian government officials and others have claimed that Baháʼís have been agents variously of Russian imperialism, British colonialism, American expansionism and Zionism. An apocryphal and historically-inaccurate book published in Iran, entitled The Memoirs of Count Dolgoruki, details a theory that the Bahá'ís intend to destroy Islam. Such anti-Baháʼí accusations have been dismissed as having no factual foundation.
Since the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, anti-Catholic conspiracy theories have taken many forms, including the 17th-century Popish Plot allegations, claims by persons such as William Blackstone that Catholics posed a secret threat to Britain, and numerous writings by authors such as Samuel Morse, Rebecca Reed, Avro Manhattan, Jack Chick and Alberto Rivera. Theorists often claim that the Pope is the Antichrist, accuse Catholics of suppressing evidence incompatible with Church teachings, and describe Catholics as being involved with secret evil rituals, crimes, and other plots.
In 1853, the Scottish minister Alexander Hislop published his anti-Catholic pamphlet The Two Babylons, in which he claims that the Catholic Church is secretly a continuation of the pagan religion of ancient Babylon, the product of a millennia-old conspiracy founded by the Biblical king Nimrod and the Assyrian queen Semiramis. It also claims that modern Catholic holidays, including Christmas and Easter, are actually pagan festivals established by Semiramis and that the customs associated with them are pagan rituals. Modern scholars have unanimously rejected the book's arguments as erroneous and based on a flawed understanding of Babylonian religion, but variations of them are still accepted among some groups of evangelical Protestants. Jehovah's Witnesses periodical The Watchtower frequently published excerpts from it until the 1980s. The book's thesis has also featured prominently in the conspiracy theories of racist groups, such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord.
Fears of a Catholic takeover of the US have been especially persistent, prompted by phenomena such as Catholic immigration in the 19th century and Ku Klux Klan propaganda. Such fears have attached to Catholic political candidates such as Al Smith and John F. Kennedy.
Pope John Paul I died in September 1978, only a month after his election to the papacy. The timing of his death and the Vatican's alleged difficulties with ceremonial and legal death procedures has fostered several conspiracy theories.
The elderly Pope Benedict XVI's resignation in February 2013, for given reasons of a "lack of strength of mind and body", prompted theories in Italian publications such as La Repubblica and Panorama that he resigned in order to avoid an alleged scandal involving an underground gay Catholic network.
Apocalyptic prophecies, particularly Christian claims about the End Times, have inspired a range of conspiracy theories. Many of these cite the Antichrist, a leader who will supposedly create an oppressive world empire. Countless figures have been called Antichrist, including Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Russian emperor Peter the Great, Saladin, Pope John XXII, Benito Mussolini, Barack Obama, French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, and German Führer Adolf Hitler.
Bible and Jesus
Bible conspiracy theories posit that significant parts of the New Testament are false, or have been omitted. Various groups both real (such as the Vatican) and fake (such as the Priory of Sion) are said to suppress relevant information concerning, for example, the dating of the Shroud of Turin.
Much of this line of conspiracy theory has been stimulated by a debunked book titled The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (1982), which claimed that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were lovers and that their offspring and descendants were secretly hidden in Europe following the death of Jesus, from whom the then-living French draughtsman Pierre Plantard claimed descent. Interest in this hoax saw a resurgence following the publication of Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code.
"War against Islam" is a conspiracy theory in Islamist discourse which describes an alleged plot to either harm or annihilate the social system within Islam. The perpetrators of this conspiracy are alleged to be non-Muslims and "false Muslims", allegedly in collusion with political actors in the Western world. While this theory is often referred to in relation to modern social problems and changes, the Crusades are often presented as its starting point.
Since the September 11 Attacks, many anti-Islamic conspiracy theories have emerged, concerning a variety of topics. Love Jihad, also called Romeo Jihad, refers to a conspiracy theory concerning Muslim males who are said to target non-Muslim girls for conversion to Islam by feigning love. The "Eurabia" theory alleges a massive Muslim plot to islamize Europe (and often the rest of the western world) through mass immigration and high birth rates. In addition, before and during his presidency, Barack Obama was accused by opponents of secretly being a Muslim.
White genocide conspiracy theory is a white nationalist notion that immigration, integration, low fertility rates and abortion are being promoted in predominantly white countries in order to turn white people into a minority or cause their extinction. A 2017 study in France by IFOP, for example, found that 48% of participants believed without evidence that political and media elites are conspiring to replace white people with immigrants.
In the United States, black genocide conspiracy theory holds the view that African Americans are the victims of genocide instituted by white Americans. Lynchings and racial discrimination were formally described as genocide by the Civil Rights Congress in 1951. Malcolm X also talked about "black genocide" in the early 1960s. Public funding of the Pill was also described as "black genocide" at the first Black Power Conference, in 1967. In 1970, after abortion was more widely legalized, some black militants depicted abortion as being part of the conspiracy.
Some Rastafari maintain the view that a white racist patriarchy ("Babylon") controls the world in order to oppress black people. They believe that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia did not die in 1975, instead believing that the allegedly racist media propagated false reports of his death in order to quash the Rastafari movement.
"The Plan" is an alleged plot by white power brokers in Washington, D.C. to "take back" the city's local government from African Americans, who were a majority of the city's population from the late 1950s to the early 2010s and remain its largest ethnic group. The theory asserts that the decline of low-income black residents and their replacement by wealthier whites from outside of the city is intentional through the calculated use of gentrification and urban renewal. Most city residents, regardless of race, consider The Plan to be false, but some believe it has quiet but considerable support among black residents and influences local elections.
Extraterrestrials and UFOs
Among the foremost concerns of conspiracy theorists are questions of alien life; for example, allegations of government cover-ups of the supposed Roswell UFO incident or activity at Area 51. Also disseminated are theories concerning so-called 'men in black', who allegedly silence witnesses.
Multiple reports of dead cattle found with absent body parts and seemingly drained of blood have emerged worldwide since at least the 1960s. This phenomenon has spawned theories variously concerning aliens and secret government or military experiments. Prominent among such theorists is Linda Moulton Howe, author of Alien Harvest (1989).
Many conspiracy theories have drawn inspiration from the writings of ancient astronaut proponent Zecharia Sitchin, who declared that the Anunnaki from Sumerian mythology were actually a race of extraterrestrial beings who came to Earth around 500,000 years ago in order to mine gold. In his 1994 book Humanity's Extraterrestrial Origins: ET Influences on Humankind's Biological and Cultural Evolution, Arthur Horn proposed that the Anunnaki were a race of blood-drinking, shape-shifting alien reptiles. This theory was adapted and elaborated on by British conspiracy theorist David Icke, who maintains that the Bush family, Margaret Thatcher, Bob Hope, and the British Royal Family, among others, are or were such creatures, or have been under their control. Icke's critics have suggested that 'reptilians' may be seen as an antisemitic code word; a charge he has denied.
Government, politics and conflict
In the modern era, political conspiracy theories are often spread using fake news on social media. A 2017 study of fake news published by the Shorenstein Center found that "misinformation is currently predominantly a pathology of the right".
Political conspiracy theories may take generalized and wide-ranging forms concerning wars and international bodies, but may also be seen at a localized level, such as the conspiracy theory pertaining to the 118th Battalion, a British regiment stationed in Kitchener, Ontario during World War I, which is believed by some in Kitchener to still be present and controlling local politics.
Conspiracy theories concerning the Illuminati, a short-lived 18th-century Enlightenment-era secret society, appear to have originated in the late 19th century, when some conservatives in Europe came to believe that the group had been responsible for the French Revolution of 1789–1799. Hoaxes about the Illuminati were later spread in the 1960s by a group of American practical jokers known as the Discordians, who, for example, wrote a series of fake letters about the Illuminati to Playboy.
False flag operations
False flag operations are covert operations designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other entities. Some allegations of false flag operations have been verified or have been subjects of legitimate historical dispute (such as the 1933 Reichstag arson attack). Discussions of unsubstantiated allegations of such operations feature strongly in conspiracy theory discourse.
The multiple attacks made on the US by terrorists using hijacked aircraft on 11 September 2001 have proved attractive to conspiracy theorists. Theories may include reference to missile or hologram technology. By far, the most common theory is that the attacks were in fact controlled demolitions, a theory which has been rejected by the engineering profession and the 9/11 Commission.
A 2012 fatal mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, prompted numerous conspiracy theories, among which is the claim that it was a manufactured event with the aim of promoting gun control. Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke has theorized that Zionists were responsible. Theorists such as Alex Jones have suggested that the event was staged with actors. Harassment of the bereaved families by conspiracy theorists has resulted in actions for defamation. Rush Limbaugh also stated that the event happened because the Mayan Calendar phenomenon made shooter Adam Lanza do it.
The Clinton Body Count refers to a conspiracy theory, parts of which have been advanced by Newsmax publisher Christopher Ruddy among others, that asserts that former U.S. President Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary Clinton have assassinated fifty or more of their associates. Such accusations have been around at least since the 1990s, when a pseudo-documentary film called The Clinton Chronicles, produced by Larry Nichols and promoted by Rev. Jerry Falwell, accused Bill Clinton of multiple crimes including murder.
Jeffrey Epstein death conspiracy theories
The death of Jeffrey Epstein, an American financier billionaire and convicted sex offender with ties to Donald Trump, Bill Clinton and other members of the elite, has become the subject of conspiracy theories.
The United States' Federal Emergency Management Agency is the subject of many theories, including the allegation that the organization has been engaged in the building of concentration camps on US soil, in advance of the imposition of martial law and genocide.
African National Congress
Members of South Africa's African National Congress party have long propagated conspiracy theories, frequently concerning the CIA and alleged white supremacists. In 2014, Deputy Minister of Defence Kebby Maphatsoe joined others in accusing without evidence Public Protector Thuli Madonsela of being a U.S. agent working to create a puppet government in South Africa.
Former U.S. President Barack Obama has been the subject of numerous conspiracy theories. His presidency was the subject of a 2009 film, The Obama Deception, by Alex Jones, which alleged that Obama's administration was a puppet government for a wealthy elite. Another theory which came to prominence in 2009 (known as "birtherism") denies the legitimacy of Obama's presidency by claiming that he was not born in the US. This theory has persisted despite the evidence of his Hawaiian birth certificate and of contemporaneous birth announcements in two Hawaiian newspapers in 1961. Notable promoters of the theory are dentist-lawyer Orly Taitz and President Donald Trump, who has since publicly acknowledged its falsity but is said to continue to advocate for it privately. Other theories claim that Obama, a Protestant Christian, is secretly a Muslim.
A pair of fatal attacks on US government facilities in Benghazi, Libya, by Islamist terrorists in 2012 has spawned numerous conspiracy theories, including allegations that Obama's administration arranged the attack for political reasons, and Senator Rand Paul's repeated assertion that the government's response to the incident was designed to distract from a secret CIA operation.
The intellectual group known as the Frankfurt School which emerged in the 1930s has increasingly been the subject of conspiracy theories which have alleged the promotion of communism in capitalist societies. The term "Cultural Marxism" has been notably employed by conservative American movements such as the Tea Party, and by Norwegian mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik.
While the term is occasionally used as a neutral term to denote a nation's bureaucracy, the conspiratorial notion of a "deep state" is a concept originating principally in Middle Eastern and North African politics with some basis in truth, and has been known in the US since the 1960s. It has been revived under the Trump presidency. "Deep state" in the latter sense refers to an unidentified "powerful elite" who act in co-ordinated manipulation of a nation's politics and government. Proponents of such theories have included Canadian author Peter Dale Scott, who has promoted the idea in the US since at least the 1990s, as well as Breitbart News, Infowars and US President Donald Trump. A 2017 poll by ABC News and The Washington Post indicated that 48% of Americans believe in the existence of a conspiratorial "deep state" in the US.
The 2017 Sutherland Springs church shooting has also been the subject of multiple conspiracy theories. The shooter has been linked to multiple conspiracies, such as identifying him as a Democrat, Hillary Clinton supporter, Bernie Sanders supporter, "alt-left" supporter, Antifa member, or radical Muslim; or claiming that he carried an Antifa flag and told churchgoers: "This is a communist revolution". Some reports also falsely claimed that he targeted the church because they were white conservatives.
Trump and Ukraine
Beginning in 2017, a sprawling conspiracy theory emerged from 4chan and was spread via right-wing message boards and websites, then via Breitbart and Fox News to President Donald Trump and his allies. The conspiracy theory holds both that Ukraine (rather than Russia) had interfered in the 2016 United States elections, and that then-Vice President Joe Biden had intervened to protect a company in which his son Hunter was involved. The New Yorker found that reporting of the conspiracy in the right wing media was initiated by Peter Schweizer, a former Breitbart News contributor and president of The Government Accountability Institute, "a self-styled corruption watchdog group chaired and funded by conservative mega-donor Rebekah Mercer" and founded by Steve Bannon.
The scandal surrounding Trump's phone call to Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, in which he appeared to withhold United States military assistance for defense against the Russian invasion of Ukraine unless Zelensky produced evidence of corruption by Biden, by then one of the leading Democratic candidates to challenge Trump in 2020, is credited with precipitating the impeachment of Donald Trump.
October Surprise Conspiracy Theory
The October Surprise Conspiracy Theory refers to an alleged plot to influence the outcome of the 1980 United States presidential election, contested between Democratic incumbent president Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, former California governor Ronald Reagan. A huge central point of the elections debate related to the ongoing hostage situation where 52 Americans were being held captive by the Iranian Government after the United States Embassy was stormed by Iranian protestors on 4 November 1979. The plot describes a clandestine negotiation to delay the release of hostages until after the election. Reagan won the election, 20 minutes after he concluded his inaugural address the Islamic Republic of Iran announced the release of the hostages after 444 consecutive days in captivity. It was later revealed that while no direct negotiations occurred, the Reagan campaign did collaborate to disseminate rumors of a payoff for the Iranian government in the case of a post election captive release which stifled any pre-election release negotiations for the Carter Administration.
Biden-Ukraine Conspiracy Theory
Refers to a series of allegations alleging that former vice president Joe Biden and his son Hunter Biden coordinated efforts against anti-corruption investigations in Ukraine into the Ukrainian gas company Burisma.
"Stolen election" conspiracy theory
The stolen election conspiracy theory falsely claims that the 2020 United States presidential election was "stolen" from Donald Trump, who lost that election to Joe Biden. It serves to justify attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election, including the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol. A particular variant of it is the "Soros stole the election" conspiracy theory that claims that George Soros stole the election from Trump.
Alternative therapy suppression
A 2013 study approved by the University of Chicago suggested that almost half of Americans believe at least one medical conspiracy theory, with 37% believing that the Food and Drug Administration deliberately suppresses 'natural' cures due to influence from the pharmaceutical industry. A prominent proponent of comparable conspiracy theories has been convicted fraudster Kevin Trudeau.
Scientists have found evidence that HIV was transferred from monkeys to humans in the 1930s. Evidence exists, however, that the KGB deliberately disseminated a notion in the 1980s that it was invented by the CIA. This idea, and similar ideas concerning Ebola, have since been promoted by persons such as actor Steven Seagal, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and former South Africa President Thabo Mbeki.
In January 2020, BBC News published an article about SARS-CoV-2 misinformation, citing two 24 January articles in The Washington Times that said the virus was part of a Chinese biological weapons program, based at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).
A number of conspiracy theories have been promoted about the origin and purported motive behind the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its spread. Some claimed that the virus was engineered, that it escaped or was stolen from a research laboratory, that it may have been a Chinese or United States bioweapon, a Jewish plot including to force mass vaccinations or sterilizations, spread as part of a Muslim conspiracy, a population control scheme, or related to 5G mobile phone networks.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. Although many dental-health organizations support such fluoridation, the practice is opposed by conspiracy theorists. Allegations may include claims that it has been a way to dispose of industrial waste, or that it exists to obscure a failure to provide dental care to the poor. A further theory promoted by the John Birch Society in the 1960s described fluoridation as a communist plot to weaken the American population.
It is claimed that the pharmaceutical industry has mounted a cover-up of a causal link between vaccines and autism. The conspiracy theory developed after the publication in Britain in 1998 of a fraudulent paper by discredited former doctor Andrew Wakefield. The resulting anti-vaccine movement has been promoted by a number of prominent persons including Rob Schneider, Jim Carrey and U.S. President Donald Trump, and has led to increased rates of infection and death from diseases such as measles in many countries, including the US, Italy, Germany, Romania and the UK.
Vaccine conspiracy theories have been widespread in Nigeria since at least 2003, as well as in Pakistan. Such theories may feature claims that vaccines are part of a secret anti-Islam plot, and have been linked to fatal mass shootings and bombings at vaccine clinics in both countries.
Science and technology
A global warming conspiracy theory typically alleges that the science behind global warming has been invented or distorted for ideological or financial reasons. Many have promoted such theories, including U.S. President Donald Trump, US Senator James Inhofe, British journalist Christopher Booker, and Viscount Christopher Monckton.
Weather and earthquake control projects
Numerous theories pertain to real or alleged weather-controlling projects. Theories include the debunked assertion that HAARP, a radio-technology research program funded by the US government, is a secret weather-controlling system. Some theorists have blamed 2005's Hurricane Katrina on HAARP. HAARP has also been suggested to have somehow caused earthquakes, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami or the 2013 Saravan earthquake. Some HAARP-related claims refer to mind-control technology.
Also of interest to conspiracy theorists are cloud-seeding technologies. These include a debunked allegation that the British military's Project Cumulus caused the fatal 1952 Lynmouth Flood in Devon, England, and claims concerning a secret project said to have caused the 2010 Pakistan floods.
Genuine American research in the 1950s and 1960s into chemical interrogation and mind-control techniques were followed by many conspiracy theories (like Project Monarch), especially following CIA Director Richard Helm's 1973 order to destroy all files related to the project. These theories include the allegation that the mass fatality at Jonestown in 1978 was connected to an MKUltra experiment.
Flat Earth theory first emerged in 19th-century England, despite the Earth's spherical nature having been known since at least the time of Pythagoras. It has in recent years been promoted by American software consultant Mark Sargent through the use of YouTube videos. Flat-earther conspiracy theorists hold that planet Earth is not a sphere, and that evidence has been faked or suppressed to hide the fact that is instead a disc, or a single infinite plane. The conspiracy often implicates NASA. Other claims include that GPS devices are rigged to make aircraft pilots wrongly believe they are flying around a globe.
Numerous theories pertain to the alleged suppression of certain technologies and energies. Such theories may focus on the Vril Society Conspiracy, allegations of the suppression of the electric car by fossil-fuel companies (as detailed in the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?), and the Phoebus cartel, set up in 1924, which has been accused of suppressing longer-lasting light bulbs. Other long-standing allegations include the suppression of perpetual motion and cold fusion technology by government agencies, special interest groups, or fraudulent inventors.
Conspiracy theorists often attend to new military technologies, both real and imagined. Subjects of theories include: the alleged Philadelphia Experiment, a supposed attempt to turn a U.S. Navy warship invisible; the alleged Montauk Project, a supposed government program to learn about mind control and time travel; and the so-called "tsunami bomb", which is alleged to have caused the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Other theories include Peter Vogel's debunked claim that an accidental explosion of conventional munitions at Port Chicago was in fact a nuclear detonation, and a theory promoted by the Venezuelan state-run TV station ViVe that the 2010 Haiti earthquake was caused by a secret US "earthquake weapon".
Conspiracy theorists claim that government agents are utilizing directed energy weapons and electronic surveillance to harass members of the population. Theorists often cite research into psychotronic weapons, the Cuban Health Attacks, and the Microwave Auditory Effect as proof of their theory. There are over 10,000 people who identify as Targeted Individuals.
Some theories claim that the dates of historical events have been deliberately distorted. These include the phantom time hypothesis of German conspiracy theorist[original research?] Heribert Illig, who in 1991 published an allegation that 297 years had been added to the calendar by establishment figures such as Pope Sylvester II in order to position themselves at the millennium.
A comparable theory, known as the New Chronology, is most closely associated with Russian theorist Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko holds that history is many centuries shorter than is widely believed and that numerous historical documents have been fabricated, and legitimate documents destroyed, for political ends. Adherents of such ideas have included chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
Scientific space programs are of particular interest to conspiracy theorists. The most prolific theories allege that the US Moon landings were staged by NASA in a film studio, with some alleging the involvement of director Stanley Kubrick. The Soviet space program has also attracted theories that the government concealed evidence of failed flights. A more recent theory, emergent following the activities of hacker Gary McKinnon, suggests that a secret program of crewed space fleets exists, supposedly acting under the United Nations.
Conspiracy theorists have long posited a plot by organizations such as NASA to conceal the existence of a large planet in the Solar System known as Nibiru or Planet X which, is alleged to pass close enough to the Earth to destroy it. Predictions for the date of destruction have included 2003, 2012 and 2017. The theory began to develop following the publication of The 12th Planet (1976), by Russian-American author Zecharia Sitchin, was given its full form by Nancy Lieder, and has since been promoted by American conspiracy theorist and End Times theorist David Meade. The notion received renewed attention during the period prior to the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. Other conspiracy theorists in 2017 also predicted Nibiru would appear, including Terral Croft and YouTube pastor Paul Begley.
Rigged selection processes
The "frozen envelope theory" suggests that the National Basketball Association rigged its 1985 draft lottery so that Patrick Ewing would join the New York Knicks. Theorists claim that a lottery envelope was chilled so that it could be identified by touch. A similar "hot balls theory", promoted by Scottish football manager David Moyes, suggests that certain balls used in draws for UEFA competitions have been warmed to achieve specific outcomes.
1984 Firecracker 400
The 1984 Firecracker 400 at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida, was the first NASCAR race to be attended by a sitting U.S. president, Ronald Reagan, and was driver Richard Petty's 200th and final career victory. Rival driver Cale Yarborough's premature retirement to the pit road has prompted conspiracy theorists to allege that organizers fixed the race in order to receive good publicity for the event.
Ronaldo and the 1998 World Cup Final
On the day of the 1998 World Cup Final, Brazilian striker Ronaldo suffered a convulsive fit. Ronaldo was initially removed from the starting lineup 72 minutes before the match, with the teamsheet released to a stunned world media, before he was reinstated by the Brazil coach shortly before kick off. Ronaldo "sleepwalked" through the final, with France winning the game. The nature of the incident set off a trail of questions and allegations which persisted for years, with Alex Bellos writing in The Guardian, "When Ronaldo's health scare was revealed after the match, the situation's unique circumstances lent itself to fabulous conspiracy theories. Here was the world's most famous sportsman, about to take part in the most important match of his career, when he suddenly, inexplicably, fell ill. Was it stress, epilepsy, or had he been drugged?" Questions also circulated into who made Ronaldo play the game. The Brazil coach insisted he had the final say, but much speculation focused on sportswear company Nike, Brazil's multimillion-dollar sponsor—whom many Brazilians thought had too much control—putting pressure on the striker to play against medical advice.
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots have also been involved in numerous conspiracy theories. During their AFC Championship 24–20 victory over the Jacksonville Jaguars, several conspiracy theories spread stating that the referees helped the Patriots advance to Super Bowl LII. However, sports analyst Stephen A. Smith stated the Jaguars were not robbed, but that they had no one to blame but themselves for the loss. There were also conspiracy theories regarding the Super Bowl LI matchup between the Patriots and the Atlanta Falcons stating that the game was rigged while others said the Falcons made questionable play-calls at the end of the game that resulted in them blowing a 28–3 lead.
- Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Issitt, Micah; Main, Carlyn (2014). Hidden Religion: The Greatest Mysteries and Symbols of the World's Religious Beliefs. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-478-0.
- Dean, Signe (23 October 2017). "Conspiracy Theorists Really Do See The World Differently, New Study Shows". Science Alert. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Sloat, Sarah (17 October 2017). "Conspiracy Theorists Have a Fundamental Cognitive Problem, Say Scientists". Inverse. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- "10 Controversial Air Crash Conspiracy Theories". Listverse. 23 July 2014. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Bring out the cranks and conspiracy theorists". The Financial Times. 7 August 2009. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- "Fox gives Glenn Beck's show the boot". Los Angeles Times. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- "Ben Carson is ready for the coming American apocalypse". The Week. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "My month with chemtrails conspiracy theorists". The Guardian. 22 May 2017. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Shearer, Christine; West, Mick; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J (10 August 2016). "Quantifying expert consensus against the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (8): 084011. Bibcode:2016ERL....11h4011S. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084011.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018.
- Izvestia, February 8, 1991, pg. 7
- "MH17: five of the most bizarre conspiracy theories". The Guardian. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- https://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=12191656 NZ Herald, 17 Jan 2019 6:43am
- https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/world/2017/12/new-theories-claim-mh370-was-remotely-hijacked-buried-in-antarctica.html Newshub, 13 December 2017
- "Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down from pro-Russian rebel controlled territory, investigation finds". Sydney Morning Herald. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Phillips, David (1 July 2010). "Conspiracy Theories Behind BP Oil Spill in Gulf – From Dick Cheney To UFOs". CBS News.
- "The conspiracy theories behind the BP oil spill". The Week. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "New Coke Origins". Snopes.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Greenwald, John (12 April 2005). "Coca-Cola's Big Fizzle". Time. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Blount, Brian K. (2009). Revelation: A Commentary. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster Knox Press. pp. 248–249. ISBN 978-0-664-22121-8.
- "Is 2017 a Bumper Year for Conspiracy Theories?". Yahoo News. 11 October 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. xiv, 1273. ISBN 978-0-393-04525-3.
- Broderick, James F.; Miller, Darren W. (2008). "Chapter 16: The JFK Assassination". Web of Conspiracy: A Guide to Conspiracy Theory Sites on the Internet. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today, Inc./CyberAge Books. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-910965-81-1.
- Perry, James D. (2003). Peter, Knight (ed.). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 383. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9.
- Summers, Anthony (2013). "Six Options for History". Not in Your Lifetime. New York: Open Road. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4804-3548-3. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
- Kauffman, Michael W. (2004). American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies, p.185 (New York: Random House), ISBN 978-0-375-50785-4
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 7–8.
- Burston, Bradley (11 October 2010). "Rightist website marks anniversary of Rabin's murder – with a conspiracy theory contest". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "Presidential conspiracy theories, from Zachary Taylor to JFK". The Washington Post. 28 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Shipman, Tim (20 December 2008). "General George S. Patton was assassinated to silence his criticism of allied war leaders, claims new book". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Borger, Julian (17 August 2011). "Dag Hammarskjöld: evidence suggests UN chief's plane was shot down". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Collins, Nick (9 June 2011). "David Kelly – what is behind the conspiracy theories?". The Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Undermining Sushant Rajput's tragic death". Hindustan Times. 22 July 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Staff, Guardian (3 December 2018). "'It's the real me': Nigerian president denies dying and being replaced by clone". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Nigerian President Buhari denies death and body double rumours". BBC News. BBC. 3 December 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Cresci, Elena (16 May 2017). "Why fans think Avril Lavigne died and was replaced by a clone named Melissa". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- "Is Donald Trump using a fake Melania? Conspiracy theories flood social media". BBC. 19 October 2017.
- Bruney, Gabrielle (9 March 2019). "The 'Fake Melania' Conspiracy Theory is Back". Esquire.
- " 'Elvis Presley is alive' and 10 more conspiracy theories". The Week. 24 April 2017. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Adolf Hitler alive: weird conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. 29 September 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias, eds. (2005). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-58648-366-1.
- Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1037. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
- Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) . The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, The Evidence, The Truth. Brockhampton Press. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.
- "Lord Lucan: the strangest theories about his disappearance". The Week. 4 February 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Lord Lucan was fed to tiger at Howletts zoo in Canterbury, it has been claimed". Kent Online. 30 January 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Lord Lucan – The Mystery Unravelled". BBC. 7 March 2005. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- "Ten years since Maddie's disappearance, the McCanns still face an onslaught of conspiracy theories". International Business Times. 3 May 2017. Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- Kiely, Eugene (22 May 2017). "Gingrich Spreads Conspiracy Theory". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
At this point in the investigation, it is believed that Seth Rich was the victim of an attempted robbery. The assertions put forward by Mr. Wheeler are unfounded.
- Carroll, Lauren (23 May 2017). Sanders, Katie (ed.). "The baseless claim that slain DNC staffer Seth Rich gave emails to WikiLeaks". PolitiFact.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
There is no trustworthy evidence supporting the theory that Rich was WikiLeaks' source for thousands of DNC emails. The police believe his death was the result of a botched robbery, not a political assassination.
- "Cyber-spying: Bear on bear". The Economist. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Gillin, Joshua (26 May 2017). "Conspiracy theory that Comey hid Seth Rich's ties to WikiLeaks based on retracted story". PolitiFact.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Fox News web site retracts debunked reporting on DNC staffer Seth Rich". Snopes.com. 23 May 2017.
- Rutenberg, Jim (24 May 2017). "Sean Hannity, a Murder and Why Fake News Endures". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
- Shalby, Colleen (24 May 2017). "How Seth Rich's death became an Internet conspiracy theory". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
Despite police statements and Rich's family concluding that his death was the result of an attempted robbery, the rumor spread within the same circles that churned out the bogus 'PizzaGate' story
- Weigel, David (20 May 2017). "The Seth Rich conspiracy shows how fake news still works". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Jane Kay; Chronicle Environment Writer (6 July 2009). "San Francisco Bay Area". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Roberts, Andrew. "The Green-Ink Brigade". Literary Review. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "Beyonce and the Illuminati: Music's Most WTF Conspiracy Theories, Explained". Rolling Stone. 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- Sykes, Leslie (17 May 2009). "Angels & Demons Causing Serious Controversy". KFSN-TV/ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Jared Jacang Maher (30 August 2007). "DIA Conspiracies Take Off". Denver Westword. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- "Trump says he 'wouldn't be surprised' if unfounded conspiracy theory about George Soros funding caravan is true". The Washington Post. 1 November 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- "Kavanaugh confirmation: What Trump's 'elevator screamers' tweet tells us". BBC News. 5 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Campbell, Jason (20 November 2019). "Rudy Giuliani claims the US embassy in Ukraine works for George Soros - "They're all Soros people"pic.twitter.com/xpa1TS9PLh".
- "Lou Dobbs guest Joe diGenova says George Soros controls a large part of the State Department and activities of FBI agents". Media Matters for America.
- "George Soros is a favorite target of the right – here's how that happened". Business Insider. 20 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Roy Moore is fueling a crazy conspiracy theory about George Soros". HuffPost. 5 December 2017. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "It's no surprise that the far right are mobilising against George Soros – he's the biggest threat to their global domination". The Independent. 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Conspiracy about George Soros Makes It to Congress". Yahoo News. 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Anti-semitism used in attack against National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster". ADL. 3 August 2017.
- "Why is the Alt-Right attacking H. R. McMaster?". Yahoo News. 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Masonic Conspiracy Theories". HuffPost. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Was Titanic inquiry scuppered by the Freemasons?". The Daily Telegraph. 23 November 2015. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. p. 82.
- Mustafa Akyol (12 September 2016). "The Tin-Foil Hats Are Out in Turkey". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (31 October 2014). "The Middle East 'mastermind' who worries Erdogan". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (19 March 2015). "Unraveling the AKP's 'Mastermind' conspiracy theory". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (9 January 2017). "Why Turkish government pushes 'global conspiracy' narrative". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "Foreign powers performing 'earthquake tests' near Istanbul to destroy economy: Ankara mayor". Hurriyet Daily News. 7 February 2017. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "Geheimbotschaften in der Jeanshose". tagesspiegel. 27 November 2017. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Okbi, Yasser (16 October 2013). "Hezbollah: We have captured an Israeli 'spy eagle' in Lebanon". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- "Saudis hold Israel 'spy vulture'". BBC. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- Morgan, Clive (13 October 2016). "Roswell and the world's other great conspiracy theories". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Harold Wilson resignation 'linked to MI6, burglary and insider trading'". The Times. 22 August 2008. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "MI5 put union leaders and protesters under surveillance during cold war". The Guardian. 6 October 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Pakistani Islamist politician claims Malala was not injured". The Daily Telegraph. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Pakistan thrives on conspiracy theory". Financial Times. 24 October 2012. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "The antagonism towards Malala in Pakistan". BBC. 10 October 2014. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Malala Yousafzai is a hero to many, but has few fans in her homeland". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- Levy, Richard (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-85109-439-4.
- Baker, Lee D. (2010). Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture. Duke University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0822346982.
- Waltman, Michael; John Haas (2010). The Communication of Hate. Peter Lang. p. 52. ISBN 978-1433104473.
- Stein, Joel (19 December 2008). "Who runs Hollywood? C'mon". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Horn, Dara. "Anti-Semites Don’t Just Hate Jews. They’re Targeting Freedom." Archived 1 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine New York Times. 30 April 2019. 1 May 2019.
- ""Denial": how to deal with a conspiracy theory in the era of 'post-truth'". Cambridge University Press. 16 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Doward, Jamie (22 January 2017). "New online generation takes up Holocaust denial". The Observer. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "Holocaust Revisionism". Time. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "A German court sentenced Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf to two and a half years in prison for inciting racial hatred in publications and Web sites which "systematically" called into question the Nazi genocide." "German Holocaust Denier Imprisoned for Inciting Racial Hatred" Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Deutsche Welle, 16 February 2007.
- Hare, Ivan; Weinstein, James (2010). Extreme Speech and Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 553. ISBN 978-0199601790.
- McLaughlin, Daniel (12 May 2012). "Baku pins hopes on Eurovision to boost image". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Aliyev Blames 'Armenian Lobby' For Fresh Corruption Scandal". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. 5 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev at the conference on the results of the third year into the "State Program on the socioeconomic development of districts for 2009–2013"". Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev". Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Armenia pulls out of Azerbaijan-hosted Eurovision show". BBC News. BBC. 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Turkish minister says Russian media run by Armenians, German media not free". Hürriyet Daily News. 7 June 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- "Arkansas Legal Ethics". Law.cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Weems, Samuel A. 2002. Armenia: secrets of a Christian terrorist state. The Armenian Great deception series, v. 1. Dallas: St. John Press.
- Waal, Thomas (2013). Black garden Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-6032-1.
- Ghanea, Nazila (2003). Human Rights, the UN and the Bahá'ís in Iran. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 294. ISBN 978-90-411-1953-7.
- Cooper, Roger (1993). Death Plus 10 years. HarperCollins. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-00-255045-1.
- Simpson, John; Shubart, Tira (1995). Lifting the Veil. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-340-62814-0.
- Tavakoli-Targhi, Mohamad (2008). "Anti-Baha'ism and Islamism in Iran". In Brookshaw, Dominic P.; Fazel, Seena B. (eds.). The Baha'is of Iran: Socio-historical studies. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-203-00280-3.
- Henrietta Heald (1992). Chronicle of Britain: Incorporating a Chronicle of Ireland. Jacques Legrand. p. 605. ISBN 9781872031354.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (1997). Mein, Andrew; Camp, Claudia V. (eds.). Can a 'History of Israel' Be Written?. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0567043207.
- "Lent and Ash Wednesday are NOT pagan relics". 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Barkun, Michael (1997). Religion and the Racist Right. UNC Press. pp. 192–193. ISBN 9780807846384.
- Jenkins, Philip (1 April 2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-515480-1.
- John Tracy Ellis, "American Catholicism", University of Chicago Press 1956.
- Bilhartz, Terry D. (1986). Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8386-3227-7.
- Anbinder; Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the politics of the 1850s (1992). Online version; also online at ACLS History e-Book Archived 4 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, the standard scholarly study
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91.
- "Warning Against the Roman Catholic Party," Archived 26 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine a 1928 speech by Sen. Thomas J. Heflin (hosted at History Matters)
- Randall Balmer. "Billy Graham Regrets Political Involvement, Again," Archived 4 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine Religion Dispatches.
- Gregory Campbell McDermott. "I am not the Catholic candidate": Local Issues and the Catholic Question in John F. Kennedy's 1960 Presidential Campaign.
- "Transcript: JFK's Speech on His Religion". NPR. 5 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Pope Renounces Papal Throne". Vatican Information Service, 2 November 2013 Bulletin – English Edition. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Scandal threatens to overshadow pope's final days". CNN. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Did a Secret Vatican Report on Gay Sex and Blackmail Bring Down the Pope?". Yahoo News. 22 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Antichrist". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "One in four Americans think Obama may be the antichrist, survey says". The Guardian. 2 April 2013. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Obama the antichrist? Global warming a myth? Lizard people controlling the world? Conspiracy theory research reveals bizarre beliefs prevalent in US". The Independent. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "The Book of Revelation does not describe the anti-Christ as someone with characteristics matching those of Barack Obama". Snopes. 25 May 2016.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 187–218, Chapter 6: Holy Blood, Holy Grail, Holy Shit.
- John L. Esposito, Emad El-Din Shahin (September 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190631932.
- "'Love Jihad' and religious conversion polarise in Modi's India". Reuters. 4 September 2014. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Muzaffarnagar: 'Love jihad', beef bogey sparked riot flames". Hindustan Times. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Ananthakrishnan G (13 October 2009). "'Love Jihad' racket: VHP, Christian groups find common cause". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Mahanta, Siddhartha (5 September 2014). "India's Fake 'Love Jihad'". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Liz Fekete (15 December 2011). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class. 53 (3): 30–47. doi:10.1177/0306396811425984. S2CID 146443283.
- Kaplan, Jeffrey (2000). Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right. AltaMira Press. p. 539. ISBN 9780742503403.
- Kivisto, Peter; Rundblad, Georganne (2000). Multiculturalism in the United States: Current Issues, Contemporary Voices. SAGE Knowledge. pp. 57–60. ISBN 9780761986485.
- Capehart, Jonathan. "A petition to 'stop white genocide'?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Sexton, Jared (2008). Amalgamation Schemes: Antiblackness and the Critique of Multiracialism. Univ of Minnesota Press. pp. 207–08. ISBN 978-0816651047.
- Perry, Barbara. "'White Genocide': White Supremacists and the Politics of Reproduction." Home-grown hate: Gender and organized racism (2001): 75–85.
- Eager, Paige Whaley (2013). From Freedom Fighters to Terrorists: Women and Political Violence. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 90. ISBN 9781409498575.
- "8 in 10 French people believe a conspiracy theory: survey". Yahoo News. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Kumeh, Titania (12 October 2010). "Conspiracy Watch: Is Abortion Black Genocide?". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Rick Tyler: Gingrich Backer Airs 'Black Genocide' Theory on MSNBC". International Business Times. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Agins, Donna Brown (2006). Maya Angelou: Diversity Makes for a Rich Tapestry. Enslow Publishers. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0766024694.
- Smith, Mary (March 1968). "Birth Control and the Negro Woman". Ebony. Vol. 23 no. 5. p. 29.
- Wright, Nathan (December 1969). "Black Power vs. Black Genocide". The Black Scholar. 1 (2): 47–52. doi:10.1080/00064246.1969.11430663. JSTOR 41202828.
- Scott, Laell (25 May 1970). "Legal Abortions, Ready or Not". New York Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 21. p. 68. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Rastafari, Jah (7 October 2005). "Questions about Rastafari". Rastafaritimes.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- "Haile Selassie: Who was the Rastafarian Messiah?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- Harry Jaffe, So-called "plan" for white supremacy lives on in D.C., Washington Examiner, 30 August 2010.
- Jeffrey R. Henig and Wilbur C. Rich, Mayors in the middle: politics, race, and mayoral control of urban schools. Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 204–207.
- Jonetta Rose Barras, Recruiting Diversity: Michelle Rhee's campaign to diversify DCPS means wooing white parents. Washington CityPaper, 27 August 2010.
- "US base leads poll's top conspiracy theories". The Guardian. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Colorado cow mutilations baffle ranchers, cops, UFO believer". The Denver Post. 8 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9.
- Michael Barkun (4 May 2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0.
- Robertson, David G. (2016). Cox, James; Sutcliffe, Steven; Sweetman, William (eds.). UFOs, Conspiracy Theories and the New Age: Millennial Conspiracism. Bloomsbury Advances in Religious Studies. London, England: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-1474253208.
- Fritze, Ronald H. (2009). Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-Religions. London, England: Reaktion Books. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-86189-430-4.
- Fritze, Ronald H. (2016). Egyptomania: A History of Fascination, Obsession and Fantasy. London, England: Reaktion Books. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-78023-639-1.
- "The Reptilian Elite". Time. 2009. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action – Shorenstein Center". 2 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Lawrence Johnstone Burpee, "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Canadian History," Oxford University Press, 1926, pg 477.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. p. 20.
- "The Accidental Invention of the Illuminati Conspiracy". BBC. 9 August 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "Historians Find 'Proof' that Nazis Burnt Reichstag". The Telegraph. UK. 15 April 2001. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Agujeros Negros del 11-M". Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia, edited by Peter Knight, pp 689
- Peter Weber (2 September 2014). "America created the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria? Meet the ISIS 'truthers'". The Week. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Hassan, Mehdi. "Inside jobs and Israeli stooges: why is the Muslim world in thrall to conspiracy theories?". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "African Shia Cleric: Boko Haram attrocity is a conspiracy against Islamic resurgence in Nigeria". ABNA World Service. 8 February 2012.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram Conceived to Destroy Islam – Prof. Bunza". Daily Trust. AllAfrica. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Summers, Anthony; Swan, Robbyn (2011). The Eleventh Day: The Full Story of 9/11 and Osama bin Laden. New York: Ballantine. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4000-6659-9.
- Staff Editors (3 February 2005). "Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report – The World Trade Center". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Bažant, Z. K. P.; Verdure, M. (2007). "Mechanics of Progressive Collapse: Learning from World Trade Center and Building Demolitions" (PDF). Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 133 (3): 308–19. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.121.4166. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2007)133:3(308). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "Conspiracy Theorists Blame Jews For Sandy Hook Massacre". Anti-Defamation League. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Dylan Baddour & W. Gardner Selby, Hillary Clinton correct that Austin's Alex Jones said no one died at Sandy Hook Elementary Archived 3 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, PolitiFact (1 September 2016).
- David Mikkelson, FBI Admits Sandy Hook Hoax?: Rumor: The FBI revealed that no murders occurred in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012, proving the Sandy Hook massacre was an elaborate hoax, Snopes (7 February 2015).
- "Limbaugh: Maybe the Mayan apocalypse made Adam Lanza do it". 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- Nelson, Lars-Erik (4 January 1999). "Conspiracy Nuts Hit New Low With The Body Count". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "The Clinton BS Files: "Lock her up" isn't really about emails – the right's been accusing the Clintons of murder for decades". Salon. 29 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Moore, Kayleigh (25 October 2018). "Investigating Rhetoric's of the 'Clinton Body Count'". Medium. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- Philip Weiss (23 February 1997). "Clinton Crazy". The New York Times.
- "The People President Clinton Didn't Have to Pardon…Because They're All Dead". TruthOrFiction.com. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- "MSNBC News Host Joe Scarborough Criticized For Tweeting Conspiracy Theories Following Jeffrey Epstein's Apparent Suicide". Newsweek. 10 August 2019.
- "Jeffrey Epstein: How conspiracy theories spread after financier's death". BBC News. 12 August 2019.
- Van Onselen, Gareth (25 May 2016). "The top 10 bogus ANC conspiracy theories". Business Live. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Ndaba, Baldwin (8 September 2014). "Thuli a CIA spy, says deputy minister". IOL. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Masoga, Elvis (3 October 2012). "Malema thrives on political conspiracy theories". South African Broadcasting Corporation.[permanent dead link]
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 287–91.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. pp. 285–90.
- "Trump Is Still Touting the Obama 'Birther' Conspiracy Theory Behind Closed Doors". Yahoo News. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Trump Still Believes 'Birther' Obama Conspiracy". Newsweek on MSN. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Trump, Grand Wizard of Birtherism". The New York Times. 17 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Inside The Top Benghazi Conspiracy Theories That Refuse To Go Away". International Business Times. 11 May 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Benghazi Conspiracy Theories Definitively Debunked. Again". HuffPost. 24 January 2015. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Rand Paul is a conspiracy theorist: Time for the world to call him what he is". Salon. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Berlet, Chip (July 2012). "Collectivists, Communists, Labor Bosses, and Treason: The Tea Parties as Right-Wing Populist Counter-Subversion Panic". Critical Sociology. 38 (4): 565–87. doi:10.1177/0896920511434750. S2CID 144238367.
- Berkowitz, Bill (2003), "Reframing the Enemy: 'Cultural Marxism', a Conspiracy Theory with an Anti-Semitic Twist, Is Being Pushed by Much of the American Right." Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center, Summer. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2004.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "'Breivik manifesto' details chilling attack preparation". BBC. 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "What is the "deep state"?". The Economist. 9 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "What is the 'Deep State' and how does it influence Donald Trump?". The Independent. 6 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "What Is the Deep State?". The Nation. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Trump to Fight 'Deep State' With Secret, Private Spy Network Around the World?". Yahoo News. 6 December 2017. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Deep State: How a Conspiracy Theory Went From Political Fringe to Mainstream". Newsweek. 2 August 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "Deep State: Inside Donald Trump's Paranoid Conspiracy Theory". Rolling Stone. 9 March 2017. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Google shared conspiracy theories that sought to tie Texas shooter to antifa movement". Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Ansari, Talal (5 November 2017). "Here Is The Misinformation Going Around About The Texas Church Shooting". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Mikkelson, David (5 November 2017). "Was the Texas Church Shooter an Antifa Member Who Vowed to Start Civil War?". Snopes.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Griffin, Miriam T (2013). Nero: the end of a dynasty. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21464-3.
- Korte, Gregory; Mider, Zachary (4 October 2019). "Trump's Story of Hunter Biden's Chinese Venture Is Full of Holes". Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Mayer, Jane (4 October 2019). "The Invention of the Conspiracy Theory on Biden and Ukraine". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 14 October 2019.Mayer, Jane (4 October 2019). "The Invention of the Conspiracy Theory on Biden and Ukraine". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "The Strange History of the October Surprise". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Ronald Reagan's "October Surprise" Plot Was Real After All". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Rudy Found Hunter Biden Emails That Totally Weren't Stolen by Russia". NY Mag. NY Mag. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "Gingrich Pushes 'Soros Stole the Election' Conspiracy Theory on Fox News". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- "Half of Americans Believe in Medical Conspiracy Theories". NPR. 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Cures and Cons". Scientific American. 1 March 2006. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "'Paul McCartney is dead' and 10 more conspiracy theories". The Week. 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Steven Seagal Gets a Shot at Stardom". The Lost Angeles Times. 14 February 1988. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- "Separating Fact from Fiction, The CIA and AIDS". Time. 2016. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Kruszelnicki, Karl S (15 March 2007). "Dr Karl's Great Moments in Science. CIA did (not) make AIDS?". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Horowitz, Leonard G. (1996). Emerging Viruses : AIDS and Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional?. Medical Veritas International. ISBN 9780923550127. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
- "Farrakhan claims Ebola invented to kill off blacks". Fox News Channel. 2 October 2014. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "China coronavirus: Misinformation spreads online about origin and scale". BBC News. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF (April 2020). "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2". Nature Medicine. 26 (4): 450–452. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9. PMC 7095063. PMID 32284615.
- Cookson C (14 February 2020). "Coronavirus was not genetically engineered in a Wuhan lab, says expert". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- Calisher, Charles; Carroll, Dennis; Colwell, Rita; Corley, Ronald B; Daszak, Peter; Drosten, Christian; Enjuanes, Luis; Farrar, Jeremy; Field, Hume; Golding, Josie; Gorbalenya, Alexander; Haagmans, Bart; Hughes, James M; Karesh, William B; Keusch, Gerald T; Lam, Sai Kit; Lubroth, Juan; Mackenzie, John S; Madoff, Larry; Mazet, Jonna; Palese, Peter; Perlman, Stanley; Poon, Leo; Roizman, Bernard; Saif, Linda; Subbarao, Kanta; Turner, Mike (19 February 2020). "Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19". The Lancet. 395 (10226): e42–e43. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30418-9. PMC 7159294. PMID 32087122.
- Bryner J. "The coronavirus did not escape from a lab. Here's how we know". Live Science. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Yates K, Pauls J. "Online claims that Chinese scientists stole coronavirus from Winnipeg lab have 'no factual basis'". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Event occurs at 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Yates K, Pauls J. "Chinese translation: 中国科学家从温尼伯实验室中窃取 冠状病毒的网络传言'没有事实根据'". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Event occurs at 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Spencer SH (28 January 2020). "Coronavirus Wasn't Sent by 'Spy' From Canada". Factcheck.org. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China's coronavirus to weapons research". The Washington Post. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "China's rulers see the coronavirus as a chance to tighten their grip". The Economist. 8 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Kao J, Li MS (26 March 2020). "How China Built a Twitter Propaganda Machine Then Let It Loose on Coronavirus". ProPublica. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Edmunds DR (18 March 2020). "Coronavirus is a Zionist plot, say Turkish politicians, media, public". The Jerusalem Post.
- "Coronavirus: Antisemitism". ADL. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Mantyla, Kyle (16 March 2020). "Rodney Howard-Browne: Coronavirus Pandemic Is a Globalist Plot to Kill People With Vaccines". Right Wing Watch. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- Parveen N (5 April 2020). "Police investigate UK far-right groups over anti-Muslim coronavirus claims". The Guardian.
- "Islamophobes React to Coronavirus Pandemic with Anti-Muslim Bigotry". 30 April 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Broderick R (23 January 2020). "QAnon Supporters And Anti-Vaxxers Are Spreading A Hoax That Bill Gates Created The Coronavirus". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Cellan-Jones R (26 February 2020). "Coronavirus: Fake news is spreading fast". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). "Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States". MMWR Recomm Rep. 50 (RR–14): 1–42. PMID 11521913. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Lay summary – CDC (9 August 2007).
- Armfield JM (2007). "When public action undermines public health: a critical examination of antifluoridationist literature". Aust New Zealand Health Policy. 4 (1): 25. doi:10.1186/1743-8462-4-25. PMC 2222595. PMID 18067684.
- Freeze RA, Lehr JH. The Fluoride Wars: How a Modest Public Health Measure Became America's Longest-Running Political Melodrama. John Wiley & Sons; 2009. ISBN 978-0-470-44833-5. Fluorophobia. p. 127–69.
- Murray N. Rothbard (January 1993). "Fluoridation Revisited". The Rothbard-Rockwell Report. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
- "Donald Trump Has Finally Erased the Line Between Conservatism and Conspiracy Theories". New York. 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- Triggle, Nick (24 May 2010). "MMR doctor struck off register". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Rob Schneider Links Autism To Vaccines, Rails Against Big Government". HuffPost. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Jim Carrey, Please Shut Up About Vaccines". Time. 1 July 2015. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "John Oliver blasts Trump as a 'human megaphone' for the anti-vaccine movement". The Washington Post. 26 June 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Donald Trump says vaccinations are causing an autism 'epidemic'". The Independent. 17 September 2015. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- "Germany vaccination: Fines plan as measles cases rise". BBC. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Watch John Oliver Explore How Trump, Memes Fueled Anti-Vaccine Movement". Rolling Stone. 26 June 2017. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- "Should Vaccines Be Required? In Italy, Parents Can Now Be Fined for Skipping Kids' Shots". Newsweek. 19 June 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Measles outbreak in maps and graphics". BBC. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Nigeria's polio campaign undermined by conspiracy theories". Al Arabiya News Channel. 26 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Vaccines, the CIA, and how the War on Terror helped spread polio in Nigeria". The Guardian. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
- "Pakistan bomb blast: why health workers keep getting attacked". The Christian Science Monitor. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "After chilly forecast, Trump tweets U.S. 'could use a little bit of that good old Global Warming'". The Washington Post. 28 December 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Yes, Donald Trump did call climate change a Chinese hoax". PolitiFact.com. 3 June 2016. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Fiddling with global warming conspiracy theories while Rome burns". The Guardian. 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "The 5 most deranged conspiracy theories from GOP mega-donors' bizarro climate conference". Salon. 29 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Illuminati, Mind Control and Hurricanes: Conspiracy Theories Follow HAARP". International Business Times. 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Pappas, Stephanie (22 May 2014). "Conspiracy Theories Abound as U.S. Military Closes HAARP". NBC News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Eden, Philip. "The day they made it rain". WeatherOnline. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- "RAF rainmakers 'caused 1952 flood'". The Guardian. 30 August 2001. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Maqbool, Aleem (21 October 2010). "Is Pakistan in denial about tackling its problems?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "Why bad ideas refuse to die". The Guardian. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Do they really think the earth is flat?". BBC. 4 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Flat Earth Society Says Evidence of Round Planet Part of Vast Conspiracy Theory". HuffPost. 29 October 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- Gaughen, Patrick. "Structural Inefficiency in the Early Twentieth Century: Studies in the Aluminum and Incadescent Lamp Markets" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Tutt, Keith (2003). The Scientist, The Madman, The Thief and Their Lightbulb: The Search for Free Energy. UK: Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 978-0684020907.
- B. King, Moray (2005). The Energy Machine of T. Henry Moray: Zero-Point Energy & Pulsed Plasma Physics. Adventures Unlimited Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1931882422.
- Edwards, Tony (1 December 1996). "End of road for car that ran on Water". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2013 – via Google Groups.
- Vallée, Jacques F (1994). "Anatomy of a Hoax: The Philadelphia Experiment Fifty Years Later" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. 8 (1): 47–71. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009.[unreliable source?]
- "History's greatest conspiracy theories". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Allen, Robert; Vogel, Peter (June–July 1996). "America's Dark Secret: The Port Chicago Disaster". Nexus Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 4. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Hugo Chavez Says U.S. Hit Haiti With 'Earthquake Weapon'". Fox News Channel. 7 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Yan, Laura (4 March 2018). "Mind Games: The Tortured Lives of 'Targeted Individuals'". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- Brain Invaders, archived from the original on 11 February 2017, retrieved 31 December 2018
- Mind Control, retrieved 31 December 2018
- "Did the middle ages not really happen?". The Straight Dope. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "King Arthur was really a Russian, say Slavs". The Daily Telegraph. 19 April 2001. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Stunts! Bumps! Fake Trumps! 25 pop-culture myths too weird to be true". The Guardian. 2 December 2017. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
- "Profile: Gary McKinnon". BBC. 14 December 2012. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "16 Batshit Space Conspiracy Theories That Will Freak You The Fuck Out". Buzzfeed News. 1 March 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- "The man whose biblical doomsday claim has some nervously eyeing 23 Sept". The Washington Post. 20 September 2017. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Will 2017 solar eclipse cause secret planet 'Nibiru' to destroy Earth next month? (No, but conspiracy theorists think so)". The Daily Telegraph. 20 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Please stop annoying this NASA scientist with your ridiculous Planet X doomsday theories". The Washington Post. 18 November 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- MAX LONDBERG (2017). "Conspiracy theorists use the Bible to claim the eclipse is a sign of the apocalypse". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
Paul Begley says there is "overwhelming evidence that Planet X will destroy the Earth in 2017".
- Avi Selk (2017). "Armageddon via imaginary planet has been pushed back – yet again – to November". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Dan Carson. "10 Sports Conspiracy Theories That Are Totally True". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Dan Carson. "10 Sports Conspiracy Theories That Are Totally True". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Roeper, Richard (2008). Debunked!: Conspiracy Theories, Urban Legends, and Evil Plots of the 21st Century. Chicago Review Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-55652-970-2.
- "Moyes – UEFA hot balls cost us". SkySports. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The 13 most stunning sports conspiracy theories, ranked". Yahoo Sporting News. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 27 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- "The great World Cup Final mystery". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2 April 2002. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "World Cup moments: Mystery surrounds Ronaldo in 1998". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "World Cup: 25 stunning moments [...] No15: Ronaldo falters as France win" Archived 29 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2014
- "The mystery of Paris that refuses to go away". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Mike Freeman's 10-Point Stance: Pats Conspiracy Theories Are the NFL's UFOs". Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "Patriots had a few calls go their way vs. the Jaguars, and everyone is in conspiracy mode again". Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Super Bowl LII: Save your Patriots conspiracy theories". Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "3 reasons why the internet thinks the Super Bowl was totally rigged". Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Falcons' Quinn defends questionable play-calling late in Super Bowl loss". Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Tudge McConnachie, Robin James (2008) . The Rough Guide to Conspiracy Theories. Rough Guide. ISBN 978-1-85828-281-7.
- Hodapp, Christopher; Alice Von Kannon (2008). Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-18408-0.
- Gray, John (2000) . False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-592-3.
- David Aaronovitch (2010) . Voodoo Histories: How Conspiracy Theory Has Shaped the Modern World. Vintage. ISBN 978-0099478966.
- Brian Dunning (2018). Conspiracies Declassified. Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-5072-0699-7.